DNA methylation dynamics in aging: how far are we from understanding the mechanisms?
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Fabio Ciccarone, Stefano Tagliatesta, Paola Caiafa, Michele ZampieriAbstractDNA methylation is currently the most promising molecular marker for monitoring aging and predicting life expectancy. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related DNA methylation changes remain mostly undiscovered.Here we discuss the current knowledge of the dynamic nature of DNA epigenome landscape in mammals, and propose putative molecular mechanisms for aging-associated DNA epigenetic changes. Specifically, we describe age-related variatio...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Back to the future: Epigenetic clock plasticity towards healthy aging
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Ken Declerck, Wim Vanden BergheAbstractAging is the most important risk factor for major human lifestyle diseases, including cancer, neurological and cardiometabolic disorders. Due to the complex interplay between genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors, some individuals seem to age faster than others, whereas centenarians seem to have a slower aging process. Therefore, a biochemical biomarker reflecting the relative biological age would be helpful to predict an individual’s health status and aging disease r...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Aging and nutrition induce tissue-specific changes on global DNA methylation status in rats
We examined global DNA methylation profiles in tissues from rats of different age, fed with standard or low-calorie diet, and evaluated their association with aging and nutrition. Tissue-specific variations occur during aging with hyper-methylation taking place in all tissues except for liver. The expression of enzymes involved in methylation reactions (DNMTs and TETs) was consistent with the methylation patterns. Nutrition affects global DNA methylation status throughout lifespan. Interestingly, the differences among different tissues are magnified in 96 weeks old rats fed with low calorie diet. Moreover, the low-calorie ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The epigenetic alterations of endogenous retroelements in aging
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Maurizio CardelliAbstractEndogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenet...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

In situ evidence of cellular senescence in Thymic Epithelial Cells (TECs) during human thymic involution
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Alexandra Barbouti, Konstantinos Evangelou, Ioannis S. Pateras, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Amalia Patereli, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Dimitra Rontogianni, Daniel Muñoz-Espín, Panagiotis Kanavaros, Vassilis G. GorgoulisAbstractCellular senescence, an age-related process in response to damage and stress, also occurs during normal development and adult life. The thymus is a central lymphoepithelial organ of the immune system that exhibits age-related changes termed thymic involution. Since the mechanisms regulating t...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Epigenetic mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A short review
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Ana Dolinar, Metka Ravnik-Glavač, Damjan GlavačAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. Decades of research show that the etiology of this disease is affected by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors rather than limited by a patient's genotype. The interaction between these factors is complex, and research has only begun to unravel this issue. The main epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation, miRNA, and histone modifications, can explain a portion of the disease co...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-related evolutions of the dermis: Clinical signs, fibroblast and extracellular matrix dynamics
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Valérie Haydont, Bruno A. Bernard, Nicolas O. FortunelAbstractAgeing is today a major societal concern that is intrinsically associated with the increase of life expectancy. Outside the context of severe degenerative diseases that affect the elderly populations, normal visible signs of ageing, notably skin sagging and wrinkles, influence the social and individual perception of peoples. Accordingly, there is a strong demand for researches on skin ageing. Deciphering the cellular and molecular processes of skin evolu...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

SOX2 expression diminishes with ageing in several tissues in mice and humans
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Estefania Carrasco-Garcia, Leire Moreno-Cugnon, Idoia Garcia, Consuelo Borras, Miren Revuelta, Ander Izeta, Guillermo Lopez-Lluch, Marian M. de Pancorbo, Itziar Vergara, Jose Vina, Ander MatheuAbstractSOX2 (Sex-determining region Y box 2) is a transcription factor expressed in several foetal and adult tissues and its deregulated activity has been linked to chronic diseases associated with ageing. Nevertheless, the level of SOX2 expression in aged individuals at the tissue level has not previously been examined. In this wo...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Protein aggregates and proteostasis in aging: Amylin and β-cell function
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Michaela Press, Tobias Jung, Jeannette König, Tilman Grune, Annika HöhnAbstractThe ubiquitin-proteasomal-system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosomal-system (ALS) are both highly susceptible for disturbances leading to the accumulation of cellular damage. A decline of protein degradation during aging results in the formation of oxidatively damaged and aggregated proteins finally resulting in failure of cellular functionality. Besides protein aggregation in response to oxidative damage, amyloids are a different type ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The impact of oxidative DNA damage and stress on telomere homeostasis
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Ryan P. Barnes, Elise Fouquerel, Patricia L. OpreskoAbstractTelomeres are dynamic nucleoprotein-DNA structures that cap and protect linear chromosome ends. Because telomeres shorten progressively with each replication, they impose a functional limit on the number of times a cell can divide. Critically short telomeres trigger cellular senescence in normal cells, or genomic instability in pre-malignant cells, which contribute to numerous degenerative and aging-related diseases including cancer. Therefore, a detailed underst...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The role of the cell-matrix interface in aging and its interaction with the renin-angiotensin system in the aged vasculature
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Maria De LucaAbstractThe extracellular matrix (ECM) is an intricate network that provides structural and anchoring support to cells in order to stabilize cell morphology and tissue architecture. The ECM also controls many aspects of the cell’s dynamic behavior and fate through its ongoing, bidirectional interaction with cells. These interactions between the cell and components of the surrounding ECM are implicated in several biological processes, including development and adult tissue repair in response to injury, th...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Immune signatures associated with mortality differ in elderly populations from different birth cohorts and countries even within northern Europe
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Graham PawelecAbstractSince associations between lifespan and certain simple immune parameters such as T cell proliferative responses to mitogens were reported in the 1970´s, efforts to dissect out immune parameters correlating with morbidity and mortality have sought to define factors predicting individual longevity. Such “immune signatures” associating with defined clinical outcomes would represent biomarkers of “immunosenescence” that might also provide mechanistic insights into the ageing...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Epigenetic and non-epigenetic functions of the RYBP protein in development and disease
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Carolina J. Simoes da Silva, Rocío Simón, Ana BusturiaAbstractOver the last decades significant advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling organismal development. Among these mechanisms the knowledge gained on the roles played by epigenetic regulation of gene expression is extensive. Epigenetic control of transcription requires the function of protein complexes whose specific biochemical activities, such as histone mono-ubiquitylation, affect chromatin compaction and...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Antioxidants linked with physical, cognitive and psychological frailty: Analysis of candidate biomarkers and markers derived from the MARK-AGE study
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): M. Liset Rietman, Annemieke M.W. Spijkerman, Albert Wong, Harry van Steeg, Alexander Bürkle, María Moreno-Villanueva, Thilo Sindlinger, Claudio Franceschi, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Jürgen Bernhardt, P. Eline Slagboom, Olivier Toussaint, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Ewa Sikora, Efstathios S. Gonos, Nicolle Breusing, Wolfgang Stuetz, Daniela Weber, Tilman Grune, Andrea BassoAbstractFrailty among elderly people leads to an increased risk for negative health outcomes. To prevent frailty, we need a better un...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Role of hypothalamus in aging and its underlying cellular mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung ChoeAbstractAging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) an...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Major traits of the senescent phenotype of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells persist under the specific microenvironmental conditions of the tissue
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Anastasios Kouroumalis, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Olga D. Savvidou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris KletsasAbstractIntervertebral discs (IVDs) are the joints of the spine, mainly consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) with a low number of cells embedded therein. Low cellularity stems from nutrient deprivation due to the lack of blood supply, as well as from the hypoxic and hyperosmotic conditions prevailing in the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been firmly connected with low back pai...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Epigenetics in ageing and development
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Rosita Gabbianelli, Marco Malavolta (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

To Adapt or not to Adapt: Consequences of Declining Adaptive Homeostasis and Proteostasis with Age
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Laura C.D. Pomatto, Patrick Y. Sun, Kelvin J.A. DaviesAbstractMany consequences of ageing can be broadly attributed to the inability to maintain homeostasis. Multiple markers of ageing have been identified, including loss of protein homeostasis, increased inflammation, and declining metabolism. Although much effort has been focused on characterization of the ageing phenotype, much less is understood about the underlying causes of ageing. To address this gap, we outline the age-associated consequences of dysregulation of &ls...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Review and meta-analysis of genetic polymorphisms associated with exceptional human longevity
ConclusionIn general, the observed modest effect sizes of the significant variants suggest many genes of small influence play a role in exceptional longevity, which is consistent with results for other polygenic traits. Our results also suggest that genes related to cardiovascular health may be implicated in exceptional longevity. Future studies should examine the roles of gender and ethnicity and carefully consider study design, including the selection of appropriate controls. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Role of human oocyte-enriched factors in somatic cell reprograming
We describe the role of oocyte-enriched factors in metabolic switch, chromatin remodelling, and global epigenetic transformation. This is critical for improving the quality of resulting reprogramed cells, which is crucial for therapeutic applications. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Genome-wide profiling of adult human papillary and reticular fibroblasts identifies ACAN, Col XI α1, and PSG1 as general biomarkers of dermis ageing, and KANK4 as an exemplary effector of papillary fibroblast ageing, related to contractility
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Valérie Haydont, Véronique Neiveyans, Hélène Zucchi, Nicolas O. Fortunel, Daniel AsselineauAbstractDeciphering the characteristics of dermal fibroblasts is critical to further understand skin ageing. We have conducted a genome-wide transcriptomic characterization of papillary (Fp) and reticular (Fr) fibroblasts extracted from human skin samples corresponding to younger and older adult ages. From this screen, biomarkers suitable for the assessment of chronological ageing were identified, and extr...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The ING1a model of rapid cell senescence
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Jessica Bertschmann, Subhash Thalappilly, Karl RiabowolAbstractReplicative capacity of normal human cells decreases as telomeric sequence is lost at each division. It is believed that when a subset of chromosomes reach a critically short length, an ATM-initiated and p53-mediated transcriptional response inhibits cell growth, promoting cell senescence. In addition to loss of telomeric sequence, senescence can be induced by other stresses including ionizing radiation, oxidative damage, chemical crosslinkers like the chemothe...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Two Cockayne Syndrome Patients with a Novel Splice Site Mutation – Clinical and Metabolic Analyses
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Ines Sanchez-Roman, Sofie Lautrup, Maria Diget Aamann, Edward G. Neilan, John R. Østergaard, Tinna StevnsnerABSTRACTCockayne Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which leads to neurodegeneration, growth failure and premature aging. Most of the cases are due to mutations in the ERCC6 gene, which encodes the protein CSB. CSB is involved in several functions including DNA repair and transcription. Here we describe two Danish brothers with Cockayne Syndrome. Both patients carried a novel splice site mut...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Epigenetic and redox biomarkers: Novel insights from the MARK-AGE study
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Alexander BürkleAbstractAgeing is a multifactorial process that affects most, if not all, of the body’s tissues and organs and can be defined as the accumulation of physical and psychological changes in a human being over time. The rate of ageing differs between individuals of the same chronological age, meaning that ‘biological age’ of a person may be different from ‘chronological age’. Furthermore, ageing represents a very potent risk factor for diseases and dis...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Drosophila pericardial nephrocyte ultrastructure changes during ageing
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Olympia-Ekaterini Psathaki, Lena Dehnen, Paul S. Hartley, Achim PaululatAbstractHere we show that a labyrinth channel compartment and slit diaphragms, which are the histological structures enabling insect nephrocytes ultrafiltration, are established during embryogenesis first by the garland nephrocytes (GCNs). The later pericardial nephrocytes, which represent the majority of functional nephrocytes in larvae and adults, lack these characteristic features at the embryonic stage. During larval development, a subpopulation of the per...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

NFE2L2, PPARGC1α, and pesticides and Parkinson’s disease risk and progression
ConclusionOur study provides support for the involvement of both NFE2L2 and PPARGC1α in PD susceptibility and progression, marginally and through pathways involving MB/PQ exposure. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Infiltrating macrophages contribute to age-related neuroinflammation in C57/BL6 mice
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): H. Wolfe, A.M. Minogue, S. Rooney, M.A. LynchAbstractThe recognized role of neuroinflammation in the age-related deterioration of neuronal function highlights the importance of understanding the factors that control microglial activation. Microglia, as the immune cells of the brain, are the arbiters of the inflammatory profile in the brain. Normally they are maintained in a quiescent state by means of ligand-receptor interactions with neurons, within a prevailing anti-inflammatory microenvironment. The evidence indicates that, as ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Improving the comprehension of sarcopenic state determinants: An multivariate approach involving hormonal, nutritional, lifestyle and genetic variables
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Jonas R. Dias da Silva, Ivna Vidal Freire, Ícaro J.S. Ribeiro, Caroline Silva dos Santos, Cezar Augusto Casotti, Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos, Ana Angélica Leal Barbosa, Rafael PereiraAbstractIt is known that sarcopenia is a multifaceted phenomenon, which involves genetic, nutritional, hormonal and living habits aspects. Then, an integrated analysis, as a multivariate approach, could improve the comprehension about the determinants of sarcopenic state in old adults. The present study aimed to investigate the interact...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

PIWI-piRNA pathway: Setting the pace of aging by reducing DNA damage
This article discusses the proposed role of the PIWI-piRNA pathway in setting the pace of aging as well as the possible mechanisms underlying this process. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Multivessel analysis of progressive vascular aging in the rat: Asynchronous vulnerability among vascular territories
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Mariam El Assar, Argentina Fernández, Alberto Sánchez-Ferrer, Javier Angulo, Leocadio Rodríguez-MañasAbstractAging induces vascular dysfunction, representing the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to ascertain specific vulnerability of vascular territories to aging by evaluating the progressive impact of aging on vascular function in four different vascular beds: aorta, mesenteric artery (MA), coronary artery (CA), and penile corpus cavernosum (CC) from 3, 6, 9, 12, 20 or 24 month...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effect of heterochromatin stability on intestinal stem cell aging in Drosophila
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Ho-Jun Jeon, Young-Shin Kim, Joong-Gook Kim, Kyu Heo, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Joung-Sun Park, Mi-Ae YooAbstractChromatin change is one of the crucial causes of aging. Specifically, maintenance of heterochromatin stability is critical for cellular integrity, and its loss induces genomic instability and cellular aging. However, the causes and effects of heterochromatin instability in multicellular tissue aging still remain unclear. Here, in the adult Drosophila midgut, we report age-related loss of heterochromatin stabil...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Birth weight predicts aging trajectory: A hypothesis
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Alexander M. VaisermanAbstractIncreasing evidence suggests that risk for age-related disease and longevity can be programmed early in life. In human populations, convincing evidence has been accumulated indicating that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight ( 4.5 kg), by contrast, is associated with high risk of non-diabetic obesity and cancers in later life. Developmental modification of epigenetic patterns is considered to be a central mechanism in determining such developmentally programmed phe...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

CircRNA accumulation: A new hallmark of aging?
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): David Knupp, Pedro MiuraAbstractCircular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs found across phyla that are generated most commonly from back-splicing of protein-coding exons. Recent profiling of circRNAs genome-wide has shown that hundreds of circRNAs dramatically increase in expression during aging in the brains of multiple organisms. No other class of transcripts has been found to show such a strong correlation with aging as circRNAs—could they be playing a role in the aging process? Here, we discuss the di...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

RECQ helicase disease and related progeroid syndromes: RECQ2018 meeting
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Junko Oshima, Hisaya Kato, Yoshiro Maezawa, Koutaro YokoteAbstractProgeroid syndrome is a group of disorders characterized by the early onset of diseases that are associated with aging. Best known examples are Werner syndrome, which is adult onset and results from disease-causing DNA sequence variants in the RecQ helicase gene WRN, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome, which is childhood-onset and results from unique, recurrent disease-causing DNA sequence variants of the gene LMNA that encodes nuclear intermediate filaments. R...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Ventricular pro-arrhythmic phenotype, arrhythmic substrate, ageing and mitochondrial dysfunction in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β deficient (Pgc-1β−/−) murine hearts
Publication date: July 2018Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173Author(s): Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Karan R. Chadda, James Cranley, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L.-H. HuangAbstractIntroductionAgeing and age-related bioenergetic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus and heart failure constitute clinical ventricular arrhythmic risk factors.Materials and methodsPro-arrhythmic properties in electrocardiographic and intracellular recordings were compared in young and aged, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β knockout (Pgc-1β−/−) and wild typ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Salidroside attenuates endothelial cellular senescence via decreasing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the expression of SIRT3
Conclusionour data suggested that SAL decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines and up-regulated the expression of SIRT3, which might be the underlying mechanism of SAL on preventing endothelial cells from premature senescence. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - July 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Epigenetic and redox biomarkers: Novel insights from the MARK-AGE Study
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Alexander Bürkle Ageing is a multifactorial process that affects most, if not all, of the body’s tissues and organs and can be defined as the accumulation of physical and psychological changes in a human being over time. The rate of ageing differs between individuals of the same chronological age, meaning that ‘biological age’ of a person may be different from ‘chronological age’. Furthermore, ageing represents a very potent risk factor for diseases and disabili...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 30, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Two Cockayne Syndrome Patients with a Novel Splice Site Mutation – Clinical and Metabolic Analyses
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Ines Sanchez-Roman, Sofie Lautrup, Maria Diget Aamann, Edward G. Neilan, John R. Østergaard, Tinna Stevnsner Cockayne Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which leads to neurodegeneration, growth failure and premature aging. Most of the cases are due to mutations in the ERCC6 gene, which encodes the protein CSB. CSB is involved in several functions including DNA repair and transcription. Here we describe two Danish brothers with Cockayne Syndrome. Both patients carried a novel splice site mutation...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 23, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The ING1a model of rapid cell senescence
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Jessica Bertschmann, Subhash Thalappilly, Karl Riabowol • Replicative capacity of normal human cells decreases as telomeric sequence is lost at each division. It is believed that when a subset of chromosomes reach a critically short length, an ATM-initiated and p53-mediated transcriptional response inhibits cell growth, promoting cell senescence. In addition to loss of telomeric sequence, senescence can be induced by other stresses including ionizing radiation, oxidative damage, chemical crosslinkers like the chemot...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 20, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Genome-wide profiling of adult human papillary and reticular fibroblasts identifies ACAN, Col XI α1, and PSG1 as general biomarkers of dermis ageing, and KANK4 as an exemplary effector of papillary fibroblast ageing, related to contractility
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Valérie Haydont, Véronique Neiveyans, Hélène Zucchi, Nicolas O. Fortunel, Daniel Asselineau Deciphering the characteristics of dermal fibroblasts is critical to further understand skin ageing. We have conducted a genome-wide transcriptomic characterization of papillary (Fp) and reticular (Fr) fibroblasts extracted from human skin samples corresponding to younger and older adult ages. From this screen, biomarkers suitable for the assessment of chronological ageing were identified, and extrapola...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 19, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Role of human oocyte-enriched factors in somatic cell reprograming
We describe the role of oocyte-enriched factors in metabolic switch, chromatin remodelling, and global epigenetic transformation. This is critical for improving the quality of resulting reprogramed cells, which is crucial for therapeutic applications. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 8, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Review and meta-analysis of genetic polymorphisms associated with exceptional human longevity
Conclusion In general, the observed modest effect sizes of the significant variants suggest many genes of small influence play a role in exceptional longevity, which is consistent with results for other polygenic traits. Our results also suggest that genes related to cardiovascular health may be implicated in exceptional longevity. Future studies should examine the roles of gender and ethnicity and carefully consider study design, including the selection of appropriate controls. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 8, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Infiltrating macrophages contribute to age-related neuroinflammation in C57/BL6 mice
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 173 Author(s): H. Wolfe, A.M. Minogue, S. Rooney, M.A. Lynch The recognized role of neuroinflammation in the age-related deterioration of neuronal function highlights the importance of understanding the factors that control microglial activation. Microglia, as the immune cells of the brain, are the arbiters of the inflammatory profile in the brain. Normally they are maintained in a quiescent state by means of ligand-receptor interactions with neurons, within a prevailing anti-inflammatory microenvironment. The evidence indicates that, as the a...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - June 6, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Improving the comprehension of sarcopenic state determinants: An multivariate approach involving hormonal, nutritional, lifestyle and genetic variables
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Jonas R. Dias da Silva, Ivna Vidal Freire, Ícaro J.S. Ribeiro, Caroline Silva dos Santos, Cezar Augusto Casotti, Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos, Ana Angélica Leal Barbosa, Rafael Pereira It is known that sarcopenia is a multifaceted phenomenon, which involves genetic, nutritional, hormonal and living habits aspects. Then, an integrated analysis, as a multivariate approach, could improve the comprehension about the determinants of sarcopenic state in old adults. The present study aimed to investigate the intera...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - May 26, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Major traits of the senescent phenotype of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells persist under the specific microenvironmental conditions of the tissue
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Anastasios Kouroumalis, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Olga D. Savvidou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are the joints of the spine, mainly consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) with a low number of cells embedded therein. Low cellularity stems from nutrient deprivation due to the lack of blood supply, as well as from the hypoxic and hyperosmotic conditions prevailing in the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been firmly connected with low back pain, a ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - May 18, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

To Adapt or not to Adapt: Consequences of Declining Adaptive Homeostasis and Proteostasis with Age
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Laura C.D. Pomatto, Patrick Y. Sun, Kelvin J.A. Davies Many consequences of ageing can be broadly attributed to the inability to maintain homeostasis. Multiple markers of ageing have been identified, including loss of protein homeostasis, increased inflammation, and declining metabolism. Although much effort has been focused on characterization of the ageing phenotype, much less is understood about the underlying causes of ageing. To address this gap, we outline the age-associated consequences of dysregulation of ‘A...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - May 18, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Epigenetics in Ageing and Development
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Rosita Gabbianelli, Marco Malavolta (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - May 18, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

CircRNA accumulation: A new hallmark of aging?
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): David Knupp, Pedro Miura Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs found across phyla that are generated most commonly from back-splicing of protein-coding exons. Recent profiling of circRNAs genome-wide has shown that hundreds of circRNAs dramatically increase in expression during aging in the brains of multiple organisms. No other class of transcripts has been found to show such a strong correlation with aging as circRNAs—could they be playing a role in the aging process? Here, we discuss the ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - May 17, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Antioxidants linked with physical, cognitive and psychological frailty: Analysis of candidate biomarkers and markers derived from the MARK-AGE Study
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): M. Liset Rietman, Annemieke M.W. Spijkerman, Albert Wong, Harry van Steeg, Alexander Bürkle, María Moreno-Villanueva, Thilo Sindlinger, Claudio Franceschi, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Jürgen Bernhardt, P. Eline Slagboom, Olivier Toussaint, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Ewa Sikora, Efstathios S. Gonos, Nicolle Breusing, Wolfgang Stuetz, Daniela Weber, Tilman Grune, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Marco Malavolta, Sebastiano Collino, Eugene H.J.M. Jansen, W. M. Monique Verschuren, Martijn E.T. Dollé...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - May 15, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research