Updates on the Treatment of Invasive Breast Cancer: Quo Vadimus?
Malignancies of the mammary gland constitute a global health burden in women of all ages. In 2018, breast cancer held the first place regarding cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality among women worldwide, with approximately 2.1 million new cases and 600,000 deaths, respectively [1]. These cases present geographic variations which have not been fully explained [1]. More specifically, incidence measures of female breast cancer span from 26 per 100,000 females in South Central Asia to 94 per 100,000 in Australia [1], while European countries seem to share a common incidence of around 90 to 92 per 100,000 [1]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Meletios P. Nigdelis, Michalis V. Karamouzis, Michael Kontos, Andreas Alexandrou, Dimitrios G. Goulis, Irene Lambrinoudaki Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Long-term effects of gestational diabetes on bone mineral density and fracture risk: Analysis of the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) population-based study
Diabetes developed during pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has an estimated prevalence of around 8-24% in the UK according to a systematic review [1]. This has been attributed to several factors including increased incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) among women of childbearing age as well as increasing maternal age at first pregnancy [2,3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 18, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Annes Ahmeidat, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Robert N. Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Phyo K. Myint Source Type: research

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency – why, nearing 2021, are we still debating “treat or not?”
Case: A 37-year-old, otherwise healthy woman presented to her primary care provider for evaluation of worsening and bothersome hot flushes over recent months in the setting of secondary amenorrhea of 6 months ’ duration. Evaluation yielded a diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) based on biochemical evidence of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The patient endorsed that the severity of her symptoms was adversely affecting her quality of life. In counseling this patient, her provider conceded t hat the spectrum and severity of symptoms were indeed consistent with hypoestrogenism, but proceeded to caution her ...
Source: Maturitas - November 17, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Saioa Torrealday, Lubna Pal Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Managing diabetes in ageing patients during the COVID-19 pandemic
The pandemic of the novel SARS-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) constitutes a public health problem of international concern. Political authorities in collaboration with medical committees and societies try hard to avoid horizontal transmission of the infection. It is estimated that 15% of the infected patients develop severe disease, 6% life-threatening pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, or other comorbidities, while the great majority are asymptomatic (17.9-78%) or present with mild disease [1,2,3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 17, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Eleni Armeni, Stavroula A. Paschou, Melpomeni Peppa Source Type: research

Screening for women with increased risk of fragility fractures in a general female population using digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR)
Fractures after low energy trauma (fragility fractures) account for substantial morbidity, increased mortality and health care cost. Osteoporosis affects a large portion of the population, increases with age and is thus projected to rise as the average lifespan gets longer. Since osteoporosis is asymptomatic until the patient presents with a fracture, it mostly goes undetected and untreated. Interventions ranging from pharmaceuticals, physiotherapy and lifestyle adjustments have been developed to reduce the risk of fractures [1]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 6, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: M.L. Wilczek, L. Bhatta, B.M. Brumpton, B. Freyschuss, T.B. Brismar Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 4, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Association between high normal-range thyrotropin concentration and carotid intima-media thickness in euthyroid premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, and its prevention requires early identification of atherosclerotic risk factors. Women are generally at increased risk for CVD after the menopause [1,2]. The carotid intima –media thickness (IMT), which is a well-known predictor of future cardiovascular events, is clinically significant in postmenopausal women compared with age-matched premenopausal women [3]. Altered metabolism in perimenopausal and postmenopausal status accelerates atherosclerosis due to various me tabolic disorders [4]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 4, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Koji Sakamaki, Katsuhiko Tsunekawa, Nobuyoshi Ishiyama, Mizuho Kudo, Kimiko Ando, Masako Akuzawa, Katsuyuki Nakajima, Yohnosuke Shimomura, Osamu Araki, Takao Kimura, Masami Murakami Source Type: research

Associations between HOTAIR polymorphisms rs4759314, rs920778, rs1899663, and rs7958904 and risk of primary ovarian insufficiency in Korean women
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a disease in which ovarian function is lost before the age of 40 [1]. The most common symptoms of POI include amenorrhea and symptoms of estrogen deficiency [2]; however, more than 90% of POI cases are of unknown cause [3,4]. Recent studies indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in ovarian diseases including POI and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [5,6]. LncRNAs are non-protein-coding RNA molecules ranging from 200 bp to several kilobases in size [7,13]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 4, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sung Hwan Cho, Ji Hyang Kim, Hyun Woo Park, Han Sung Park, Hei Jeong An, Young Ran Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, Woo Sik Lee, Nam Keun Kim Source Type: research

Risk of breast cancer two years after a benign biopsy depends on the mammographic feature prompting recall
There is ongoing research on how to reduce the undesired effects of population-based mammography screening, such as overdiagnosis and overtreatment [1]. Researchers seek to identify groups of women who are at low or high risk of developing breast cancer and who could benefit from tailored screening recommendations. Women with a false-positive recall (FPR) at screening (a recall caused by an anomaly found on screening mammography that finally excludes malignancy) are at increased risk of breast cancer diagnosis [2 –5]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 4, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Maria Vernet-Tom ás, Javier Louro, Marta Román, Francina Saladié, Margarita Posso, Miguel Prieto, Ivonne Vázquez, Marisa Baré, Lupe Peñalva, Carmen Vidal, Xavier Bargalló, Mar Sánchez, Joana Ferrer, Josep A Espinàs, M Jesús Quintana, Ana Rodríg Source Type: research

Opinion paper: Exercise for healthy aging
The physical demands of daily life in developed countries have decreased remarkably during the last two centuries. General leisure time has increased and the age at retirement has decreased. General health has improved and life expectancy has increased. Most people can expect to live 20-30 years after retirement. By 2050, one in four people in Europe and North America will be aged 65 or over. Furthermore, women live longer than men. Generally, the physical demands on older women will be low. Thus, their physical fitness will decline, which in turn will affect a variety of organ systems and functions, and so impact on menta...
Source: Maturitas - November 3, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Risto U. Erkkola, Tommi Vasankari, A. Erkola Source Type: research

Risk factors for recurrent falls in older adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis
One-third of older adults fall each year, and half of those who fall are recurrent fallers [1]. Older adults who fall two or more times per year are classified as recurrent fallers [2]. Recurrent fallers experience greater morbidity than those who are not recurrent fallers [2]. While the risks of recurrent falls on older adult health and independence are clear, the underlying reasons for why older adults fall recurrently are not. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: D.A. Jehu, J.C. Davis, R.S. Falck, K.J. Bennett, D. Tai, M.F. Souza, B.R. Cavalcante, M. Zhao, T. Liu-Ambrose Tags: Review article Source Type: research

The association of sleep quality and sleep duration with nutritional status in older adults: findings from the WCHAT study
Sleep health was defined as “a multidimensional pattern of sleep-wakefulness, adapted to individual, environmental and social demands, which promotes physical and mental well-being” [1]. However, sleep disorders such as poor sleep quality, too short or too long sleep duration are more prevalent as people age and become one of the most common health complaints among older adults [2]. The prevalence of sleep disorders in aged population differs in different areas, in some areas, the prevalence could be up to more than 50% [3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - November 1, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Wan-yu Zhao, Yan Zhang, Shu-li Jia, Mei-ling Ge, Li-sha Hou, Xin Xia, Xiao-lei Liu, Ji-rong Yue, Bi-rong Dong Source Type: research

Association between vision and hearing impairment and successful aging over five years
Concurrent vision and hearing impairment (termed dual sensory impairment, DSI) is strongly age-related; among population-based studies of samples aged ≥50 years which have applied objective measures of sensory function, the prevalence of DSI has been reported to affect between 4.6% – 9.7% of older people [1–3]. Vision loss has a negative impact on functional independence, mental health quality of life and cognition, and increases mortality r isk [4–7]. Age-related hearing loss is more frequent and is associated with a greater risk of depression, impairs quality of life and the ability to conduct activi...
Source: Maturitas - November 1, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Bamini Gopinath, Gerald Liew, George Burlutsky, Catherine M McMahon, Paul Mitchell Source Type: research

Developing an ICF Core Set for Climacteric Syndrome based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)
The menopausal transition, or peri-menopause, affects the health-related quality of life because it is accompanied by a higher level of psycho-somatic symptoms, called the climacteric syndrome. Peri-menopause is “a complex period of women’s lives in which hormonal factors, family and personal relationships, work status, and self-concept change” [1]. The changed hormonal status leads to higher prevalence of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases, cancer, dementia, chronic respiratory disease, diab etes, metabolic syndrome, depression, and migraine [2]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 31, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Martina Zangger, Christin Weber, Petra Stute Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of osteoporosis in nursing home residents: the Shelter study
The prevalence of osteoporosis is estimated at 75 million in United States, Europe and Japan [1] and this is about 13.5% to 24.2% is nursing home residents in united states. [2] About two third of people with osteoporosis are women. With increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of osteoporosis increases [3] The main problem of osteoporosis is the increased risk of fractures. Osteoporotic fractures can have serious consequences such as chronic pain, reduced quality of life, increased dependence on others, depression, anxiety and alterations in self-esteem and increased mortality.[4,5,6,7,8] (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 31, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Alireza Malek Makan, Hein van Hout, Graziano Onder, Henri ëtte van der Roest, Harriet Finne-Soveri, Eva Topinková, Michael Denkinger, Jacob Gindin, Rob van Marum Source Type: research

Cystatin C-based estimated GFR and albuminuria are independently associated with all-cause and CVD mortality in Korean population: The Dong-gu Study
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a serious health problem worldwide, with an estimated global prevalence of 13.4% [1] and an increase of 19.4% from 2005 to 2015 in global disability-adjusted life-years [2]. CKD is diagnosed based on renal damage and/or renal insufficiency [3]. Renal damage is assessed using the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), and renal insufficiency is estimated using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); both are strong independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality [4,5]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 31, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hye-Yeon Kim, Sun-Seog Kweon, Young-Hoon Lee, So-Yeon Ryu, Hae-Sung Nam, Min-Ho Shin, Kyeong-Soo Park, Seong-Woo Choi Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian Hormone Levels and Risk of Cancer in Women
Higher circulating anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH) levels in women have been associated with increased breast cancer risk[1]. Although AMH is primarily known for its functions in sexual differentiation during embryogenesis[2] and ovarian follicle development[3], histologic evidence on the expression of AMH receptor type 2 (AM HR2) in different non-gonadal tissues[4–6] suggests responsiveness of a wide range of tissues to AMH. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 31, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ren ée M.G. Verdiesen, Carla H. van Gils, Rebecca K. Stellato, W.M. Monique Verschuren, Frank J.M. Broekmans, Annelien C. de Kat, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, N. Charlotte Onland-Moret Source Type: research

The epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in Chinese postmenopausal women and its association with age of menopause
As the most common arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) remains one of the major disease leading to stroke, heart failure and mortality in the world. [1] Although the prevalence of AF is lower in female than male [2], female with AF are more likely to develop stroke and death than male [3,4]. The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in postmenopausal women increases markedly, especially after the cessation of ovarian function [5]. Therefore, it is imperative to better understand the prevalence trends and management status of AF in postmenopausal women and develop effective prevention strategies to improve the prognosis of ...
Source: Maturitas - October 23, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Zhi Du, Boqiang Zhang, Min Lin, Yuanmeng Tian, Li Jing, Shuang Liu, Yanhong Cheng, Lei Shi, Yingxian Sun, Liying Xing Source Type: research

Association of menopause with risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis
Menopause in women is characterized by a gradual decline in both quantity and quality of oocytes and thus result in the age-dependent loss of fertility [1]. The first clinical sign of menopause is that the length of menstrual cycle is shortened by 2-3 days and the menstrual cycles become irregular. The sign is caused by constant reduction of follicle numbers [2]. The final menstrual period and age at menopause can be recognized only retrospectively [3]. The mean age at menopause is 51 years with a range of variation between 40 and 60 years. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 22, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yan Li, Dong Zhao, Miao Wang, Jia-yi Sun, Jun Liu, Yue Qi, Yong-chen Hao, Qiu-ju Deng, Jue Liu, Jing Liu, Min Liu Source Type: research

Chinese women ’s health and wellbeing in middle life: Unpacking the influence of menopause, lifestyle activities and social participation
In 2010, there were over 130 million women aged 45 to 59 in China [1]. Women ’s midlife represents a critical life stage encompassing a range of physiological and psychosocial changes that require adaptions to optimize health and functioning [2]. However, the overall health and wellbeing of midlife women has received relatively little attention in many Low and Middle-Incom e Countries [3], including in China. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 22, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jane Falkingham, Maria Evandrou, Min Qin, Athina Vlachantoni Source Type: research

Associations between sedentary behavior and happiness: An analysis of influential factors among middle-aged and older adults from six low- and middle-income countries
Sedentary behavior (SB) refers to waking behaviors characterized by an energy expenditure of ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture [1]. According to accelerometer-derived measures, middle-aged and older adults spend an average of 9.4 to 12.3 hours/day in SB [2,3]. Mounting evidence indicates that prolonged SB can be hazardous to adults’ physical health (e.g., increased ris k for incident cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and premature mortality), independently of physical activity [4]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 21, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Mireia Felez-Nobrega, Beatriz Olaya, Josep Maria Haro, Brendon Stubbs, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi Source Type: research

Manganese intake from foods and beverages is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes
The multifactorial disease, type 2 diabetes, is becoming a chronic illness with heavy burden at both health and economic aspects [1]. The epidemiology of type 2 diabetes indicates that Japanese men and women are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than their Western counterparts with the same body size measures; waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) [2]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 19, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ehab S. Eshak, Isao Muraki, Hironori Imano, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Akiko Tamakoshi, Hiroyasu Iso Source Type: research

Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Calculators – An Overview, Part II
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) caused more than 60% of the global burden of diseases in 2017, in comparison to 1990 where NCD were responsible for 43% of global burden of disease [1]. Burden of disease, defined by the sum of mortality and morbidity, is measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALY). One DALY represents one year of healthy life lost. The World Health Organization (WHO) found that in European and Western Pacific Regions, 80% of DALYs were due to NCDs [2]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 16, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fabienne Juchli, Martina Zangger, Andrea Schueck, Michael von Wolff, Petra Stute Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes management in people aged over seventy-five years: targets and treatment strategies
Over the past decades, the number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been dramatically increased, with available evidence estimating that by 2040, almost 642 million individuals will be living with the disease worldwide [1]. The diabetes burden seems to particularly affect the age group of older adults, considering that according to recent epidemiological data, the one third of the diabetic population in the United States of America consists of subjects aged over 65 years [2], and approximately 22% of individuals with diabetes in China are older than 70 years of age [3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 15, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Theocharis Koufakis, Maria Grammatiki, Kalliopi Kotsa Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Menopausal Symptoms: Results from the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause and Sexuality (DREAMS)
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are highly prevalent in the United States, with nearly 700,000 victims of child abuse annually. In 2015, the most recent year with national data, there were 683,000 reported cases of child abuse and neglect, with a rate of 9.2 per 1,000 children. The rate was slightly higher for girls at 9.6 victims per 1,000 [1,2]. These statistics are very concerning, not only because of the short-term effect on the health of the children, but also because of the association between child abuse or neglect and numerous adverse long-term health outcomes, such as psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, e...
Source: Maturitas - October 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ekta Kapoor, Madison Okuno, Virginia M. Miller, Liliana Gazzuola Rocca, Walter A. Rocca, Juliana M. Kling, Carol L. Kuhle, Kristin C. Mara, Felicity T. Enders, Stephanie S. Faubion Source Type: research

Dietary patterns and age at natural menopause: evidence from the UK Women ’s Cohort Study
The current life expectancy of females in the United Kingdom is estimated to be 82.9 years [1], and the average age of menopause is 51 years [2]. Women in the UK therefore spend around one-third of their life in the menopausal state. The timing of menopause influences future health outcomes, such that an early age at menopause increases risk of bone fractures and cardiovascular diseases while an increased risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer have been associated with a late onset of menopause [3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 9, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yashvee Dunneram, Darren C. Greenwood, Janet E. Cade Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 8, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Lower-limb hypopallesthesia: a risk factor for falls in cognitively intact non-diabetic older adults
Falls are a major public health issue in older adults because of their high prevalence, their consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality, and their high cost [1]. It is estimated that one third of those over 65 years, and half over 80, fall at least once a year [2]. To prevent falls, it is crucial to identify and correct the risk factors as early as possible. However some risk factors remain unknown due to changes in the expression of diseases or in the clinical interpretation with aging [3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - October 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Julie Morel, Armelle Gentric, C édric Annweiler Source Type: research

Older adults should not be omitted from inclusion in clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines
Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide, affecting millions of people and leaving hundreds of thousands dead, mostly older adults. Recently, the five main geriatric journals in the United States have joined together to produce a common text denouncing the ageism that manifested itself during the first wave of the pandemic. This text proposes four recommendations: 1) to make clinical research more inclusive for all ages, 2) to involve geriatricians and gerontologists in institutional decisions, 3) to inform policy and funding by taking into account the specific ...
Source: Maturitas - October 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Guillaume Sacco, Thomas C élarier, Gaetan Gavazzi, Cédric Annweiler Source Type: research

KnowleDge of genIto-urinAry synDromE of Menopause among Italian gynecologists: the DIADEM survey
Genito-urinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), which includes vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA), is a chronic condition that affects 79-81% of post-menopausal women [1,2]. GSM is also diagnosed in up to 20% of peri-menopausal women [3,4]. The main trigger of GSM is the hypoestrogenism which results in progressive impairment of the physiology of genito-urinary tissues and occurrence of specific signs (such as petechiae and mucosa fragility), genital symptoms (dryness, burning, itching, irritation, bleeding), sexual symptoms (dyspareunia and other sexual dysfunctions) and urinary symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, recurrent urina...
Source: Maturitas - October 1, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Stefania Alvisi, Maurizio Baldassarre, Giulia Gava, Ilaria Mancini, Angelo Cagnacci, Renato Seracchioli, Maria Cristina Meriggiola Source Type: research

The associations of childhood adiposity with menopausal symptoms in women aged 45-49 years: An Australian Cohort Study
Menopause is a normal reproductive stage in women. The early menopausal transition is characterized by increased variability in menstrual cycle length and changes in circulating gonadotrophins. This proceeds into the late menopause transition which is characterized by the onset of vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats), usually occurring around age 47 years [1]. The reduction in circulating estradiol during postmenopausal years is commonly associated with genitourinary symptoms including vaginal dryness. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ye He, Jing Tian, Wendy H. Oddy, Leigh Blizzard, Terence Dwyer, Martha Hickey, Alison J. Venn Source Type: research

Association of menopause symptoms with depressive symptom severity in a diverse community-based sample
Studies have shown that women may have an increased risk of new onset depression during their menopausal transition in comparison to the premenopausal period. Symptoms associated with this transition have been linked to increased depression scale scores within several community-based studies, including one by Bromberger and Kravitz looking at data from the Study of Women ’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) [1,2]. When evaluating clusters of related symptoms, the presence of vasomotor and sleep symptoms tends to display a positive relationship with depression scale scores amongst menopausal women. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Xincheng Ji, Sydney Singleterry, Alexandra Kulikova, Yaprak Harrison, Geetha Shivakumar, E. Sherwood Brown Source Type: research

Menopausal transition and change in employment: Evidence from the National Child Development Study
Waged and salaried work is essential for many women ’s economic freedom and self-determination worldwide, and the majority of women would prefer to be working [1,2]. In the UK, labour market participation has been increasing for women aged 50 and over; in 1992, just 47 percent of women aged 50-64 were in employment, but by 2019 this had risen to 68 percent [3]. At the same time, research suggests that the average age of natural menopause is 50–51 in industrialised countries, and the menopausal transition can last 4–5 years [4]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Maria Evandrou, Jane Falkingham, Min Qin, Athina Vlachantoni Source Type: research

Management of urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women: An EMAS clinical guide
Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as a “complaint of involuntary loss of urine” [1]. The prevalence of the condition increases with age, and it is reported to affect 58%–84% of elderly women [2]. The reported prevalence of UI varies widely because of the different definitions and assessment tools for diagnosis employed [3]. The gen eral prevalence is reported to be between 38 % and 55 % in women over 60 years [4]. Despite this high prevalence, UI remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Up to half of women may not report incontinence to their healthcare provider and this may be due to embarrassment or ...
Source: Maturitas - September 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Eleonora Russo, Marta Caretto, Andrea Giannini, Johannes Bitzer, Antonio Cano, Iuliana Ceausu, Peter Chedraui, Fatih Durmusoglu, Risto Erkkola, Dimitrios G. Goulis, Ludwig Kiesel, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Angelica Lind én Hirschberg, Patrice Lopes, Amos Pine Source Type: research

Predicting the rising incidence and mortality of endometrial cancers among women aged 65-74 years in Catalonia
Cancers of the endometrium rank as the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancers among European women [1]. Endometrial cancer is the most common type, representing 90% of the cancers of the corpus uteri. Endometrial cancers are mostly diagnosed after menopause and hormones play a key role in their etiology [2]. Established risk factors include early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, menopausal hormone use, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and Lynch syndrome [2 –5]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jon Frias-Gomez, Paula Peremiquel-Trillas, Laia Alemany, Alberto Ameijide, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Jordi Ponce, Joan Brunet, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Jaume Galceran, Ángel Izquierdo, Josep M. Borràs, Laura Costas, Ramon Clèries Source Type: research

Reporting of sex-specific outcomes in trials of interventions for cardiovascular disease: has there been progress?
All patients, women and men, expect medication to be both safe and effective. Women and men not only differ biologically ( “sex”) but also socio-cultural and behavioral differences exist (“gender”). As both sex and gender influence the safety and efficacy of medication, it is important that prior to approval of a drug, a sufficient number of (representative) women are included in preregistration phase 1 to 3 tri als. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: M.M. Schreuder, E. Boersma, M. Kavousi, L.E. Visser, J.W. Roos - Hesselink, J. Versmissen, J.E. Roeters van Lennep Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life and resilience in peri- and postmenopausal women during Covid-19 confinement
(Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 25, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Pluvio J. Coronado, Maria Fasero, Borja Otero, Sonia Sanchez, Esther de la Viuda, Isabel Ramirez-Polo, Placido Llaneza, Nicolas Mendoza, Laura Baquedano Source Type: research

The effect of a social robot intervention on sleep and motor activity of people living with dementia and chronic pain: a pilot randomized controlled trial
Sleep disturbances and physical inactiveness are common in people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Up to 70% of individuals with dementia are affected by disturbed sleep [1] and people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) are reported to spend around 85% of their daytime physically inactive [2]. Disturbed sleep and decreased physical function can have significant consequences, such as greater risks of injuries [3] and increased caregiver burden [4]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 23, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Lihui Pu, Wendy Moyle, Cindy Jones, Michael Todorovic Source Type: research

Telemedicine and the rural dementia population: A systematic review
is further highlighted by healthcare demands during COVID, and for patients in ruralareas.access to healthcare services.telehealth consultations, two other studies did not report a significant difference. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 22, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Harmehr Sekhon, Kerman Sekhon, Cyrille Launay, Marc Afililo, Nathan Innocente, Ipsit Vahia, Soham Rej, Olivier Beauchet Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Editorial board
(Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 22, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Quality of life and psychological symptoms for women with bipolar disorder – a comparison between reproductive, menopause transition and post-menopause phases
Around 1-2% of the population live with bipolar disorder (BD) [1]. Although women and men experience bipolar disorder at similar rates, there may be some differences between men and women in how they experience clinical features of the illness [2, 3]. Depressive symptoms have also been found to be more prominent for women [2], and women also report higher rates of family suicide and attempted suicides [4]. In some studies women have been reported to experience more rapid mood cycling, (experiencing four or more episodes of depression or mania within the one year) than men [3] and to be more vulnerable to sleep loss as a tr...
Source: Maturitas - September 15, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Tania Perich, Jane Ussher, Isabel Fraser, Janette Perz Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply to “Review of the bone mineral density data in the meta-analysis about the effects of exercise on physical outcomes of breast cancer survivors receiving hormone therapy”
We would like to thank S ánchez-Fernandez and colleagues for their interest and insightful comments on our review [1], and for the opportunity to respond to the issues raised in their letter. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 1, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Leonessa Boing, Melissa Vieira, J éssica Moratelli, Anke Bergmann, Adriana Coutinho Guimarães Source Type: research

Review of the bone mineral density data in the meta-analysis about the effects of exercise on physical outcomes of breast cancer survivors receiving hormone therapy
This study concludes that exercise has possible effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer survivors despite the absence of statistically significant results in this regard. Furthermore, as the authors point out, the results show an enormous heterogeneity that makes their interpretation almost unfeasible. Despite the possible sources of heterogeneity detected by the authors, there are others that do not seem to have been discussed and that we believe should be considered. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - September 1, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Antonio S ánchez-Fernández, Jose M. Moran, María Canal-Macías Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA mutation carriers: what is going on in a region of northern Italy?
Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for a large proportion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome cases [1]. Discovered since 1990 [2], these oncosuppressor genes, located in chromosome 17q and 13q, respectively, play an important role in cellular functions, such as DNA damage repair. The estimated frequency of these mutations is relatively rare in the general population (in the US population about 1 in 400 subjects), even though it can significantly increase in certain populations genetically isolated for many generations because of geography or religious practice [3,4]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - August 30, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Giovanni Grandi, Anna Myriam Perrone, Antonino Perrone, Vincenzo Dario Mandato, Giuseppe Comerci, Margaret Sammarini, Carla Merisio, Andrea Amadori, Marco Stefanetti, Ruby Martinello, Fabio Facchinetti, Pierandrea De Iaco, for the Brca Emilia-Romagna Gyne Source Type: research

Managing Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms in Older Women
Menopause, a nearly universal transition for women who reach midlife, is heralded by vasomotor symptoms (VMS) or hot flashes, mood disorders including depression and anxiety, sleep disruption, and genitourinary symptoms. In older women, however, mood and sleep disturbances can present independently as a function of aging, rather than menopause. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause, clinically under recognized and undertreated in aging women, is addressed in a separate chapter of this special issue. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - August 24, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Cynthia A. Stuenkel Source Type: research

Characterizing nocturia among Belgian healthy postmenopausal women: prevalence, bother, etiology and possible risk factors for developing nocturia
Nocturia, or the act of passing urine during the main sleeping period, is a common symptom in the elderly population [1]. Today, little is known about nocturia in early postmenopausal women. However, due to the lack of endogenous produced estrogen in these women, an increased prevalence of nocturia is expected. A Thai cohort study reported nocturia as the most prevalent genito-urethral symptom affecting 77.7% of all postmenopausal women. Despite this high prevalence, only a quarter of all affected women sought medical attention [2]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - August 21, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kim Pauwaert, An-Sofie Goessaert, Lynn Ghijselings, Wendy Bower, Herman Depypere, Karel Everaert Source Type: research

Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause: Current Treatment Options in Breast Cancer Survivors – Systematic Review
The overall survival of women with breast cancer (BC) has increased over the last decades, despite the increasing prevalence of this disease. This improved survival is largely due to advances in the current therapies, especially since the introduction of anti-HER2 targeted drugs [1]. Many breast cancer survivors (BCS) are still of premenopausal age and have the potential risk of receiving antineoplastic treatments that may affect ovarian function or anti-oestrogenic treatments that mimic a postmenopausal state [2]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - August 19, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Eduard Mension, Inmaculada Alonso, Camil Castelo-Branco Tags: Review Source Type: research

Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of the pelvic floor in postmenopausal women hormone therapy users
Women have aspirations and expectations about healthy aging, but menopause-related changes in the genitourinary system and pelvic floor often interfere with their well-being and sexuality [1,2]. The pelvic floor muscles (PFM) play a key role in pelvic organ support and estrogen deprivation is a risk factor for pelvic floor disorders [3,4], which can affect up to 50% of postmenopausal women, although many of them remain asymptomatic [5,6]. Studies indicate that the severity of symptoms of pelvic floor disorders increases significantly during the postmenopausal years and these symptoms might be linked to estrogen deficiency ...
Source: Maturitas - August 18, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Lucia Regina Marques Gomes Delmanto, Michelle Sako Omodei, Flavia Bueloni-Dias, Ana Gabriela Pontes, Armando Delmanto, Daniel Spadoto-Dias, Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas Source Type: research

Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Calculators – An Overview, Part I
In Western countries, life expectancy and thus the significance of (chronic) non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased [1]. The most common NCD comprise cardiovascular, pulmonary and musculoskeletal diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer [2]. In elderly women, osteoporosis associated-fractures add to the main causes of disability and mortality [3]. As NCD mostly develop silently and chronic-progressively early detection and intervention are warranted. (Online) risk calculators are a common method for screening. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - August 16, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fabienne Juchli, Martina Zangger, Andrea Schueck, Michael von Wolff, Petra Stute Source Type: research

The association between menstrual symptoms and hypertension among young women: a prospective longitudinal study
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease that remains the leading cause of death in both men and women, but distinct sex differences in the incidence and severity of hypertension are well established [1]. As the prevalence of obesity is increasing over the last decades, it has directly impacted on the development of hypertension in young adults [2]. However, available data on the risk factors for hypertension in women of reproductive age are relatively scarce, and the results have been inconsistent [3]. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - August 16, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hsin-Fang Chung, Isabel Ferreira, Gita D. Mishra Source Type: research