[Role of T cells in tumor immunology and immunotherapy].
nyi A Abstract In the immune defense against cancer, cell-mediated adaptive immune response is considered of primary importance, in which T lymphocytes play a key role. Activation, expansion and function of antigen-specific T cells is a multistep process and its outcome depends on the balance of positive and negative regulatory mechanisms controlling each step. Many factors can hamper the development of an efficient antitumor immune response, such as insufficient expression of tumor antigens or of molecules necessary for their processing, inhibitory molecular interactions (e.g. immune checkpoints), immune suppress...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ladányi A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Immunogenomic aspects of tumor progression].
Ladányi A Abstract Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer therefore of the metastatic disease as well. High tumor mutation burden is due to deficiencies of the DNA repair systems and leads to immunosensitivity due to generation of neoantigens. However, APOBEC activation of that system, though increases mutation rate, but causes immunoresistance. Deficient antigen presentation due to HLA class I defects is another major cause of immunoresistance. The contemporary immunotherapies may exploit gene amplification of PD-L1 but if the affected chromosome is damaged IFN activation can be lost, again causing i...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J, Ladányi A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Predictive diagnostics of the programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) - programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitory therapies].
te;r I, Tímár J Abstract In the past years, immunotherapy emerged as a novel modality of clinical oncology. The development and introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors required the development of companion diagnostics, the PD-L1 protein immunohistochemical tests. Unfortunately, almost all checkpoint inhibitors were exclusively validated by a specific PD-L1 in vitro diagnostic test with its own evaluation protocol. These tests have different diagnostic sensitivity for PD-L1 protein and the evaluation protocols differ in many respects, as cancer and immune cell positivities are considered variousl...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lotz G, Smuk G, Kocsmár É, Kocsmár I, Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Predictive markers of immunotherapy of colorectal cancer].
Abstract Colorectal carcinomas are heterogeneous in their morphologic, immunologic and molecular aspects. The smooth and sharply demarcated medullary carcinomas present with an expansive border and high tumor stroma ratio. The high load of cancer neoantigens as a consequence of microsatellite instability results in numerous reactive regional lymph nodes. In contrast, the low grade, MSS type carcinomas are spiculated, desmoplastic and hard, frequently with smaller and sometimes also desmoplastic lymph node metastases. This macroscopic and histological heterogeneity is mirrored on the immunohistochemical and molecul...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bogner B Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Combination of radiation and immunotherapy in cancer treatment].
acute;r C Abstract It is known since the beginning of the 20th century that ionizing radiation has an effect on the immune system. The abscopal effect was well known but extremely rare. However, many study groups performed intensive preclinical research in the field. One of the most prominent recent developments of medical science is the introduction of modern immunotherapy to the treatment of cancer. The widespread use of immunotherapy drew again the attention to the possible role of radiation in conjunction with immunotherapy. There is growing evidence that ionizing radiation may potentiate the effect of immunot...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lövey J, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Benefits of combining chemotherapy with immuno- oncology therapies or "Is it true that chemotherapy destroys the immune system?"]
[Benefits of combining chemotherapy with immuno- oncology therapies or "Is it true that chemotherapy destroys the immune system?"] Magy Onkol. 2019 Sep 18;63(3):202-207 Authors: Kocsis J Abstract In recent years widespread use of immuno-oncology drugs are in the focus of modern systemic anticancer therapies. Parallel to the evolving role of immune checkpoint inhibitors many people believe that using chemotherapy is coming to an end. Moreover laymen opinions are being communicated about the detrimental role of chemotherapy. The aim of this article is to dissolve this misbelief. The manuscript...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kocsis J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Opportunities that improve the effectivity of immunotherapy, bringing targeted therapies into focus].
l;ronya Z Abstract Immunotherapy is getting more and more successful therapeutic option in case of many cancer types. Despite the clinical effectiveness of checkpoint inhibitor antibodies, long-lasting advantages can only be seen in a part of the patients, which makes necessary to examine immunotherapy more thoroughly. Immunity is influenced by the tumor, its microenvironment, and patient's characteristic and environmental factors. These elements control the strength and duration of antitumor response. Immunotherapeutic response may be more significant and may even last for years in case of hot tumors, while in mo...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maráz A, Varga L, Küronya Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Difficulties and prospects in the immunotherapy of gliomas].
In conclusion, although the CNS is not any more considered as an "immunological sanctuary" and despite some encouraging experimental and clinical results in CNS oncotherapy, the routine application of IT in case of MGs is still awaited. PMID: 31533142 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mangel L, Najbauer J, Kajtár B, Pongrácz EJ Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Immunotherapy possibilities and results in breast cancer].
es G Abstract In recent years, a number of tumor types have shown significant therapeutic benefit with immunotherapy. Breast cancer has not been regarded traditionally as a typical immunogenic tumor, however, based on results so far, immunotherapy may play a role in the therapy. The most important change in attitude is that the target of therapy is not the disease but the host. A better understanding of the host's immune system and the process between the tumor and host provides an opportunity for therapeutic intervention, in this case (re-)activating anti-tumor immune processes. The purpose of this summary is to ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rubovszky G, Mûzes G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Possibilities of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer].
aacute;si Z, Reiniger L Abstract Survival of patients with lung cancer is unfavorable. Distant metastasis is detected in more than half of the patients at diagnosis. In advanced stages, platinum-based chemotherapy has been the main therapeutic approach for a long time, however, in 2004 targeted therapies emerged. Recently, PDL1/ PD-1 inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of metastatic lung cancers, for which the therapeutic criteria are increasingly outlined. Based on international and Hungarian data, it is likely that determination of PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor samples may be sufficient for ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Téglási V, Moldvay J, Szállási Z, Reiniger L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors and their treatment].
acute;czy L Abstract Therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) has become widespread in medical oncology, becoming part of the routine treatment for various malignancies. These antibodies induce an anti-cancer immune activation by blocking the natural immunosuppression, which is supposed to protect the human body's healthy cells from destruction by the immune system, caused also by cancers, and as a result, allow the immune system to take part in destroying malignant cells. However, the immune activation created by these molecules is not selective against cancer tissues, therefore adverse events associated...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dienes T, Horváth O, Géczy L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Possibilities of immunotherapy in cancer patients with autoimmune disease].
otilde; G Abstract The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) opened a new era in anticancer treatment. This type of treatment is beneficial for a subset of patients who had a restricted success in the past. However, manipulation of the immune system may lead to the flare up of preexisting autoimmune diseases, requiring intervention. Furthermore, immune suppression strongly influences the outcome of ICI treatment. The ICI treatment of cancer patients with autoimmune disease is a complex task: pre-treatment assessment of the patients, early management of flare ups, and introduction of effective immune suppression is re...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sütõ G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes: laboratory diagnostics and immunological aspects].
Berki T Abstract Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) are rare neurological disorders, which have similar symptoms, but vary in outcome and treatment strategy. In our retrospective statistical study we evaluated the autoantibody test results of serum and CSF from 2362 patients with suspected PNS and 1034 patients with suspected AE. For autoantibody testing, immunoblot assay (PNS) and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (AE) were used. Autoantibodies were present in 8% of patients with suspected PNS: anti-Yo> anti-Hu> anti-Ma2> anti-CV2> anti-titin> anti...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hayden Z, Böröcz K, Csizmadia Z, Kellermayer Z, Balogh P, Berki T Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Pathological diagnostics of CUP (Cancer of Unknown Primary)].
ár J Abstract CUP (Cancer of Unknown Primary) is a relatively frequent cancer type causing incomparable difficulties in pathological diagnosis as compared to other tumor types. The primary may even remain unknown at authopsy due to microscopic size or previous regression. By applying the biological, epidemiological cancer information it is possible to compose rational pathological differential diagnostic algorithms to define with high probability the primary site of the cancer. The new molecular tests developed for CUP are very helpful especially if they are used in combination with pathological data. ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Clinicopathological characterization and autopsybased classification of the Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP) syndrome].
iss A, Schaff Z, Lotz G Abstract Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP) is characterized by metastatic tumor spread without identifiable primary tumor. CUP cohort was selected from 6966 autopsy cases (2001-2014). Type-1 ("clinical") CUPs: primary site was not found clinically but identified by autopsy. Type-2 ("clinicopathological") CUPs: no primary site either clinically or by autopsy. Type-3 ("pathological") CUPs: no tumor was suspected clinically whereas autopsy revealed metastatic spread from unidentifiable source. 2160 malignant tumors were found including 80 CUPs (type-1/2/3: 42...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kocsmár É, Kocsmár I, Karczub J, Istók R, Kiss A, Schaff Z, Lotz G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Treatment of patients with cancer of unknown primary - possibilities and problems].
sis J Abstract Cancer of unknown primary is a relatively common clinical entity that accounts for 3-5% of all invasive cancers. Clinical entities of this heterogeneous group of diseases can originate from different tissues of the body and be manifested as metastases in different organs. Clinical behavior can be favorable or more often unfavorable. Clinical work-up should be practical and effective while excessive delay can turn clinically treatable disease to untreatable state. Favorable clinicopathologic entities should be treated similarly to known equivalent tumors. Unfavorable clinicopathologic entities should...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Horváth Z, Kocsis J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Report on current status of Hungarian radiotherapy].
ár C Abstract The purpose of the study is to report the status of Hungarian radiotherapy (RT). In the 13 centers 84 radiation oncologists, 19 residents, 66 physicists and 231 radiotherapy technologists work, and 40 megavoltage units (38 linear accelerators, 2 cobalt units) are in use. HDR afterloader is available in all and CT-simulator in all but one centers. In 2017 33,024 patients received RT, 22,236 were irradiated with MV beams, 1,406 with BT and 9,382 with orthovoltage X-ray. Main indications for BT were gynecological tumors (75%), HDR prostate implants were performed in 3 centers. Due to the recent i...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Major T, Király R, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Dose coverage of axillary target volumes using different field arrangements following breast conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer].
cute;r C, Major T Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose coverage of sentinel lymph node (SLN) site, level I, II and III axillary target volumes using different field arrangements (standard or high tangent fields: STgF, HTgF and STgF + axillary-supraclavicular field: ASF) in N0 invasive breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery. In 30 patients the SLN site was marked with titanium clip. They were treated with 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Retrospectively, for the purpose of this study, the SLN site and axillary target volumes were contoured, and three plans were generated f...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bukovszky B, Fodor J, Zongor Z, Mihály D, Mátrai Z, Polgár C, Major T Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Initial experience with image-guided and intensity-modulated postoperative radiotherapy of gynecological cancer].
, Polgár C Abstract Our goal was to determine the extent of the CTV-PTV margin. Accuracy of patient setup was checked with daily CBCT. Two radiation oncologists performed the image matching independently. The CTV-PTV margin was calculated with the van Herk formula. The treatment plans were created with the Varian Eclipse v11 planning system, and the treatments were carried out with a Varian TrueBeam accelerator by using RapidArc technique with two full arcs. Dose constraints on the target volume and organs at risk recommended by international bodies were applied. Conformity number (CN) for PTV, V45 and V50 ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Király R, Pesznyák C, Varga S, Nguyen NA, Major T, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Multimodal imaging during lung and abdominal stereotactic ablative radiotherapy: from cine MRI through 3D/4D CBCT to intrafractional kV verification].
õné Csima M, Gulybán Á, Hadjiev J, Lakosi F Abstract Our aim was to present our treatment and verification protocols of linear accelerator-based lung and abdominal stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). During our treatments both the volumetric imaging (3D/4D CBCT/CT) and triggered kV intrafractional tumor motion control could be combined allowing a full control on the whole workflow. The most optimal kV directions from which the tumor is well detectable were defined. Tumor movements measured on cine MRI in treatment position correlated well with the ones on 4D CBCT, thus cine MRI i...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kisiván K, Miovecz Á, Gugyerás D, Takács A, Farkas A, Glavák C, Kovács P, Antal G, László Z, Vallyon M, Cselik Z, Petõné Csima M, Gulybán Á, Hadjiev J, Lakosi F Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Quality and performance indicators of colorectal cancer screening pilot program in Csongr ád County, Hungary].
[Quality and performance indicators of colorectal cancer screening pilot program in Csongrád County, Hungary]. Magy Onkol. 2019 Jun 21;64(2):127-134 Authors: Kivés Z, Kovács A, Budai A, Döbrõssy L, Vajda R, Endrei D, Boncz I Abstract Colorectal cancer is a major social and economic burden for developed countries. Our analysis aimed to evaluate the quality and performance indicators of colorectal cancer screening pilot program. The colon cancer screening pilot program was carried out in 2015 involving an average-risk population aged 50-69 in Csongrád county, Hung...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kivés Z, Kovács A, Budai A, Döbrõssy L, Vajda R, Endrei D, Boncz I Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Molecular pathology of prostate cancer].
ár J Abstract Prostate cancer seems to be two diseases: a localized early cancer and a castration-resistant metastatic cancer. While in the localized form the most prevalent genetic alterations are the translocations of the ETS genes, in the castration-resistant form the most prevalent genetic alteration affects androgen receptor and oncosuppressors TP53 and PTEN. The main drivers of the genetic progression of prostate cancer are defects of the DNA-repair systems which are also responsible for the familiar disease. Several prognostic genomic classifiers have been developed and validated clinically which are...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Prostate cancer reporting: needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimen].
mon F Abstract Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer affecting men. A substantial majority of patients have the diagnosis made on fine needle biopsies. Treatment choices ranging from surveillance to radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy are largely driven by the pathologic findings in the biopsy specimen. Our review focuses on important morphologic parameters in needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens. This includes Gleason score, Gleason grade, tumor quantification as well as other parameters such as extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, perineural invasion, lymphovascula...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tóth E, Salamon F Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Routine laboratory diagnostics of prostate cancer: Past, present and the future].
Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies in men. It is increasingly recognized in patients above 40 years of age. The discovery of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nearly 50 years ago and the subsequent capability to measure it on automated immunoassay platforms have led to a widespread use in laboratory diagnostics. However, the plethora of the elevated PSA values resulted in premature invasive treatments in several cases, so the term 'overdiagnosis of prostate cancer' has been created. Beside the classical total PSA test, several new methods have emerged in the past years that...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nagy B, Bhattoa Harjit P, Kappelmayer J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Surgical treatment of prostate cancer].
;dy P Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant neoplasms. In Hungary, 4000-4500 men are diagnosed annually, which is below the European incidence. In contrast, the Hungarian prostate cancer mortality clearly exceeds the EU average. This is probably due to the lack of awareness and early recognition of prostate cancer. At an early stage, prostate cancer can be cured, 5-year survival is almost 100%, while in metastatic form it is only 28%. There are several treatment options available for prostate cancer. Since it is multiplex within the organ and the cancer foci are histopathological...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nyirády P Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[New therapeutic options for hormone sensitive prostate cancers].
Küronya Z Abstract During the last decades androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was the standard treatment of prostate cancers. Survival of metastatic patients is 4 years if they receive ADT, but in case of poor prognosis survival rate is under 3 years. Since 2014 two prospective phase III studies have proven the survival advantage of early docetaxel therapy, administered together with ADT, for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer patients. Its advantage was even more considerable in case of high-volume metastatic cases. In two other studies the benefit of abiraterone-prednisone therapy combined with A...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maráz A, Géczi L, Küronya Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[The modern treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer].
e;z A, Géczi L Abstract The basic therapy of metastatic prostate carcinoma is androgen deprivation therapy. Unfortunately, almost all patients develop resistance to treatment that leads to castration-resistant prostate cancer. From 2010, 6 new active substances were registered for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, which dramatically improved the overall survival of patients. Two of these are treatments for the androgenic axis, the other drugs or therapeutic methods are immunotherapy, chemotherapy, isotope treatment and RANK-ligand inhibition. The year 2018 was a major success...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Küronya Z, Biró K, Maráz A, Géczi L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Stereotactic body radiation therapy with CyberKnife accelerator for low- and intermediate risk prostate cancer].
We report implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of early, localized prostate cancer patients, and acute side effects caused by radiation therapy. Between February 2018 and July 2018, 36 prostate cancer patients were treated with SBRT. Treatments were performed with "CyberKnife M6" linear accelerator. In low-risk patients 8 Gy was delivered to the prostate in each fraction. For intermediate risk, 8 Gy to the prostate and 6.5 Gy to the seminal vesicles were delivered by each fraction with a simultaneous integrated boost technique. A total of 5 fractions (total dose 40 Gy) were gi...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jorgo K, Ágoston P, Jánváry L, Gesztesi L, Stelczer G, Kontra G, Major T, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[The role of exercise in prostate cancer prevention and treatment].
acute;czi L Abstract As a result of the growing incidence of cancer as well as increased survival of patients, an increasing number of people are living longer with cancer. In recent years, research has shown that physical activity not only protects against a number of cancer types, but is also valuable for patients undergoing cancer treatment and during the rehabilitation phase, as well as for improving function and quality of life. Regular physical activity is an effective way to reduce the side effects of cancer, resulting in part from physical inactivity and in part from the disease itself. Too much rest can l...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Biró K, Géczi L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Recent advances in pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Report on a retrospective single-center cohort and review of the literature].
e Z, Kiss C Abstract Classification, staging and treatment response criteria of pediatric NHL have been revised. Long-term survival reaches ~90% at the expense of severe acute toxicities. The outcome of refractory and relapsed cases is poor. The small number of patients hinders introduction of targeted therapies. Here we summarize principles and perspectives of pediatric NHL supported by results of a retrospective clinical survey. Twenty-five patients (21 boys, 4 girls; mean age: 11.9 years) were registered between 2009 and 2018: 11 Burkitt lymphomas, 4 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 5 T-cell lymphoblastic lympho...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Szegedi I, Gáspár I, Gyurina K, Zele Z, Kiss C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[High hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a highly curable subtype of childhood leukemia].
jor L Abstract Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent malignancy in children. In Hungary 60-70 new cases are diagnosed annually. The survival rate is 85-90% in developed countries with current treatment protocols. The most common genetic category of childhood ALL is the high hyperdiploid subtype (HHD) with chromosome numbers of 51 to 67. It accounts for approximately 25% of all cases. The prognosis is very good, though relapse occurs in ~15% of cases and there are data on the heterogeneity of this subgroup as well. In this paper we give an overview of the cytogenetic, clinical, epidemiological and...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vojcek Á, Pajor L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Treatment results of pediatric soft tissue sarcomas at the 2nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University].
;ka M Abstract Malignant tumors found in children are different from the ones that occur in adults. Compared to the malignancies in adults, the histological entities in pediatric patients are different and survival rates are higher among the children. Though pediatric soft tissue sarcomas are less common than leukemia and central nervous system malignancies, recognition of them is necessary to start the therapy as soon as possible. The delay of an appropriate treatment - chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, in some cases targeted therapy - is unfavorable because somatic damages and functional loss can occur. In ou...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bots B, Eipel O, Terkovics L, Felkai L, Csóka M Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Survival of pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma treated at Semmelweis University].
e;s A, Rényi I, Garami M, Hauser P Abstract The survival of children treated with Ewing sarcoma at Semmelweis University were investigated. Pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma treated at Semmelweis University from 2001 through 2013 were analyzed in terms of overall survival and clinical factors (age, primary localization and extent of the tumor, time interval from primary complaints to diagnosis). For statistical analysis Kaplan-Meier estimated survival and log rank test were applied. Mean age and follow-up time of the 78 patients were 11.16 and 6.29 years, respectively. In 57% of patients time interval f...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Geiszl Z, Kiss J, Szendrõi M, Vízkeleti J, Arató G, Sápi Z, Kriván G, Mohás A, Rényi I, Garami M, Hauser P Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Aspects of nutrition therapy of an infant with central nervous system tumour].
; G, Reiniger L, Nagy G, Hauser P Abstract The atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (ATRT) is a rare type of central nervous system tumour appearing usually under 2 years of age. The survival of patients is insufficient despite the combined treatment (neurosurgical removal, intensive chemo- and radiotherapy). ATRT recurs one year after completion of treatment in 60% of cases. Maintaining appropriate nutritional status during treatment is of great importance in this young age group. Nutritional treatment of patients with ATRT is especially difficult due to young age and possible neurological sequelae. A successful cas...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Györke E, Vargáné Németh A, Balogh M, Masát P, Benyó G, Reiniger L, Nagy G, Hauser P Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Dosimetric evaluation of intracavitary-interstitial image-guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer and comparison with conventional treatment techniques].
or T, Polgár C Abstract Our aim was the dosimetric evaluation of intracavitary-interstitial high-dose-rate image-guided adaptive cervix brachytherapy, implemented in Hungary. Between 2016 and 2018, 21 patients with cervical cancer were treated with overall 72 fractions. Graphical optimized treatment plans were compared to inverse optimized plans, 3D optimized plans (without needles) and conventional intracavitary 2D plans. Significant difference was found in almost all dose-volume parameters. The most advantageous values came from interstitial plans, inverse optimized plans did not differ dosimetrically fro...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fröhlich G, Vízkeleti J, Nhung NA, Horváth K, Major T, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Clinical results of combined intracavitary-interstitial image-guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer].
We present the early clinical results achieved with image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) with combined intracavitary-interstitial (IC-IS) technique recently implemented in Hungary in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Twenty-one patients were treated with radio-chemotherapy (RCT) followed by combined IC-IS BT. At the end of the RCT we assessed the residual tumour with pelvic MRI. On CT images registered with the applicator in place we contoured the organs at risk and the high-risk clinical target volume, which included the whole cervix and the eventual residual tumour in the parametria. No gra...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vízkeleti J, Fröhlich G, Nhung NA, Horváth K, Major T, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Oral contraception and the risk of breast cancer. Review of the literature].
err L Abstract At present an estimated hundred millions of women worldwide use oral contraception, but the influence of hormonal contraception on carcinogenesis of breast is not fully understood. Previous studies of breast cancer risk show inconsistent findings - from zero elevation to approximately 30%-40% increase in risk. The beneficial effect on ovarian and endometrial cancer risk is apparent. In this literature review we attempt to determine effects of oral contraception in relation to the risk of breast cancer. The risk increased with longer duration of use, but absolute increase is very small. "Benefic...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nagykálnai T, Landherr L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Influence of HPV infection on cell cycle regulation in epithelial cell alterations of cervix uteri: Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization observations].
Abstract The HPV16 E6 DNA incorporation into the cervical epithelial cell genome was determined. In addition, using p16, p21 and p27 protein immunohistochemistry, we intended to present how the normal cell cycle machinery was disturbed in cervical epithelial cells. In CIN1 the epithelial cells are transformed into koilocytes, p16 is not expressed. p21 is only visible over the parabasal cell layers, while p27 manifests in koilocytes and lymphocytes. In CIN2/3, one copy of HPV16 DNA is integrated in the epithelial cell genome. In CIN3, p16 is expressed in great quantities, while p21 can be seen in the upper 2/3 segm...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Szentirmay Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Pathology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma].
;th E Abstract Over the past decade, human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has become a distinct entity that differs from conventional head and neck cancer in many ways including its epidemiology, genetics, tumor behavior, and prognosis. Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas also exhibit characteristic histologic features. This review will cover the histomorphologic appearances of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma, with an emphasis on their differences from conventional, human papillomavirus-unrelated cancer. Besides these we summarize t...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tóth E Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Changing trends in the management of the human papillomavirus induced oropharyngeal cancer].
agy Z Abstract The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers caused by human papillomavirus rises sharply. They are characterized by very good therapeutic response, including radiosensitivity, as is demonstrated by the results of several retrospective analyses. In the following review publications related to this topic are introduced, (radio)biological causes of radiosensitivity are explored and the role of surgical, chemo- and biological therapeutic methods of these types of tumors are discussed with the aim to better understand their different behavior. Taking into account the younger age and better general condition o...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takácsi-Nagy Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Retrospective analysis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma cases treated between 2001 and 2010 in the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology].
eacute;ter I, Boér A Abstract The standard treatment of papillary microcarcinomas (mPTC; ≤1 cm) regardless of their size, was similar to the advanced ones till the recent past: immediate surgery ± radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. However, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) 2015 guidelines accept the active surveillance in selected cases. We performed a retrospective analysis on the clinical data of 103 patients with PTmC in a single (62.1%) or multiple nodes (37.9%), treated with immediate surgery followed in most cases by postoperative RAI between 2001 and 2010. N stage of the neck was pN0 i...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Meilinger-Dobra M, Remenár É, Fröhlich G, Sinkovics I, Péter I, Boér A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Role of MRI and CT in the evaluation of postirradiation status and complications in head and neck cancer].
anninger S, Andi J, Léránt G, Kásler M Abstract Most head and neck cancer patients are treated with combined modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (ChT). Concurrent chemo-radiation has improved treatment outcomes with increased toxic effects. Reactions after RT are divided into early and late changes. Early reactions are seen during the course of therapy or within 3 months; these are reversible in most cases. Late complications are observed 3 months to years after RT and they are generally irreversible. As typical late reaction radiation induced necrosis may occur in soft...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gõdény M, Remenár É, Takácsi-Nagy Z, Petri K, Horváth K, Bõcs K, Manninger S, Andi J, Léránt G, Kásler M Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Mandibular angle and head reconstruction with fibular free flap].
s A Abstract Extended mandibular defects can be safely managed by applying microvascular free bone transfer. The flap of choice for this procedure is a fibula free flap due to its anatomical structure, proper length and good plasticity. The body of the mandible can be formed by removing wedge bone segments. However the gonial angle can be formed on a different, safer and easier way by performing axial osteotomy as it is done in the orthognathic surgery. The special advantage of this method is that by setting the exact angle of the ascending mandibular part, the ramus replacer fibula segment is perfectly suitable f...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Oberna F, Czuczor M, Füzes A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[First report on successful application of nivolumab in Hungary for the treatment of locally recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma].
We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with R/M HNSCC who was given nivolumab monotherapy, as third-line treatment due the progression of her tumor. After treatment with nivolumab, the size of her tumor decreased, then was stable, while she did not experience any adverse events or notable side effects. Our case report is the first to demonstrate the application of nivolumab in R/M HNSCC in Hungary. PMID: 30256884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bellyei S, Bakó P, Orosz É, Molnár K, Remenár É, Mangel L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Application of CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of head and neck cancer].
Bajcsay A, Polgár C Abstract The treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is multimodal, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, or the combination of those. Though aggressive treatment results in complete tumor remission in many patients even in locally advanced stages, unfortunately local relapse is not uncommon. For patients not candidate for salvage surgery, chemotherapy and conventional fractionated external beam irradiation can be applied. However, for patients previously treated with full-dose radiotherapy, the deliverable reirradiation dose is limited, considering the el...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jánváry LZ, Ferenczi Ö, Takácsi-Nagy Z, Bajcsay A, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Lipegfilgrastim - long acting G-CSF in prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia].
ffy G Abstract One of the most dangerous complications of bone marrow suppression due to chemotherapy is febrile neutropenia. The treatment of the affected patients is a multidisciplinary task. In addition to chemotherapy, adequate G-CSF therapy as a primary or secondary prophylaxis can be used to prevent a large part of febrile neutropenic events. Before each chemotherapy cycle, the risk of febrile neutropenia should be evaluated, taking into account the chemotherapeutic combination and patient-specific parameters. Appropriate antibiotic and G-CSF therapy initiated in the course of febrile neutropenia is essentia...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gálffy G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Genomics of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung and gastrointestinal tract: similarities and differences].
, Patócs A Abstract The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors sharply increased in the past years. It is also important that beside the relatively benign, slow growing tumors, prevalence of aggressive neuroendocrine carcinomas is also increasing. It is now evident that the carcinoids are genetically heterogeneous entities, localized to lung, pancreas or to the small intestines. A significant proportion of these neuroendocrine tumors are associated with hereditary syndromes but the etiology of the sporadic versions is still unknown, although in case of the lung, neuroendocrine carcinomas have a similar etiology...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - July 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J, Patócs A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Pathology of lung neuroendocrine tumors].
Abstract The heterogeneous group of lung neuroendocrine tumors are divided into four main types: typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC). Classification is based on the analysis of surgical resection specimens, which, in addition to basic morphological features, takes into account the mitotic count in 2 mm², the presence or absence of necrosis. According to prognosis, TC is low grade, AC is intermediate grade, while SCLC and LCNEC are high grade carcinomas with very poor prognosis. The morphological diagnosis can be refined ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - July 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fillinger J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[Clinicopathological characterization of gastro-entero- pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].
Abstract Tumors arising from the diffuse neuroendocrine (NE) system are mostly located in gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract and in the lung, and show increasing incidence and wide spectrum appearance. Different therapeutic possibilities need accurate diagnosis, classification and prognosis prediction, which determination for pathological diagnostics is a great challenge. All of these are based on the WHO classification, TNM classification of tumors of different location, and clinicopathological characterization. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the general characteristics of NE tumors, in partic...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - July 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Borka K Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research

[The treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].
;th M Abstract Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in frequency over the past decades. The goal of this paper is to provide a concise overview of various treatment options based mainly on consensus guidelines. The only curative therapy for these tumors is timely surgical intervention including endoscopic removal of early stage neuroendocrine tumors. Since at initial diagnosis about half of these patients present with advanced disease, systemic drug and non-drug treatments are discussed in details. Therapeutic approaches of advanced stages include surgical, medical, interventional radi...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - July 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tóth M Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research