[PET-based measurements in oncology: PET/CT and PET/MRI applications].
ó PZ Abstract The introduction and clinical application of 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine- 18]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) dates back more than two decades. The method has resulted in a paradigm shift in many areas of oncology and its acceptance has grown very rapidly. The state-of-the-art PET-based hybrid measurement, PET/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/ MRI), has been available since 2011 and offers additional invaluable opportunities. Various recommendations have been made to provide guidance for the standardization and harmonization of PET/MRI protocols and t...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Borbély K, Garai I, Baranyai T, Patkó PZ Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Single photon emitting radiopharmaceuticals in oncology].
Abstract In this review the isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals used for single-photon techniques will be discussed, covering their current use and possible future trends. SPECT technics have a wide range of diagnostic isotopes and therapeutic isotopes whose diagnostic imaging is possible thanks to new technologies. In the field of nuclear medicine nowadays the parallel use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is becoming more and more important, causing an important role for theranostics. PMID: 32520002 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barna S, Garai I, Nagy G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Oncology PET radiopharmaceuticals in clinic and research in 2020].
This article discusses, among others, radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 18F and 68Ga isotopes required for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine and prostate tumours, furthermore the inhibitors of the fibroblast activation protein. The increasing variety of metallic radioisotopes (44Sc, 64Cu, 52Mn, 86Y, 89Zr) will help meet the need for new biomarkers and will greatly facilitate the introduction of the new generation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. PMID: 32520003 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mikecz P, Fekete A, Tóth G, Környei J, Bali T, Cservenyák T, Borbély K Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Theranostics and differentiated thyroid cancer].
Abstract The first classic theranostic agent, radioactive iodine was used in the treatment of differentitated thyroid cancer (DTC) and it has an important role in the good prognosis of DTC even nowadays. I-131 provides a specific, molecular targeted therapy through the active uptake of iodide by sodium iodide symporter. The development of other theranostics also aimed the personalized therapy with minimal side effects and optimal therapeutic efficacy. The incidence of DTC which basically has good prognosis is increasing rapidly worldwide. This required the modification of guidelines to avoid the overtreatment of t...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mezősi E Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Theranostics in 2020: Neuroendocrine tumors].
This article presents the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine methods for neuroendocrine tumors in accordance with current guidelines. The paper begins with a general characterization of neuroendocrine tumors, followed by a broad introduction to laboratory and imaging diagnostic techniques, and a detailed discussion of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and meta-iodobenzylguanidine treatment. Finally, the article provides an insight into current research and future developments. PMID: 32520005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sipka G, Besenyi Z, Farkas I, Pávics L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Theranostics in prostate cancer].
csi Z Abstract Development of radiochemistry and hybrid technology resulted in a new era in the management of prostate cancer. Choline PET provides more sensitive and accurate diagnosis, and it can support the personalized, metastases-directed therapies. PSMA radioligands are used as theranostics worldwide but are not available in Hungary. 68Ga- or 18F-labelled molecules are excellent diagnostic agents which can detect the primary process and its metastases more sensitively than choline, especially at lower PSA levels. 177Lu-labelled PSMA ligand as a therapeutic pair of the diagnostic molecules can provide an effe...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Garai I, Nagy G, Bátyi F, Hascsi Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Trends of development in CT and MRI doagnostics].
rga K Abstract Modern imaging processes, with CT and MRI diagnostics among them, play an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis and determination of the extent and nature of illnesses and the evaluation of their response to therapy. The authors review the technical and technological improvements that have recently been realised in CT and MRI diagnostics and are being adopted in clinical practice. Relying on the results achieved so far, they are analysing the potential for further development. In both modalities, the primary aim is incessant hardware and software upgrades, the implementation of cost-eff...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Baranyai T, Martos J, Geszler J, Blazsevácz P, Varga K Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Methods of artificial intelligence and their application in imaging diagnostics].
Abstract Artificial intelligence is a dynamically evolving methodology and, due to its large number of methods, its appearance becomes more important not only in industry but also in all disciplines. Diagnostic instrument manufacturers have realized relatively quickly that these types of algorithms can achieve quality improvements and reduce measurement time, which can provide them with a market advantage and more efficient patient care. In this summary, following a methodological overview, we show examples of new applications in the field of medical imaging and image processing. The analysis of the publications a...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emri M Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[The value of artificial and human intelligence - the example of bone scintigraphy].
We present a possible method of Artificial Intelligence (AI) based applications that can effectively filter noise-sensitive bone scintigraphy images. The use of special AI, based on preliminary examinations, allows us to significantly reduce study time or activity administered to the patient, thus reducing the patient, assistant, and physician radiation. We present the features of the AI filtering application, its teaching process, which is important to understand, so that the physician can safely take the processed image of the AI as a "secondary reliable opinion" to help them make a more accurate diagnosis. We ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kovács Á, Légrádi G, Wirth A, Nagy F, Forgács A, Barna S, Garai I, Bükki T Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Methods and feasibilities of texture analysis in PET diagnostics].
Forgács A Abstract One of the current research objectives of medical imaging is to determine the prognostic value of tumor textures and related numerical values. In PET/CT studies the diagnostic and prognostic values of specific texture parameters were confirmed at several tumor types (lung, prostate, cervix, colon, head and neck). However, the results are often contradictory, various publications find different texture parameters useful for the same tumor type. The reason for the contradictions is partly methodological, since the definition and the calculation of texture data is a multi-step process. Such...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Balkay L, Béresová M, Vas FN, Kallos-Balogh P, Forgács A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Molecular basis of hereditary cancers].
ár J Abstract Cancer susceptibility but not specific cancer types can be inherited. This susceptibility(ies) is due to inherited germline mutations of key genes of the controllers of genome integrity, translational control, the cell cycle regulation or even the tumor vascularization. Cancer susceptibility can be manifested in various forms of specific syndromes, each associated with different alterations of genes. Most of these genes are tumor suppressors, and the mutations affect one or both alleles. Interestingly, inherited mutations of oncogenes resulting in cancer susceptibility are much rarer, typicall...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Medical treatment options in BRCA-associated cancers].
e;n Z Abstract Germinal or somatic mutations of the BRCA genes may serve as therapeutic targets. Deficient functioning of the BRCA genes render the cancer vulnerable to such therapeutic interventions as chemotherapy with DNA-targeted agents and PARP inhibitors targeting DNA repair capacity. Although BRCA mutations may be detected in a large variety of cancers, the mentioned specific therapies are efficient in the so called BRCA-associated cancers only including ovarian, breast, pancreatic, prostate cancers and the rare uterine sarcomas. While in ovarian and prostate carcinomas both germinal and somatic, in breast ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kahán Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Molecular genetic methods used in diagnosis of hereditary cancers].
;cs A Abstract The technical developments lead to revolution and speed-up of molecular genetic diagnostics of hereditary cancer syndromes. In those apparently sporadic, solid tumors where the chance of inheritance is higher than 10%, the molecular genetic analysis is indicated. Nowadays these tests are performed using next generation sequencing technologies which allow parallel testing of multiple genes. However, in well-defined cancer syndromes where the clinical presentation clearly suggests the diagnosis and the disease is monogenic, targeted testing is still recommended. Clinical indication of molecular geneti...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Patócs A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Therapeutic aspects of inherited colorectal cancer syndromes].
Abstract Inherited colorectal cancer syndromes account for 6-10% of all cases. The diagnosis of the polypoid forms is easier due to their phenotypes, compared to the non-polypoid cases. The evaluation of the MSI/MMR status of the already developed colorectal cancer cases could help in the recognition and screening of the latter forms. This screening method is much more sensitive than that solely based on family anamnestic data. The MSI/MMR status of the tumor also could help in adjuvant or palliative treatment planning, therefore it is recommended in all colorectal cancer cases. Here we review the available inform...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Uhlyarik A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[When is it necessary to refer a child with cancer to genetic counseling?]
iev K Abstract In the past few years there is an emerging need for clinical genetics counseling in the case of malignant diseases as well. For these reasons a novel professional recommendation has been developed for oncogenetic counseling, whose publication is in progress. In nearly 10% of childhood cancers there is an underlying tumor predisposition syndrome, but this value is thought to be underestimated. Due to the treatment of these cancers and the risk of a possible new developing tumor, genetic counseling is strongly recommended in these children, to establish a correct diagnosis and to evaluate the tumor ri...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ripszám R, Melegh B, Hadzsiev K Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Hereditary haematological malignancies].
ml;dör C Abstract The majority of haematological malignancies represent sporadic diseases, but hereditary entities with predisposing genetic alterations have also been described. Diseases of the myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages with genetic predispositions are associated with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, with many symptoms being specific for certain cytogenetic and molecular aberrations. Apart from the myeloid predisposition syndromes with clear Mendelian inheritance patterns, cases with ambiguous predisposing factors are also known, but their role in hereditary leukemogenesis is still poorly unde...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kotmayer L, Kállay K, Bödör C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes associated with sarcomas].
pai Z Abstract Based on our current knowledge, 5-10% of all malignancies are part of hereditary cancer syndromes. Although the increasing diagnostic role of molecular genetic testing makes us able to recognize more hereditary cancer patients, the careful exploration of family and clinical history by physicians is still the most important step for the diagnosis. In our review we deal with mesenchymal tumours associated with hereditary syndromes. Sarcomas comprise only 1% of all malignancies, but they often associate with familiar diseases so they can serve as an indicator of these syndromes. The diagnosis of heredi...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ecker N, Pápai Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Possibilities of cognitive behavioral therapy in the oncological care].
Abstract Cancer is a huge psychological difficulty both for the patient and the caregivers. Patients often suffer from hopelessness, helplessness, depression, anxiety or other psychological disturbances. Although the cognitive behavioral interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness) are evidence based, short, time-limited, focused treatments for patients with cancer, in Hungary there are only little evidence and experiences about application of cognitive behavioral methods in the oncological care. The main goal of this review to provide a survey about the cognitive behavioral theories and the internati...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vizin G, Farkas K Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Analysis of DNA methylation alterations in cellfree DNA fraction during colorectal cancer development].
;r KB Abstract During colorectal cancer (CRC) development, in addition to genetic alterations, several epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation in the promoter regions accumulate in tumor cells. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the circulatory system can originate also from tumor tissue; therefore the evaluation of methylated cfDNA in the plasma can be a promising method for early cancer screening. In my Ph.D., I have investigated the rate of cfDNA's release and stability using animal models. I aimed to compile an epigenetic marker panel, which contains genes with altered DNA methylation patterns in the healthy-color...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Molnár KB Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Mechanism of tumour vascularisation in experimental lung metastases].
In conclusion, our data show that lung metastases can vascularise by co-opting the pulmonary microvasculature. PMID: 32181766 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Szabó V Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[vestigation of molecular factors determining BRAF-inhibitor sensitivity in solid tumors].
e;r E Abstract Targeted therapy for V600 BRAF mutant solid tumors already exists but resistance to the treatment is still a serious problem to be solved. Moreover, there are currently no approved targeted therapeutic options against non-V600 BRAF mutant tumors. Here we studied targeted therapy resistance mechanisms of V600 BRAF mutant melanoma and also explored potential alternative solutions for their treatment. In V600 BRAF mutant melanoma cells that did not or slightly express PTEN protein, prenylation inhibitor zoledronic acid inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis more profoundly than in melanoma ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Molnár E Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Development and national rollout of electronic decision support systems using artificial intelligence in the field of onco-hematology].
ák I Abstract Systematic, structured and longitudinal collection of realtime Big Patient Data and the analysis of aggregated diagnostic, therapeutic and therapy response data of onco-hematologic patients leads to the development of nationwide dynamic disease registries providing a platform for medical, health industrial and data science research, hospital and health insurance cost analysis, measurement of innovative diagnostics and therapeutics performance, evaluation of compassion-based treatments and general support for insurance and health policy decisions. First in Hungary, we developed a complex comput...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vályi-Nagy I, Peták I Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Importance of next generation sequencing in precision oncology approach of acute myeloid leukemia].
;nyi P, Vályi-Nagy I Abstract In contrast to solid tumours, the genetic background of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a relatively low number of alterations per sample (average 3-5 mutations similarly to paediatric malignancies). Although the mutational background is rather heterogeneous, the detection of genetic alterations has diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic relevance. We investigated cytogenetic and most commonly occurring molecular genetic alterations, and their co-occurrence in 830 AML patients diagnosed and treated in our institute between 2001 and 2019. Results from the recent...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrikovics H, Kövy P, Bors A, Csabán D, Meggyesi N, Õrfi Z, Borsy A, Kozma A, Dolgos J, Harasztdombi J, Mikala G, Reményi P, Vályi-Nagy I Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Optimization of peptide-drug conjugates for targeted tumor therapy].
cute; R, Ranðeloviæ I, Tóvári J Abstract In case of cancers with high mortality rate and lacking efficient medication there is a huge need of new, innovative treatments. Targeted tumor therapy, a real breakthrough in this field, is based on the concept that the antitumor agent is linked to a targeting molecule (e.g. peptide) specifically recognizing receptors or antigens that are tumor specific or overexpressed by tumor cells. The efficiency of this conjugate can be influenced by several factors. Among these, the structure of the targeting device, the type and number of the antitumor drug, ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mezõ G, Biri-Kovács B, Pethõ L, Sabine S, Kiss K, Oláhné Szabó R, Ranðeloviæ I, Tóvári J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Comparison of therapeutic peptides targeting pancreatic cancer].
vács B, Tóvári J, Kõhidai L Abstract Despite the small number of cases, pancreatic cancer is one of the biggest challenges in tumor therapy as its treatment is not yet resolved and the expected 5-year survival rate is only 5%. Therefore, innovative solutions for pancreatic cancer are of great importance. Targeted tumor therapy might provide new possibilities in this field. In our research, we focused on finding peptide-based homing molecules and modified their structure to achieve better targeting properties. We compared several peptides that efficiently recognize receptors that are spe...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mezõ G, Dókus L, Schlosser G, Lajkó E, Szász Z, Ranðeloviæ I, Biri-Kovács B, Tóvári J, Kõhidai L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Allele-specific inhibitors of mutant KRAS are in the focus of RASopathy consortium].
, Tóvári J, Perczel A, Vértessy BG, Tímár J Abstract The RASopathy consortium was built from research groups of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Eötvös Loránd University, Semmelweis University and two startups: KINETO Lab Ltd. and Fototronic Ltd. The goal was to design and test novel covalent and allele-specific KRAS small molecular inhibitors. KRAS is the most frequently mutated human oncogene which was unsuccessfully targeted until recently. The consortium established G12C-expressing bacterial and human cancer cell models (homo- and heterozy...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nyíri K, Koppány G, Pálfy G, Vida I, Tóth S, Orgován Z, Ranðeloviæ I, Baranyi M, Molnár E, Keserû MG, Tóvári J, Perczel A, Vértessy BG, Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Impact of prenylation inhibition on RAS mutant tumors in preclinical studies].
Tímár J Abstract Oncogenic mutation of RAS occurs in 20-25% of all malignancies. Our research group have examined inhibition of RAS prenylation on RAS wild type and RAS mutated melanoma, colorectal cancer and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Effects of clinically approved bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid) and its lipophilic derivate (BPH1222) on cell viability and cell signaling were determined. In models of melanoma and colorectal cancer we found no relevant difference in sensitivity to the drugs in light of RAS mutation presence. In case of lung adenocarcinoma bisphosphonate treatment inhibited both...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Baranyi M, Molnár E, Rittler D, Hegedûs B, Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Subgroup-specific genomic alterations and potential prognostic biomarkers in childhood medulloblastomas].
Gyõrffy B Abstract Despite continuing advances in therapeutic strategies, survival of childhood medulloblastoma (MB) patients has reached a plateau in the past decade. Current clinical approaches divide patients into average- and high-risk treatment categories, although this categorization does not take patient heterogeneity into account. Advanced genomics has initiated an exciting transition that lead to a consensus of four distinct molecular entities within MBs (WNT-activated, SHH-activated, Group 3 MB, and Group 4 MB), each with distinct origins, demographics, molecular alterations and clinical outcomes...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Menyhárt O, Szabó A, Garami M, Gyõrffy B Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[CHEK1 expression and inhibitors in TP53 mutant cancer].
Casanova E, Gyõrffy B Abstract The most frequently mutated gene in human tumors is TP53 and its mutation significantly deteriorates patients' survival. However, to date no targeted therapy is established for TP53 mutated tumors. Here, our aim was to identify druggable kinases with higher expression in TP53 mutated tumors, as well as relate these to altered prognosis. We also aimed to validate a target gene in TP53 wild type and mutant isogenic cell lines using a specific kinase inhibitor. Gene expression and mutation data were collected from 994 lung tumor samples. Samples were separated based on TP53 mutat...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Õsz Á, Aszódi B, Vajda R, Keserû MG, Moll HP, Casanova E, Gyõrffy B Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Preclinical and clinical investigation and development of electromagnetic oncological device - experience with solid tumors].
cute;sz MA, Mbuotidem TJ, Vancsik T, Zolcsák Z, Benyó Z Abstract Our objective was to develop an electromagnetic tumor therapy device in a consortial cooperation between Semmelweis University and Oncotherm Ltd., to provide data and contribute to the development of the next generation of devices through preclinical, clinical and developmental modules via in vivo, in vitro studies, and patient treatments. Our numerous preclinical studies support the efficacy of mEHT. Clinical treatments were performed in 181 patients with inoperable and/or oligometastatic solid tumors. The protocols were developed, an ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dank M, Balogh A, Benedek A, Besztercei B, Danics L, Forika G, Garay T, Hamar P, Karászi Á, Kaucsár T, Kiss É, Krenács T, Major E, Mohácsi R, Portörõ I, Ruisanchez É, Schvarcz C, Szász MA, Mbuotidem TJ, Vancsik T, Zolcsák Z, Benyó Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Mechanism of action of modulated electro- hyperthermia (mEHT) induced tumor damage in colorectal adenocarcinoma models].
ute;, Forika G, Balogh A, Vancsik T Abstract Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer where electric field generated by 13.56 MHz radiofrequency can selectively accumulate in malignant tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. This effect is based on the metabolic shift in cancer cells which upregulates glycolysis even under oxygenated conditions (Warburg effect), resulting in elevated lactate and ion concentration. The concomitant increased permittivity can induce dielectric polarization and rotational friction of dipole molecules resulting in elevated core temperatur...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - December 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Krenács T, Meggyesházi N, Kõvágó C, Kiss É, Forika G, Balogh A, Vancsik T Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
Possible immunotherapies of skin cancers
Abstract Skin cancers represent the most common type of malignancy. The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer depicts a continuous rise worldwide, which is attributed mainly (but not exclusively) to the growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the elderly population. Most skin cancer types are sensitive to immunotherapy. Melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma showed response rates of at least 40% for PD-1 inhibitor therapy as reported in recent articles. In this article we review the current and future immunotherapy agents and procedures for skin cancers. ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lengyel LZS, Gyulai GYR Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Role of T cells in tumor immunology and immunotherapy].
nyi A Abstract In the immune defense against cancer, cell-mediated adaptive immune response is considered of primary importance, in which T lymphocytes play a key role. Activation, expansion and function of antigen-specific T cells is a multistep process and its outcome depends on the balance of positive and negative regulatory mechanisms controlling each step. Many factors can hamper the development of an efficient antitumor immune response, such as insufficient expression of tumor antigens or of molecules necessary for their processing, inhibitory molecular interactions (e.g. immune checkpoints), immune suppress...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ladányi A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Immunogenomic aspects of tumor progression].
Ladányi A Abstract Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer therefore of the metastatic disease as well. High tumor mutation burden is due to deficiencies of the DNA repair systems and leads to immunosensitivity due to generation of neoantigens. However, APOBEC activation of that system, though increases mutation rate, but causes immunoresistance. Deficient antigen presentation due to HLA class I defects is another major cause of immunoresistance. The contemporary immunotherapies may exploit gene amplification of PD-L1 but if the affected chromosome is damaged IFN activation can be lost, again causing i...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J, Ladányi A Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Predictive diagnostics of the programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) - programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitory therapies].
te;r I, Tímár J Abstract In the past years, immunotherapy emerged as a novel modality of clinical oncology. The development and introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors required the development of companion diagnostics, the PD-L1 protein immunohistochemical tests. Unfortunately, almost all checkpoint inhibitors were exclusively validated by a specific PD-L1 in vitro diagnostic test with its own evaluation protocol. These tests have different diagnostic sensitivity for PD-L1 protein and the evaluation protocols differ in many respects, as cancer and immune cell positivities are considered variousl...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lotz G, Smuk G, Kocsmár É, Kocsmár I, Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Predictive markers of immunotherapy of colorectal cancer].
Abstract Colorectal carcinomas are heterogeneous in their morphologic, immunologic and molecular aspects. The smooth and sharply demarcated medullary carcinomas present with an expansive border and high tumor stroma ratio. The high load of cancer neoantigens as a consequence of microsatellite instability results in numerous reactive regional lymph nodes. In contrast, the low grade, MSS type carcinomas are spiculated, desmoplastic and hard, frequently with smaller and sometimes also desmoplastic lymph node metastases. This macroscopic and histological heterogeneity is mirrored on the immunohistochemical and molecul...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bogner B Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Combination of radiation and immunotherapy in cancer treatment].
acute;r C Abstract It is known since the beginning of the 20th century that ionizing radiation has an effect on the immune system. The abscopal effect was well known but extremely rare. However, many study groups performed intensive preclinical research in the field. One of the most prominent recent developments of medical science is the introduction of modern immunotherapy to the treatment of cancer. The widespread use of immunotherapy drew again the attention to the possible role of radiation in conjunction with immunotherapy. There is growing evidence that ionizing radiation may potentiate the effect of immunot...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lövey J, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Benefits of combining chemotherapy with immuno- oncology therapies or "Is it true that chemotherapy destroys the immune system?"]
[Benefits of combining chemotherapy with immuno- oncology therapies or "Is it true that chemotherapy destroys the immune system?"] Magy Onkol. 2019 Sep 18;63(3):202-207 Authors: Kocsis J Abstract In recent years widespread use of immuno-oncology drugs are in the focus of modern systemic anticancer therapies. Parallel to the evolving role of immune checkpoint inhibitors many people believe that using chemotherapy is coming to an end. Moreover laymen opinions are being communicated about the detrimental role of chemotherapy. The aim of this article is to dissolve this misbelief. The manuscript...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kocsis J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Opportunities that improve the effectivity of immunotherapy, bringing targeted therapies into focus].
l;ronya Z Abstract Immunotherapy is getting more and more successful therapeutic option in case of many cancer types. Despite the clinical effectiveness of checkpoint inhibitor antibodies, long-lasting advantages can only be seen in a part of the patients, which makes necessary to examine immunotherapy more thoroughly. Immunity is influenced by the tumor, its microenvironment, and patient's characteristic and environmental factors. These elements control the strength and duration of antitumor response. Immunotherapeutic response may be more significant and may even last for years in case of hot tumors, while in mo...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maráz A, Varga L, Küronya Z Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Difficulties and prospects in the immunotherapy of gliomas].
In conclusion, although the CNS is not any more considered as an "immunological sanctuary" and despite some encouraging experimental and clinical results in CNS oncotherapy, the routine application of IT in case of MGs is still awaited. PMID: 31533142 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Magyar Onkologia)
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mangel L, Najbauer J, Kajtár B, Pongrácz EJ Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Immunotherapy possibilities and results in breast cancer].
es G Abstract In recent years, a number of tumor types have shown significant therapeutic benefit with immunotherapy. Breast cancer has not been regarded traditionally as a typical immunogenic tumor, however, based on results so far, immunotherapy may play a role in the therapy. The most important change in attitude is that the target of therapy is not the disease but the host. A better understanding of the host's immune system and the process between the tumor and host provides an opportunity for therapeutic intervention, in this case (re-)activating anti-tumor immune processes. The purpose of this summary is to ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rubovszky G, Mûzes G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Possibilities of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer].
aacute;si Z, Reiniger L Abstract Survival of patients with lung cancer is unfavorable. Distant metastasis is detected in more than half of the patients at diagnosis. In advanced stages, platinum-based chemotherapy has been the main therapeutic approach for a long time, however, in 2004 targeted therapies emerged. Recently, PDL1/ PD-1 inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of metastatic lung cancers, for which the therapeutic criteria are increasingly outlined. Based on international and Hungarian data, it is likely that determination of PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor samples may be sufficient for ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Téglási V, Moldvay J, Szállási Z, Reiniger L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors and their treatment].
acute;czy L Abstract Therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) has become widespread in medical oncology, becoming part of the routine treatment for various malignancies. These antibodies induce an anti-cancer immune activation by blocking the natural immunosuppression, which is supposed to protect the human body's healthy cells from destruction by the immune system, caused also by cancers, and as a result, allow the immune system to take part in destroying malignant cells. However, the immune activation created by these molecules is not selective against cancer tissues, therefore adverse events associated...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dienes T, Horváth O, Géczy L Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Possibilities of immunotherapy in cancer patients with autoimmune disease].
otilde; G Abstract The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) opened a new era in anticancer treatment. This type of treatment is beneficial for a subset of patients who had a restricted success in the past. However, manipulation of the immune system may lead to the flare up of preexisting autoimmune diseases, requiring intervention. Furthermore, immune suppression strongly influences the outcome of ICI treatment. The ICI treatment of cancer patients with autoimmune disease is a complex task: pre-treatment assessment of the patients, early management of flare ups, and introduction of effective immune suppression is re...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sütõ G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes: laboratory diagnostics and immunological aspects].
Berki T Abstract Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) are rare neurological disorders, which have similar symptoms, but vary in outcome and treatment strategy. In our retrospective statistical study we evaluated the autoantibody test results of serum and CSF from 2362 patients with suspected PNS and 1034 patients with suspected AE. For autoantibody testing, immunoblot assay (PNS) and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (AE) were used. Autoantibodies were present in 8% of patients with suspected PNS: anti-Yo> anti-Hu> anti-Ma2> anti-CV2> anti-titin> anti...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hayden Z, Böröcz K, Csizmadia Z, Kellermayer Z, Balogh P, Berki T Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Pathological diagnostics of CUP (Cancer of Unknown Primary)].
ár J Abstract CUP (Cancer of Unknown Primary) is a relatively frequent cancer type causing incomparable difficulties in pathological diagnosis as compared to other tumor types. The primary may even remain unknown at authopsy due to microscopic size or previous regression. By applying the biological, epidemiological cancer information it is possible to compose rational pathological differential diagnostic algorithms to define with high probability the primary site of the cancer. The new molecular tests developed for CUP are very helpful especially if they are used in combination with pathological data. ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tímár J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Clinicopathological characterization and autopsybased classification of the Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP) syndrome].
iss A, Schaff Z, Lotz G Abstract Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP) is characterized by metastatic tumor spread without identifiable primary tumor. CUP cohort was selected from 6966 autopsy cases (2001-2014). Type-1 ("clinical") CUPs: primary site was not found clinically but identified by autopsy. Type-2 ("clinicopathological") CUPs: no primary site either clinically or by autopsy. Type-3 ("pathological") CUPs: no tumor was suspected clinically whereas autopsy revealed metastatic spread from unidentifiable source. 2160 malignant tumors were found including 80 CUPs (type-1/2/3: 42...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kocsmár É, Kocsmár I, Karczub J, Istók R, Kiss A, Schaff Z, Lotz G Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Treatment of patients with cancer of unknown primary - possibilities and problems].
sis J Abstract Cancer of unknown primary is a relatively common clinical entity that accounts for 3-5% of all invasive cancers. Clinical entities of this heterogeneous group of diseases can originate from different tissues of the body and be manifested as metastases in different organs. Clinical behavior can be favorable or more often unfavorable. Clinical work-up should be practical and effective while excessive delay can turn clinically treatable disease to untreatable state. Favorable clinicopathologic entities should be treated similarly to known equivalent tumors. Unfavorable clinicopathologic entities should...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Horváth Z, Kocsis J Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Report on current status of Hungarian radiotherapy].
ár C Abstract The purpose of the study is to report the status of Hungarian radiotherapy (RT). In the 13 centers 84 radiation oncologists, 19 residents, 66 physicists and 231 radiotherapy technologists work, and 40 megavoltage units (38 linear accelerators, 2 cobalt units) are in use. HDR afterloader is available in all and CT-simulator in all but one centers. In 2017 33,024 patients received RT, 22,236 were irradiated with MV beams, 1,406 with BT and 9,382 with orthovoltage X-ray. Main indications for BT were gynecological tumors (75%), HDR prostate implants were performed in 3 centers. Due to the recent i...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Major T, Király R, Polgár C Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
[Dose coverage of axillary target volumes using different field arrangements following breast conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer].
cute;r C, Major T Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose coverage of sentinel lymph node (SLN) site, level I, II and III axillary target volumes using different field arrangements (standard or high tangent fields: STgF, HTgF and STgF + axillary-supraclavicular field: ASF) in N0 invasive breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery. In 30 patients the SLN site was marked with titanium clip. They were treated with 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Retrospectively, for the purpose of this study, the SLN site and axillary target volumes were contoured, and three plans were generated f...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bukovszky B, Fodor J, Zongor Z, Mihály D, Mátrai Z, Polgár C, Major T Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research