Esophagus and Stomach
MR imaging has been increasingly used in the diagnostic work-up of benign and malignant conditions of the gastroesophageal tract. The use of an adequate MR imaging protocol is crucial, although standardization of imaging studies is still far from being implemented. Research on MR imaging-based biomarkers show promising results in assessing tumor aggressiveness and prognosis, and in the evaluation of response to treatment, both in esophageal and gastric cancers. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Francesco De Cobelli, Diego Palumbo, Luca Albarello, Riccardo Rosati, Francesco Giganti Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance in Crohn ’s Disease
This article discusses how and when to diagnose Crohn disease with MRE (including discussion of the main differential diagnosis), how to describe the burden of enteric inflammation and its complications, and how to accurately classify disease based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition, brief overviews of expected future MRE developments and alternative imaging modalities are also discussed. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lu ís S. Guimarães, Mary-Louise C. Greer, Jonathan R. Dillman, Joel G. Fletcher Source Type: research

Rectal Cancer
MR imaging plays a crucial role in the post-CRT assessment of rectal cancer; results are used for treatment planning. Radiologists should assess response or progression, possibility of a complete response, risk factors for incomplete resection, and nodal stage. T2-weighted MR imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging yields the best results to identify a complete response, but endoscopy is also very important. Overstaging of transmural and MRF invasion after CRT occur regularly, owing to residual stranding regarded as tumor to err on the safe side. Nodal restaging is a challenge. A structured report format or checklist is re...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Monique Maas, Rebecca A.P. Dijkhoff, Regina Beets-Tan Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fistula-In-Ano
This article explains the pathogenesis of fistula-in-ano and details the different classifications of fistula encountered, describe their features on MR imaging, and explains how imaging influences subsequent surgical treatment and ultimate clinical outcome. Precise preoperative characterization of the anatomic course of the fistula and all associated infection via MR imaging is critical for surgery to be most effective. MR imaging is the preeminent imaging modality used to answer pertinent surgical questions. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Steve Halligan Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Gut in MRI: From the Upper to the Lower Digestive Tract
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrea Laghi Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
MR Imaging of the Shoulder (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance of the Small Bowel
This article summarizes key findings from this guidance and presents practice examples from the authors ’ own institution. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Darren Boone, Stuart A. Taylor Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance in Crohn Disease
This article provides an overview of currently established and emerging MR biomarkers for assessing response to treatment in patients with CD. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Jordi Rimola, Nunzia Capozzi Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance of Small Bowel Tumors
This article describes the MR findings of primary small bowel neoplasms and the MR findings for the differential diagnosis are discussed. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Gabriele Masselli, Marianna Guida, Francesca Laghi, Elisabetta Polettini, Gianfranco Gualdi Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Enema in Rectosigmoid Endometriosis
Intestinal endometriosis occurs in 4% to 37% of women with deep endometriosis (DE). Noninvasive diagnosis of presence and characteristics of rectosigmoid endometriosis permits the best counseling of patients and ensures best therapeutic planning. Magnetic resonance enema (MR-e) is accurate in diagnosing DE. After colon cleansing, rectal distention and opacification improves the performance of MR-e in diagnosing rectosigmoid endometriosis. MR imaging cannot optimally assess the depth of penetration of endometriosis in the intestinal wall. There is a need for multicentric studies with a larger sample size to evaluate reprodu...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Ennio Biscaldi, Fabio Barra, Simone Ferrero Source Type: research

Malabsorption Syndromes, Vasculitis, and Other Uncommon Diseases
MR enterography is frequently ordered for patients with suspected small bowel disorders. In this article, disease-causing malabsorption, vasculitides, and some of the less common small bowel diseases are reviewed. The clinical presentations, diagnostic criteria, and imaging findings of these diseases are discussed. Because the imaging findings in several small bowel diseases are nonspecific and/or overlap, radiologists must correlate clinical data with imaging to develop a narrower differential diagnosis. The unique or characteristic findings in certain diseases are also emphasized. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clin...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel A. Adamo, Shannon P. Sheedy, Christine O. Menias, Michael L. Wells, Jeff L. Fidler Source Type: research

Rectal Cancer
The imaging of rectal cancer has evolved noticeably over the past 2  decades, paralleling the advances in therapy. The methods for imaging rectal cancer are increasingly used in clinical practice with the purpose of helping to detect, characterize and stage rectal cancer. In this setting, MR imaging emerged as the most useful imaging method for primary staging of r ectal cancer; the present review focuses on the role of MR imaging in this regard. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lu ís Curvo-Semedo Source Type: research

Staging of Anal Cancer
Anal cancer is a relatively rare malignancy. Treatment consists of chemoradiation and most patients achieve a complete response. Local evaluation of the T and N stage is performed by MR imaging. Whole-body staging with 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography scans or computed tomography scans is used to detect metastases. T stage is based on tumor size or invasion of organs. N stage is based on nodal location. After chemoradiation, clinical evaluation and MR imaging is used to assess tumor and nodal response. Maximal response is achieved 6  months after chemoradiation. Beware of develo...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Monique Maas, Jeroen A.W. Tielbeek, Jaap Stoker Source Type: research

The Gut in MR Imaging: A Successful Story
The decision regarding the topic of a new issue of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America is not simple, both for the publisher and for the editor. The topic must be innovative, attractive to the reader, and useful in routine practice. Does the topic “the gut in MR imaging” fulfill these important criteria? I am personally convinced of this, and I hope the readers of this issue will also be. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrea Laghi Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Gut in MR Imaging: From the Upper to the Lower Digestive Tract
I can honestly say that I knew nothing about MR imaging of the gut …until now! Thank you Dr Andrea Laghi for creating such a wonderful issue covering such a challenging topic. There are specific topics devoted to disorders of esophagus, stomach, small bowel, large bowel, and the anorectal region. The articles focused on cancer staging will be especially helpful f or all individuals involved in care of these very complex malignancies. I want to thank all of the authors for their wonderful contributions. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Conventional Radiography of the Hip Revisited
This review proposes a structured approach to analyzing conventional radiographs of adult hips by focusing on alterations of radiological bone density, femoral head contours, and the joint space. Conventional radiography enables detecting subtle changes in cortical contours and joint space width due to its high spatial resolution. It is limited to the detection of cortical changes in areas to which the x-ray beam is tangent. It has reduced sensitivity for the detection of trabecular bone and medullary changes. Radiographic findings in common hip disorders, such as osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, transient osteoporosis, and ...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Charbel Mourad, Patrick Omoumi, Jacques Malghem, Bruno C. Vande Berg Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of Paravertebral Ossifications in Ligaments and Bony Vertebral Outgrowths
This article focuses on the variety of imaging features of paravertebral ossifications that are of practical interest in the diagnosis of diseases. The spinal anatomy is reviewed and correlated to paravertebral ligamentous ossifications and their potential clinical impact. A vertebral bony outgrowth is secondary to inflammation or degeneration and can be characterized based on its origin and growth direction, in addition to appreciation of intervertebral disc space preservation or loss. Imaging in rheumatology patients is highlighted because early detection of disease is of increasing importance. A correlation between radi...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Monique Reijnierse Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of Spinal Bony Outlines
The human spine is a highly specialized structure that protects the neuraxis and supports the body during movement, but its complex structure is a challenge for imaging. Radiographs can provide fine bony detail, but lack soft tissue definition and can be complicated by overlying structures. MR imaging allow(s) excellent soft tissue contrast, but some bony abnormalities can be difficult to discern. This makes the 2 modalities highly complementary. In this article, the authors discuss the correlation between radiographic and MR imaging appearances focusing first on disease affecting the vertebral body itself, its surrounding...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Timothy Woo, Prudencia N.M. Tyrrell, Antonello Leone, Francesco Pio Cafarelli, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Victor Cassar-Pullicino Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of the Shoulder
This article discusses the typical findings seen on conventional radiography in 3 common shoulder pathologies, namely glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff pathology, and acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Correlative MR images are used to explain and illustrate the significance of radiographic findings that suggest the presence of underlying shoulder pathology. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Paola Cecy Kuenzer Goes, Mini N. Pathria Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of the Elbow
This article covers the use of radiographs and MR imaging for diagnosing elbow disorders. It concentrates on these techniques, but other imaging techniques including computed tomography, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine are discussed when clinically important. The article covers the use of imaging for specific symptoms including lateral, medial, anterior, posterior and generalized elbow pain, focal swelling, restriction of movement, locking, and neurologic symptoms. Radiographs have been the mainstay of initial imaging of the elbow, while ultrasound examination is often used for soft tissue disease. MR imaging has the adva...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Gina M. Allen, Rowena Johnson Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of Soft Tissues
MR imaging is nowadays regarded as the preferred imaging modality for evaluation of soft tissue lesions. As plain radiographs are often the first step in evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders, identification of subtle soft tissue signs may be helpful to select patients who need to be referred for subsequent MR imaging. Although not very sensitive, certain plain film findings, such as intralesional calcification or gas, may allow one to make to a more specific tissue diagnosis and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures and potential harmful treatment. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Filip M. Vanhoenacker, Frederik Bosmans Source Type: research

Imaging Features of Bone Tumors
This article reviews semiological aspects of bone tumors: patient age, tumor localization, pattern of bone destruction/margins, aggressiveness, growth speed, matrix formation, periosteal reaction, cortical involvement, size, and number of lesions. All aspects are discussed in terms of their appearance on radiographs and MR imaging, with a focus on the correlation between the 2 modalities. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Ioan N. Gemescu, Kolja M. Thierfelder, Christoph Rehnitz, Marc-Andr é Weber Source Type: research

Pitfalls in Pediatric Trauma and Microtrauma
Fractures are common in children, although accurate diagnosis is confounded by mimics of fractures some of which are unique to the pediatric population. Such fracture mimics include developmental variations of the growth plates, normal anatomic structures that simulate fracture lines, and/or metabolic disorders that alter the pattern of ossification. Although subtle clues on plain radiographs may help to discriminate between a true fracture or injury and a fracture mimic, MR imaging may be helpful to eliminate uncertainty or expedite diagnosis. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Sarah D. Bixby Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of the Wrist
In this review article, the authors discuss the imaging features of the most common pathologic conditions of the wrist by putting the emphasis on radiographic and MR imaging correlations. A topographic approach based on the 3 functional columns of the wrist (radial, central, and ulnar) serves as a framework. The pathologic conditions are classified, based on the structures involved, as fractures, ligament injuries, arthropathies, bone abnormalities, and tendinopathies. The authors describe and evaluate classic radiographic signs and explain how they correlate with MR imaging. The advantages and limitations of each techniqu...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Thomas P. Moser, Adriana P. Martinez, Sooheib Andoulsi, J érémy Jeantroux, Étienne Cardinal Source Type: research

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of the Pediatric Knee Growth
This article illustrates the main features related to normal bone growth (growth arrest lines, physeal changes, ossification centers within the epiphysis, hematopoietic marrow within the metaphysis) and physis disappearance ( « FOPE »). Variants in femur (epiphyseal irregularities, subchondral anomalies of posterior condyles, periosteal desmoid), tibia (tibial tuberosity ossification), and patella (dorsal defect, bipartite patella, lower pole fragmentation) are also described. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: H éloïse Lerisson, Céline Tillaux, Nathalie Boutry Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Imaging: Radiographic/MRI Correlation
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Anne Cotten Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Lynne S. Steinbach (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
The Gut in MRI: From the Upper to the Lower Digestive Tract (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - September 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Anteroposterior Radiograph of the Ankle with Cross-Sectional Imaging Correlation
The focus of this article is to illustrate various pathologic entities and variants, heralding disease about the ankle, based on scrutiny of AP radiographs of the ankle, with correlative findings on cross-sectional imaging. Many of these entities can only be detected on the AP ankle radiograph and, if not recognized, may lead to delayed diagnosis and persistent morbidity to the patient. However, a vigilant radiologist, equipped with the knowledge of the characteristic appearance and typical locations of the imaging findings, should be able to make the crucial initial diagnosis and surmise additional findings to be confirme...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - August 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Dana J. Lin, Erin F. Alaia, Ignacio Mart ín Rossi, Jonathan Zember, Zehava Sadka Rosenberg Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Imaging: Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation
Until the 1990s, Radiologists relied on radiographs and computed tomographic scans for imaging evaluation of osseous and soft tissue abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Many of us who trained in that era were taught about the subtle abnormalities on radiographs that could be quite meaningful for diagnosis of  pathologic conditions. Osseous fracture might signify other soft tissue injury associated with trauma, including anterior cruciate ligament tears with Segond fractures of the knee, and labral tears with Hill-Sachs impaction injury of the humeral head. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - August 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lynne S. Steinbach Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Imaging: Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation
Considering that advanced imaging techniques, such as MR imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, are now widely used in clinical practice, describing radiographic features in 2019 may seem somewhat obsolete. However, conventional radiograph prevails as the initial imaging modality in many musculoskeletal disorders as it provides excellent analysis of bone outlines. Moreover, it remains the simplest, most cost-effective, and most readily accessible imaging technique available. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - August 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Anne Cotten Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Joint Effusion and Bone Outlines of the Knee
This article focuses on different types of joint effusion and on the analysis of the bone outlines of the knee, particularly on the lateral view. Systematic analysis of these bone outlines and knowledge of several key points are particularly useful for the depiction of abnormal bone morphology or positioning, and of several conditions, such as trochlear dysplasia, patellar dislocation, impaction fractures, or ligament injuries and avulsion fractures. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Thibaut Jacques, Sammy Badr, Paul Michelin, Guillaume Lefebvre, Julien Dartus, Anne Cotten Source Type: research

Assessment of Cardiotoxicity of Cancer Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is associated with cardiovascular injury, including the development of a cardiomyopathy and vascular remodeling. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is sensitive to detect not only established morphologic and functional abnormalities but also early, potentially reversible, signs of myocardial injury. It robustly detects and quantifies myocardial edema, inflammation, and focal fibrosis, as well as interstitial fibrosis and vascular remodeling. These capabilities support the role of CMR as an excellent tool for evaluating cardiotoxicity. Novel CMR markers may even enhance patient management by facilitating the earl...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Thiago Ferreira de Souza, Thiago Quinaglia, Tomas G. Neilan, Ot ávio R. Coelho-Filho Source Type: research

State-of-the-Art Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia by Stress Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance
Ischemic heart disease remains the foremost determinant of death and disability across the world. Quantification of the ischemia burden is currently the preferred approach to predict event risk and to trigger adequate treatment. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can be a prime protagonist in this scenario due to its synergistic features. It allows assessment of wall motility, myocardial perfusion, and tissue scar by means of late gadolinium enhancement imaging. We discuss the clinical and preclinical aspects of gadolinium-based, perfusion CMR imaging, including the relevance of high spatial resolution and 3-dimensional whol...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Thiago Quinaglia, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Ot ávio R. Coelho-Filho Source Type: research

Assessment of Aortic Stenosis by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This article explores the clinical utility of CMR imaging evaluation. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Miho Fukui, Rong Bing, Marc Dweck, Jo ão L. Cavalcante Source Type: research

Applications of Cardiac MR Imaging in Electrophysiology
The potential role of cardiac MR imaging in the diagnosis, risk-stratification, and treatment of patients with cardiac arrhythmias is rapidly evolving. Beyond substrate identification and characterization, it is now feasible to perform MR imaging –based noninvasive virtual programmed stimulation to identify potential ablation targets. The next phase of MR imaging–guided electrophysiology may involve intraprocedural guidance of electrophysiologic interventions using real-time MR imaging. This review discusses the spectrum of MR imaging ap plications in electrophysiology ranging from those that are established in...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: David R. Okada, Katherine C. Wu Source Type: research

The Value of T1 Mapping Techniques in the Assessment of Myocardial Interstitial Fibrosis
This article reviews available techniques for MF detection, focusing on noninvasive quantification of diffuse fibrosis and clinical applications. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: H élder Jorge Andrade Gomes, Vinícius de Padua Vieira Alves, Marcelo Souto Nacif Source Type: research

T2* Mapping Techniques
This article focuses on the most important aspects of how to perform T2* imaging, from acquisition, to postprocessing, to analyzing the data with clinical concentration. Newer techniques have made T2* mapping more robust and accurate, allowing a broader use of this technique for noncontrast ischemia imaging based on blood oxygen levels, in addition to evaluation of intramyocardial hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Katia Menacho, Amna Abdel-Gadir, James C. Moon, Juliano Lara Fernandes Source Type: research

Comprehensive Assessment of Cardiac Involvement in Muscular Dystrophies by Cardiac MR Imaging
Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetically inherited diseases with irreversible and progressive muscle loss and is associated with cardiac involvement. Particularly in Duchenne and Becker dystrophies, cardiac disorders are the leading causes of mortality. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can detect even incipient myocardial fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement), which has prognostic significance in patients with preserved left ventricular function by echocardiogram and before the onset of symptoms. Early detection of cardiac abnormalities by CMR enables early cardioprotective treatment, leading to a bette...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Gabriela Liberato, Marly Concei ção Silva Source Type: research

The Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Nonischemic Heart Disease
This article reviews the technical aspects of LGE performance and its diagnostic and prognostic implications in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Zorana Mrsic, Negareh Mousavi, Edward Hulten, Marcio Sommer Bittencourt Source Type: research

The Role of Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in the Assessment of Patients with Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has gained significant traction as an imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of individuals with, or at risk for, heart failure. Ventricular arrhythmias, often malignant, may be sequelae of heart failure and arise from fibrosis. Late gadolinium enhancement evaluation by CMR has become a preferred modality to assess individuals at risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias. A spectrum of various pathologies that predispose individuals to malignant ventricular arrhythmias, as well as the usefulness of CMR in their identification and prognostication, are reviewed. (Source: Magnet...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Dahlia Banerji, Dexter Mendoza, Brian B. Ghoshhajra, Sandeep S. Hedgire Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac MR Imaging
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America)
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Clerio F. Azevedo, Roberto C. Cury Source Type: research