William (Bill) Atwell (1939-2019)
Publication date: November 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 23Author(s): (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

IFC - Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 23Author(s): (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Altered rodent gait characteristics after ~35 days in orbit aboard the International Space Station
Publication date: February 2020Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 24Author(s): Andy Kwok, Samuel Rosas, Ted A. Bateman, Eric Livingston, Thomas L Smith, Joseph Moore, David C. Zawieja, Tom Hampton, Xiao W. Mao, Michael D. Delp, Jeffrey S. WilleyAbstractThe long-term adaptations to microgravity and other spaceflight challenges within the confines of a spacecraft, and readaptations to weight-bearing upon reaching a destination, are unclear. While post-flight gait change in astronauts have been well documented and reflect multi-system deficits, no data from rodents have been collected. Thus, the purpose of this s...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Correct modeling results are needed to inform mission planning and shield design
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Tony C. Slaba, Robert C. SingleterryAbstractThere are a large number of modeling results in the literature focused on astronaut protection from solar particle events (SPE) over a broad range of mission architectures. These studies form the basis for shield design and mission planning strategies currently used by NASA. To optimize SPE protection or affect decision making criteria for these missions, one must have an accurate assessment of exposure levels at one or more locations within a vehicle or habitat concept. Such asse...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A commentary on the of the impact of modelling results to inform mission planning and shield design
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Samy El-Jaby, Brent J. Lewis, Leena TomiAbstractA correspondence has been received in reference to a recently published article titled “On the decision making criteria for cis-lunar reference scenarios”. The intent of the paper was to demonstrate: (i) a novel methodology for calculating the dose from solar particle events (SPEs), and (ii) the impact of the SPE parametric model, shield thickness, dose metric, and radiation transport code on choosing a worst-case scenario. This effort assumed a spherical, aluminum...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Factors limiting the duration of artificially induced torpor in mice
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yuri Griko, Ervin Palma, Eugene Galicia, Florian SelchAbstractThe possibility of artificial induction of a torpid state in animals that do not naturally do so, as well as in humans, offers a great potential in biomedicine and in human spaceflight. However, the mechanisms of action that provide a coordinated and concomitant downregulation with a safe recovery from this state are poorly understood. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the metabolic rate of mice can be reduced by nearly 94% and can remain stable under h...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Altered Rodent Gait Characteristics after ∼35 Days in Orbit aboard the International Space Station
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Andy Kwok, Samuel Rosas, Ted A. Bateman, Eric Livingston, Thomas L Smith, Joseph Moore, David C. Zawieja, Tom Hampton, Xiao W. Mao, Michael D. Delp, Jeffrey S. WilleyAbstractThe long-term adaptations to microgravity and other spaceflight challenges within the confines of a spacecraft, and readaptations to weight-bearing upon reaching a destination, are unclear. While post-flight gait change in astronauts have been well documented and reflect multi-system deficits, no data from rodents have been collected. Thus, the purpose o...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effect of simulated microgravity and ionizing radiation on expression profiles of miRNA, lncRNA, and mRNA in human lymphoblastoid cells
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Hanjiang Fu, Fei Su, Jie Zhu, Xiaofei Zheng, Changhui GeAbstractIn space, multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and space radiation, pose a constant threat to astronaut health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs that play critical roles in regulating multiple cellular processes. To gain insight into the role of non-coding RNAs in response to radiation and microgravity, we analyzed RNA expression profiles in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells incubated for 24 h unde...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

EcAMSat spaceflight measurements of the role of σs in antibiotic resistance of stationary phase Escherichia coli in microgravity
We report the results of the EcAMSat (Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Satellite) autonomous space flight experiment, investigating the role of σs in the development of antibiotic resistance in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) in microgravity (µ-g). The presence of σs, encoded by the rpoS gene, has been shown to increase antibiotic resistance in Earth gravity, but it was unknown if this effect occurs in µ-g. Two strains, wildtype (WT) UPEC and its isogenic ΔrpoS mutant, were grown to stationary phase aboard EcAMSat, an 11-kg small satellite, and in a parallel ground-based control experiment; cell gr...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - November 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Acute Radiation Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategies in Near Future Exploration Spaceflights
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): S. Hu, J.E. Barzilla, E. SemonesAbstractAs more exploration spaceflights are planned to travel beyond the protective Earth magnetosphere to deep space destinations, acute health risks due to possible high radiation doses during severe Solar Particle Events (SPEs) are of greater concern to mission planners and management teams. It is expected that some degree of Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) symptoms may be observed, but the specific list of health risks that are relevant to exploration missions has been ambiguous and debat...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Semi-continuous fermentation of solid waste in closed artificial ecosystem: microbial diversity, function genes evaluation
In this study, solid wastes including wheat straw, human and yellow mealworm feces were disposed in a semi-continuous bio-convertor for 105 days in a ground-based experimental BLSS platform (Lunar Palace 1). Solid wastes at different periods were sampled and the microbial community variation, functional genes and metabolic pathways were analyzed. The results showed phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in all samples. While microbial community structures at genus level were significantly different, indicating selective enrichment during the 105-day process. The abundance of functional gene related...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predictions of Cognitive Detriments from Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures to Astronauts on Exploration Missions
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Francis A. Cucinotta, Eliedonna CacaoABSTRACTFor the first-time we report on predictions on cognitive detriments from galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures on long-duration space missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere and solid body shielding. Estimates are based on a relative risk (RR) model of the fluence response for proton and heavy ion in rodent studies using the widely used novel object recognition (NOR) test, which estimates detriments in recognition or object memory. Our recent meta-analysis showe...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Regenerative water purification for space applications: needs, challenges, and technologies towards 'closing the loop'
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Melanie T. Pickett, Luke Roberson, Jorge Calabria, Talon Bullard, Gary Turner, Daniel H. YehAbstractHuman missions to establish surface habitats on the Moon and Mars are planned in the coming decades. Extraplanetary surface habitat life support systems (LSS) will require new complexity to withstand these unique, harsh environments. In order to provide safe, habitable environments for the crew, water purification systems that are robust and reliable must be in place. These water purification systems will be required to treat ...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Report of the Joint Workshop on Induced Special Regions
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Michael Meyer, Corien Bakermans, David Beaty, Douglas Bernard, Penelope Boston, Vincent Chevrier, Catharine Conley, Ingrid Feustel, Raina Gough, Timothy Glotch, Lindsay Hays, Karen Junge, Robert Lindberg, Michael Mellon, Michael Mischna, Clive Neal, Betsy Pugel, Richard Quinn, Francois Raulin, Nilton RennóAbstractThe Joint Workshop on Induced Special Regions convened scientists and planetary protection experts to assess the potential of inducing special regions through lander or rover activity. A Special Region is def...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Zoster Patients on Earth and Astronauts in Space Share Similar Immunologic Profiles
DiscussionThe pattern of immune dysregulation in zoster patients is similar to that of astronauts during spaceflight who shed VZV DNA in their saliva. Because future deep space exploration missions will be of an unprecedented duration, prolonged immune depression and chronic viral reactivation threaten to manifest overt disease in exploration class astronauts. (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Changes of Brain DTI in healthy human subjects after 520 days isolation and confinement on a simulated mission to Mars
DiscussionLong-term confinement does have measurable effects on the microstructure of the brain white matter. We assume effects of sensory deprivation to account for the regional FA reductions seen in the right TPJ. The differences in the Corpus callosum were interpreted as due to preliminary conditions, e.g. personality traits or training effects. FA and radial diffusivity were the predominant DTI parameters with significant changes, suggesting underlying processes of myelin plasticity. (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - October 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Special issue: Planetary Protection: new aspects of policy and requirements
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Francois Raulin, Athena Coustenis, Gerhard Kminek, Niklas Hedman (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - September 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Radiation environment created with GCRs inside a spacecraft
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): M.I. Dobynde, Y.Y. ShpritsAbstractWe use the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo code to calculate radiation dose equivalent due to GCR during an out-of-magnetosphere space flight. We provide a detailed analysis of radiation dose composition, distinguishing between the contribution of primary GCR particles and different species of secondary particles. We show that for realistic spacecraft shielding, the radiation dose equivalent is mostly determined with GCR protons and alphas. The radiation dose is lower behind a shielding with a larger r...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The transfer of unsterilized material from Mars to Phobos: laboratory tests, modelling and statistical evaluation
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): M.R. Patel, V.K. Pearson, D.J. Evans, D.J. Summers, S. Paton, P. Truscott, T. Pottage, A. Bennett, J.P.D. Gow, M.D. Goodyear, J.P. Mason, M.R. Leese, R.D. PatelAbstractSample return missions to Phobos are the subject of future exploration plans. Given the proximity of Phobos to Mars, Mars’ potential to have supported life, and the possibility of material transfer from Mars to Phobos, careful consideration of planetary protection is required. If life exists, or ever existed, on Mars, there is a possibility that material ...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Planetary Protection Classification of Samples Returned from the Martian Moons: Summary of a Review by the European Science Foundation and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): David H. Smith, Emmanouil DetsisAbstractThis work summarizes the review undertaken by a joint committee of the European Science Foundation and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine into the transfer of viable organisms from the surface of Mars to its moons—Phobos and Deimos—as a consequence of a giant impact on the martian surface. The possibility that viable organisms could survive ejection from Mars and subsequent deposition on Phobos or Deimos is an important consideration in determining ...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

IFC - Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 22Author(s): (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - August 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

High density long-term cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris SAG 211-12 in a novel microgravity-capable membrane raceway photobioreactor for future bioregenerative life support in SPACE
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Harald Helisch, Jochen Keppler, Gisela Detrell, Stefan Belz, Reinhold Ewald, Stefanos Fasoulas, Arnd G. HeyerAbstractHybrid life support systems are of great interest for future far-distant space exploration missions to planetary surfaces, e.g. Mars, planned until 2050. By synergistically combining physicochemical and biotechnological algae-based subsystems, an essential step towards the closure of the carbon loop in environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) shall be accomplished, offering a wide beneficial potent...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - August 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Lung Cancer Progression Using Fast Switching Multiple Ion Beam Radiation and Countermeasure Prevention
In this study we show that whole-body irradiation with H→He→Si increases the incidence of premalignant lesions and systemic oxidative stress in mice 100 days post-irradiation more than (Si→He→H) and H only irradiation. Additionally, we observed an increase in adenomas with atypia and adenocarcinomas in H→He→Si irradiated mice but not in (Si→He→H) or H (30 cGy) only irradiated mice. When we used the H→He→Si irradiation sequence but skipped a day before exposing the mice to Si, we did not observe the increased incidence of cancer initiation and progression. We also found that...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Measurements of Radiation Quality Factor on Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector
We report the first long-term measurements of the radiation quality factor of energetic charged particles on the surface of Mars. The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, also known as Curiosity, has been operating on Mars since 2012. RAD contains thin silicon detectors that record the ionization energy loss of energetic charged particles. The particles are dominantly galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the products of their interactions in the Martian atmosphere, with occasional contributions from solar energetic particles (SEPs). The quality factor on the surface of Mars is influenced...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Assessment of the probability of microbial contamination for sample return from Martian moons I: Departure of microbes from Martian surface
This article is the first part of our study to assess potential microbial density in Mars ejecta departing from the Martian atmosphere, as a source of the second part where statistical analysis of microbial contamination probability is conducted. Potential microbial density on the Martian surface as the source of microorganisms was estimated by analogy to the terrestrial areas having the similar arid and cold environments, from which a probabilistic function was deduced as the asymptotic limit. Microbial survival rate during hypervelocity meteoroid collisions was estimated by numerical analysis of impact phenomena with and...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, biomass yield and quality of tomato using aeroponics, hydroponics and porous tube-vermiculite systems in bio-regenerative life support systems
The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of different nutrient delivery systems (aeroponics, hydroponics and porous tube-vermiculite) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, biomass yield and quality of tomato during its life cycle. The results showed that the dry weight of aeroponics and porous tube-vermiculite treatment group was 1.95 and 1.93 g/fruit, but the value of hydroponics treatment group was only 1.56 g/fruit. Both tomato photosynthesis and stomatal conductance maximized at the development stage and then decreased later in senescent leaves. At the initial stage a...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparison of space radiation GCR models to AMS heavy ion data
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Kathryn Whitman, John W. Norbury, Kerry Lee, Tony C. Slaba, Francis F. BadaviAbstractGalactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a constant source of radiation that constitutes one of the major hazards during deep space exploration missions for both astronauts and hardware. In this work, GCR models commonly used by the space radiation protection community are compared with recently published high-precision, high-resolution measurements of cosmic ray lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen fluxes along with their ratios (Li/B...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Assessment of the probability of microbial contamination for sample return from Martian moons II: The fate of microbes on Martian moons
We examined the spatial distribution of potential impact-transported microbes on the Martian moons using impact physics by following a companion study (Fujita et al., in submission). We used sterilization data from the precede studies (Patel et al., 2018; Summers, 2017). We considered that the microbes came mainly from the Zunil crater on Mars, which was formed during 1.0–0.1 Ma. We found that 70–80% of the microbes are likely to be dispersed all over the moon surface and are rapidly sterilized due to solar and galactic cosmic radiation except for those microbes within a thick ejecta deposit produced by natural...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects Of Exposure To 12c And 4he Particles On Cognitive Performance Of Intact And Ovariectomized Female Rats
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Bernard M. Rabin, Marshall G. Miller, Alison Larsen, Christina Spadafora, Nicholas N. Zolnerowich, Lorraine A. Dell'Acqua, Barbara Shukitt-HaleAbstractExposure to the types of radiation encountered outside the magnetic field of the earth can disrupt cognitive performance. Exploratory class missions to other planets will include both male and female astronauts. Because estrogen can function as a neuroprotectant, it is possible that female astronauts may be less affected by exposure to space radiation than male astronauts. To eva...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Advances in Space Radiation Physics and Transport at NASA
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): John W. Norbury, Tony C. Slaba, Sukesh Aghara, Francis F. Badavi, Steve R. Blattnig, Martha S. Clowdsley, Lawrence H. Heilbronn, Kerry Lee, Khin M. Maung, Christopher J. Mertens, Jack Miller, Ryan B. Norman, Chris A. Sandridge, Robert Singleterry, Nikolai Sobolevsky, Jan L. Spangler, Lawrence W. Townsend, Charles M. Werneth, Kathryn Whitman, John W. WilsonAbstractThe space radiation environment is a complex mixture of particle types and energies originating from sources inside and outside of the galaxy. These environments may b...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) for Space Application: Design and Validation
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Kianoosh Peyvan, Fathi Karouia, John J. Cooper, Jeff Chamberlain, Dominic Suciu, Michael Slota, Andrew PohorilleAbstractIn order to facilitate studies on the impact of the space environment on biological systems, we have developed a prototype of GEMM (Gene Expression Measurement Module) - an automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for in-situ measurements of gene expression in microbial samples. The GEMM instrument is capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3)...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gravity-regulated localization of PsPIN1 is important for polar auxin transport in etiolated pea seedlings: Relevance to the International Space Station experiment
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Motoshi Kamada, Mariko Oka, Riko Inoue, Yayoi Fujitaka, Kensuke Miyamoto, Eiji Uheda, Chiaki Yamazaki, Toru Shimazu, Hiromi Sano, Haruo Kasahara, Tomomi Suzuki, Akira Higashibata, Junichi UedaAbstractTo clarify the mechanism of gravity-controlled polar auxin transport, we conducted the International Space Station (ISS) experiment “Auxin Transport” (identified by NASA's operation nomenclature) in 2016 and 2017, focusing on the expression of genes related to auxin efflux carrier protein PsPIN1 and its localization in t...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Individual features of play behavior in thick-toed geckos in weightlessness and normal gravity conditions
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): V.M. Barabanov, V.I. Gulimova, R.K. Berdiev, S.V. SavelievAbstractThe object play behavior in thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY 1864) was studied during a 30-day orbital experiment onboard the Bion-M1 biosatellite. The play object for five geckos was a marking collar that one of the geckos in the flight group removed immediately before the launch. The play behavior started when either the gecko observed the approaching floating collar or when the gecko independently approached the stationary collar, followed by man...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mars sample receiving facility or facilities? that is the question
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Michel VisoAbstractTo return samples from Mars is a major goal of the scientific community studying the origin of life, looking for extraterrestrial forms of life, and studying the planets and their evolution. NASA and ESA are preparing such a mission which is currently categorized by COSPAR as restricted Earth return. This will strongly constrain the management of the returned samples until they are certified safe. This certification will be obtained after preliminary studies conducted in specialized and dedicated facilities. T...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Planetary protection technologies for planetary science instruments, spacecraft, and missions: Report of the NASA Planetary Protection Technology Definition Team (PPTDT)
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): John D. Rummel, D.E. PugelAbstractPlanetary bodies like Mars, Europa, and Enceladus pose the question, “How to study them without contaminating them and destroying future prospects to detect life, if it is there?” The natural trade-off, of course, is that the cleaner your spacecraft, the more you can explore such a body without contaminating it. As chartered by NASA Headquarters, the Planetary Protection Technology Definition Team (PPTDT) was asked to provide a report covering six different areas related to the engi...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Modelling the transfer of life from Mars to its moons
We describe a model of transfer of material from Mars to its moons, and the sterilization that material goes through in that transfer. This is used to gain understanding of if there is viable life on Mars, would that also be on the Martian moons. As Mars is under Planetary Protection, this work looks at should the Martian moons also be under Planetary Protection due to the transfer of unsterilized material. (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - June 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of skeletal unloading on the bone marrow antibody repertoire of tetanus toxoid and/or CpG treated C57BL/6J mice
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Trisha A. Rettig, Nina C. Nishiyama, Michael J. Pecaut, Stephen K. ChapesAbstractSpaceflight is known to impact the immune system in multiple ways. However, its effect on the antibody repertoire, especially in response to challenge, has not been well characterized. The development of the repertoire has multiple steps that could be affected by spaceflight, including V-(D-)J-gene segment rearrangement and the selection of complementarity determining regions (CDRs); specifically, CDR3, responsible for much of the diversity in the ...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Changes in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the hearts of mice exposed to space environment-relevant doses of oxygen ions (16O)
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Isabelle R. Miousse, Charles M. Skinner, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, John W. Seawright, Preeti Singh, Reid D. Landes, Amrita K. Cheema, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Marjan Boerma, Igor KoturbashABSTRACTCardiovascular disease constitutes an important threat to humans after space missions beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. Epigenetic alterations have an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Previous research in animal models has shown that protons and 56Fe ions cause long-term changes in DNA methylation an...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - May 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

IFC - Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 21Author(s): (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A Summary on Cutting Edge Advancements in Sterilization and Cleaning Technologies in Medical, Food, and Drug Industries, and Its Applicability to Spacecraft Hardware
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Raffaele Gradini, Fei Chen, Richmund Tan, Laura NewlinAbstractIssued primarily by COSPAR (the Committee On SPAce Research), international planetary protection policies mandate that all spacecraft hardware in contact with extraterrestrial environments “of chemical evolution and/or origin of life interest and for which scientific opinion provides a significant chance of contamination which could compromise future investigations” (Kminek and Rummel, 2015) undergo biological burden control processes. These policies seek ...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Current Status of Space Radiobiological Studies in China
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Weiwei Pei, Wentao Hu, Zhifang Chai, Guangming ZhouAbstractAfter successfully launching two space laboratories, Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2, China has announced her next plan of constructing the China Space Station (CSS) in 2022. The CSS will provide not only platforms for Chinese scientists to carry out experimental studies in outer space but also opportunities for open international cooperation. In this article, we review the development of China's manned space exploration missions and the preliminary plan for CSS. Besides, China...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - May 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The response of Daphnia magna Straus to long-term exposure to simulated geomagnetic storms
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Viacheslav V. Krylov, Elena A. OsipovaAbstractThe capability of Daphnia magna to adapt to artificial low-frequency magnetic fields via a maternal effect has been demonstrated previously. The current study assessed the possibility of a maternal effect in response to simulated natural geomagnetic fluctuations. D. magna lines were exposed to simulated geomagnetic storms for two, five, and eight sequential generations. Evaluations were conducted on the 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations of daphnids from experimental and control lines i...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Research plans in Europe for radiation health hazard assessment in exploratory space missions
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): L. Walsh, U. Schneider, A. Fogtman, C. Kausch, S. McKenna-Lawlor, L. Narici, J. Ngo-Anh, G. Reitz, L. Sabatier, G. Santin, L. Sihver, U. Straube, U. Weber, M. DuranteAbstractThe European Space Agency (ESA) is currently expanding its efforts in identifying requirements and promoting research towards optimizing radiation protection of astronauts. Space agencies use common limits for tissue (deterministic) effects on the International Space Station. However, the agencies have in place different career radiation exposure limits (f...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A micro-Raman and X-ray study of erupted submarine pyroclasts from El Hierro (Spain) and its' astrobiological implications
Publication date: May 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 21Author(s): E. Lalla, A. Sanz-Arranz, G. Lopez-Reyes, K. Cote, M. Daly, M. Konstantinidis, J.A. Rodriguez-Losada, G. Groemer, J. Medina, J. Martínez-Frías, F. Rull-PérezAbstractThe pumice volcanic samples could have possible connections to the evolution of life and give us insight about their bio-geochemical processes related. In this regard, the samples from the volcanic eruption from La Restinga (El Hierro, Spain) in 2011 have been mainly studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The research also includes analysis of XRD, Scann...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A micro-Raman and X -ray study of erupted submarine pyroclasts from El Hierro (Spain) and its' astrobiological implications
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): E. Lalla, A. Sanz-Arranz, G. Lopez-Reyes, K. Cote, M. Daly, M. Konstantinidis, J.A. Rodriguez-Losada, G. Groemer, J. Medina, J. Martínez-Frías, F. Rull-PérezAbstractThe pumice volcanic samples could have possible connections to the evolution of life and give us insight about their bio-geochemical processes related. In this regard, the samples from the volcanic eruption from La Restinga (El Hierro, Spain) in 2011 have been mainly studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The research also includes analysis of...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ray-Tracing Simulation of the Radiation Dose Distribution on the Surface of the Spherical Phantom of the MATROSHKA-R Experiment Onboard the ISS
We present a numerical method for the fast calculation of the radiation dose rate during a space flight. We demonstrate its application for the first and the second sessions of the MATROSHKA-R space experiment with the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom. The main advantage of the method is the short simulation time, so it can be applied for urgent radiation dose calculations for low-Earth orbit space missions.The method uses depth-dose curve and shield-and-composition distribution functions to calculate a radiation dose at the point of interest. The spacecraft geometry is processed into a shield-and-composition distributi...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Early Seedling Response of Six Candidate Crop Species to Increasing Levels of Blue Light
This study examines the influence of monochromatic and dichromatic red and blue light on the early development of six food crop species; Cucumis sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Raphanus sativus, Pisum sativum, and Capsicum annum. Results support previous findings that light responses are often species specific. The results also support the assertion that monochromatic light can interfere with the normal interaction of various photoreceptors (co-action disruption) resulting in intermediate and sometimes unpredictable responses to a given light environment. The nature of the responses reported inform both bioregen...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Lacuna in the Updated Planetary Protection Policy and International Law
This article discusses the flight characteristics of two specific missions, one launched and one in development, which are consistent with the PPP but nonetheless pose a substantial risk of biological contamination of celestial bodies. The manner in which the risks can be reduced is identified, and suggestions are made to close some of the gaps that remain in the PPP to comply with international law. (Source: Life Sciences in Space Research)
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - March 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

On the Decision Making Criteria for Cis-Lunar Reference Mission Scenarios
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Samy El-Jaby, Brent Lewis, Leena TomiAbstractSpace agencies are currently developing reference mission scenarios to determine if occupational dose limits, already adopted for low-Earth orbit (LEO) missions to the International Space Station (ISS), are also applicable for deep space cis-lunar missions. These cis-lunar missions can potentially last upwards of a year, during which astronauts will experience a daily low-dose from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and a potentially high-dose from single, or multiple, solar particl...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - March 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Production of nitrates and perchlorates by laser ablation of sodium chloride in simulated Martian atmospheres. Implications for their formation by electric discharges in dust devils
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Pável U. Martínez-Pabello, Rafael Navarro-González, Xavier Walls, Teresa Pi-Puig, José L. González-Chávez, José G. de la Rosa, Paola Molina, Olivia ZamoraAbstractNitrates and perchlorates are present both on Earth and Mars. In the Martian environment perchlorates dominate over nitrates whereas on Earth is the other way around. This implies that the mechanisms responsible for their formation are different for both planets. The chemical elements required for their formation are...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research