A plausible connection: Models examining the relations between evaluation, plausibility, and the refutation text effect
We examined undergraduate students' critical evaluations and plausibility perceptions of climate change when reading two different types of text: expository and refutation. Our findings show that greater critical evaluation and higher plausibility related to more knowledge after reading, but only with the refutation text. Furthermore, we found that greater plausibility had a stronger effect on knowledge after reading the refutation text, whereas greater background knowledge had a stronger effect on knowledge after reading the expository text. We also examined changes in students' plausibility and knowledge. There was signi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Decorative pictures and emotional design in multimedia learning
This study examines four groups of decorative pictures which might be conducive for learning. Eighty-two students were randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (emotionally positive vs. emotionally negative pictures) × 2 (school context vs. leisure context pictures) between-subjects, factorial design. The dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance are examined as possible mediators. Results show that either positively valenced pictures or learning pictures foster retention and transfer performance. Pleasure is identified as mediator of the effect between valence of pictures and learning performance. A furth...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Schema-based instruction: Effects of experienced and novice teacher implementers on seventh grade students' proportional problem solving
This study examined the effects of a research-based intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), implemented by experienced- (taught SBI in previous study; Jitendra et al., 2015) and novice-teacher implementers (taught SBI for the first time with professional development) on the mathematics outcomes of seventh-grade students. SBI is a multicomponent intervention that emphasizes the mathematical structure of problems through the use of schematic diagrams and incorporates problem solving and metacognitive strategy instruction. Results indicated that both experienced- and novice-teacher implementers delivered SBI with simila...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When being worse helps: The influence of upward social comparisons and knowledge awareness on learner engagement and learning in peer-to-peer knowledge exchange
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 44 Author(s): Josephine Neugebauer, Devin G. Ray, Kai Sassenberg Providing learners with awareness of a learning partner's knowledge supports knowledge exchange. However, such knowledge awareness enables social comparison. Because people strive for positive self-evaluation, we propose that less knowledgeable learners who rely on social comparisons for self-evaluation will be motivated to increase their engagement in response to awareness of a more knowledgeable learning partner's knowledge. We tested our hypothesis in two experiments in which we sta...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Metacognitive judgments and disfluency – Does disfluency lead to more accurate judgments, better control, and better performance?
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 44 Author(s): Elisabeth Pieger, Christoph Mengelkamp, Maria Bannert Theories of metacognition assume that better monitoring leads to better control and performance. Furthermore, monitoring accuracy is often low because students are overconfident (absolute accuracy) and unable to discriminate comprehension of different text-passages (relative accuracy). Fluency seems to be a cue for metacognitive judgments, and therefore, reducing fluency should lead to less automatic processing, lower judgments, and better absolute and relative accuracy. Because the...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning from video modeling examples: Content kept equal, adults are more effective models than peers
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 44 Author(s): Vincent Hoogerheide, Margot van Wermeskerken, Sofie M.M. Loyens, Tamara van Gog Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the effectiveness of modeling examples. Findings have been mixed, however, possibly because manipulations of MOS were often associated with differences in example content a...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Engagement as an inherent aspect of the learning process
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Monique Boekaerts This commentary describes the contribution of each individual paper to our understanding of engagement, as well as evaluating whether together these papers achieve the editor's goal of developing an emerging consensus on the meaning and measurement of this construct. Individually these papers extend our understanding of specific aspects of engagement and contextual effects on engagement in important ways, but together have fallen short of the ambitious goal of bringing the different conceptualizations, measuremen...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of two types of task instructions on literary text comprehension and motivational and affective factors
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 44 Author(s): Sofie Henschel, Christel Meier, Thorsten Roick This experimental study investigated the effects of two types of task instructions on text comprehension, motivation, and emotional involvement. In all, 226 9th graders in low academic tracks were randomly assigned to complete reader-oriented (RO), text-based (TB), or no tasks after reading literary texts to elaborate their mental text representation. Whereas RO tasks encouraged emotional engagement and indirectly stimulated text analysis through creative activities, TB tasks focused on co...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A two-process model of metacognitive monitoring: Evidence for general accuracy and error factors
We examined the latent structure of metacognitive monitoring judgments using hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis to compare five competing theoretical models with respect to domain-specific versus domain-general monitoring processes. We expected our results to support a domain-general monitoring model. Of the five models, the domain general monitoring model provided the best fit. In this model, level-1 domain-specific accuracy and error factors for each of the three tests loaded on second-order domain-general accuracy and error factors, which then loaded on a third-order general monitoring factor. This model suggest ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Student engagement, context, and adjustment: Addressing definitional, measurement, and methodological issues
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Jennifer A. Fredricks, Michael Filsecker, Michael A. Lawson The goal of this special issue is to examine relationships among context, student engagement, and adjustment. We begin by describing the reasons for the increased popularity of student engagement in research, policy, and practice, and then describe how researchers in the field define and study this construct. Next, we outline some of the issues and challenges around the definitions, measurement, and analytic techniques that have been used in prior research. Finally,...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences in the process of relational reasoning
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): Emily M. Grossnickle, Denis Dumas, Patricia A. Alexander, Peter Baggetta The ability to discern meaningful patterns—relational reasoning—has been identified as a process important for student learning and cognition. Yet, research has typically investigated performance over processing, particularly when examining the role of factors such as working memory capacity. Moreover, studies have focused on analogical reasoning to the exclusion of other identified relational forms (i.e., anomaly, antinomy, antithesis). Study 1 invest...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teachers' explicit expectations and implicit prejudiced attitudes to educational achievement: Relations with student achievement and the ethnic achievement gap
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): E.R. Peterson, C. Rubie-Davies, D. Osborne, C. Sibley In this paper, we consider whether teachers' explicit and implicit prejudiced attitudes underlie the ethnic achievement gap. To date, most research on teacher expectation effects has relied on explicit expectation measures that are prone to social desirability biases. In contrast, we examine the effects of teachers' (a) explicit ethnicity-based expectations for academic achievement and (b) implicit prejudiced attitudes about academic achievement on students' actual academic success ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relationship between single digit addition strategies and working memory reflects general reasoning sophistication
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): Jacob M. Paul, Robert A. Reeve With age, children employ increasingly more sophisticated strategies to solve single-digit addition (SDA) number fact problems. Changes in SDA strategy-use are correlated with age-related changes in cognitive measures (e.g., working-memory capacity, WM); however, this correlation does not explain the basis of SDA strategy-use or change per se. Does strategy-use reflect differences in generally reasoning abilities or are they uniquely tied to SDA abilities? Answers to these questions would help clarify the n...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Math and Science Engagement Scales: Scale development, validation, and psychometric properties
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Ming-Te Wang, Jennifer A. Fredricks, Feifei Ye, Tara L. Hofkens, Jacqueline Schall Linn There is an urgent need to develop appropriate instruments to measure student engagement in math and science for the fields of research and practice. The present study developed and validated student- and teacher-report survey measures of student engagement in math and science. The measures are built around a multidimensional perspective of engagement by using a bifactor modeling approach. The sample was recruited from an ethnically and ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mind wandering, control failures, and social media distractions in online learning
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): R. Benjamin Hollis, Christopher A. Was Mind wandering often leads to performance and accuracy errors during activities that are demanding and require concentration. Students are often asked to concentrate on demanding tasks in their studies, and by the nature of this principle, off-task thinking would inherently be prohibitive to their success. Further, the distracting nature of social media and technology may greatly increase the likelihood of mind wandering when students are engaged in online learning, requiring them to engage with sai...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): Erik A. Ruzek, Christopher A. Hafen, Joseph P. Allen, Anne Gregory, Amori Yee Mikami, Robert C. Pianta Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in t...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using qualitative methods to develop a survey measure of math and science engagement
In this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 106 students from sixth to twelfth grade and 34 middle and high school teachers about how they conceptualized math and science engagement and disengagement. Our qualitative analysis of student and teacher interviews supported the multidimensional construct of engagement outlined in the academic literature. Our analysis also revealed additional indicators that have been included in prior measures of engagement less frequently. We then described how we used this qualitative information from students and teachers to develop and validate a new student self-report measure of ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Instructional methods and languages in class: A comparison of two teaching approaches and two teaching languages in the field of intercultural learning
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): Vera Busse, Ulrike-Marie Krause The article presents the results of a quasi-experimental intervention study with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We implemented a problem-based intercultural learning unit in four secondary schools (grades 9 to 12) and varied the teaching approach (analytical/affective-experiential) and the language of instruction (German/English). The learning unit covered six 45-min lessons and was conducted in nine school courses (n = 143). Five additional school courses (n = 66) serve...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How do types of interaction and phases of self-regulated learning set a stage for collaborative engagement?
This study investigates how self-regulated learning phases are related to collaborative engagement in two different collaborative task conditions. It integrates SRL theory and the concept of engagement, including interaction in collaboration, as key characteristics of engagement. Forty-four second-year teacher education students worked in groups during a 7-week math didactic course. We collected 84 h of video recordings and coded the group's cognitive and socioemotional interaction and three phases of self-regulation within interaction, including forethought, performance and reflection. After that we analyzed the rela...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Integrating the light and dark sides of student engagement using person-oriented and situation-specific approaches
This study contributes to the research on student engagement in three ways: 1) by combining questionnaire and situational measures of engagement using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 2) by applying a demands-resources model to describe the positive and negative aspects of student engagement, and 3) by adopting a person-oriented approach to describe subgroups of students with different profiles of engagement and burnout symptoms. Two studies were conducted: sample one comprised 255 US high school students (45.5% female, 9th – 12th grade), and sample two 188 Finnish comprehensive and high school students (59.6% f...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Solving arithmetic problems in first and second language: Does the language context matter?
In conclusion, providing a language context enhanced arithmetic performances in bilinguals' second instruction language. This finding entails implications for designing optimal mathematic learning environments in multilingual educational settings. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why students become more engaged or more disengaged during the semester: A self-determination theory dual-process model
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Hyungshim Jang, Eun Joo Kim, Johnmarshall Reeve We adopted a dual-process model within a self-determination theory framework to investigate why students sometimes veer toward a longitudinal trajectory of rising classroom engagement during the semester and why they other times tend toward a trajectory of rising disengagement. Measures of perceived autonomy support, perceived teacher control, need satisfaction, need frustration, engagement, and disengagement were collected from 366 (174 females, 192 males) Korean high-school st...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Student engagement as a function of environmental complexity in high school classrooms
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): David J. Shernoff, Sean Kelly, Stephen M. Tonks, Brett Anderson, Robert F. Cavanagh, Suparna Sinha, Beheshteh Abdi The purpose of this study was to investigate the linkage between the quality of the learning environment and the quality of students' experience in seven high school classrooms in six different subject areas. The quality of the learning environment was conceptualized in terms of environmental complexity, or the simultaneous presence of environmental challenge and environmental support. The students (N =&n...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Improving problem solving with subgoal labels in expository text and worked examples
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 42 Author(s): Lauren E. Margulieux, Richard Catrambone In highly procedural problem solving, procedures are typically taught with context-independent expository text that conceptually describes a procedure and context-dependent worked examples that concretely demonstrate a procedure. Subgoal labels have been used in worked examples to improve problem solving performance. The effect of subgoal labels in expository text, however, has not been explored. The present study examined the efficacy of subgoal labeled expository text and worked examples for pro...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stigma and stratification limiting the math course progression of adolescents labeled with a learning disability
This study uses data on adolescents and their teachers from The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to show the negative effect of LD designations on adolescents' math course attainment is partially mediated by disparities in adolescents' earlier math course placements, and teachers' more negative attributions and expectations. Results indicate addressing low achievement through LD designations may reproduce disadvantage through stigma and stratification. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-regulated learning processes vary as a function of epistemic beliefs and contexts: Mixed method evidence from eye tracking and concurrent and retrospective reports
The objective of the current studies was to investigate how epistemic cognition related to specific phases and components of self-regulated learning and its adaptation to learning conditions of varying quality. In a multi-study, mixed method design, we presented university students with science content that relayed conceptual discrepancies and collected quantitative and qualitative data to study how students responded to discrepancies. In Study 1 (n = 42), we collected eye tracking patterns, study times, and metacognitive ratings and found that participants adapted their behavioral processing as a function of the...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dimensional comparisons in students' perceptions of the learning environment
This study aims to add empirical evidence to the generalized internal/external frames of reference (GI/E) model, according to which students' social and dimensional achievement comparisons might not only be related to students' self-concepts but also to perceptions of the learning environment. In a sample of N = 4926 German students, math and language achievements were measured along with two facets of students' perceptions of the learning environment, i.e., perceived instructional quality of math and language classes and perceived relations to math and language teachers. In the GI/E path model, achievement and p...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The development of achievement emotions and coping/emotion regulation from primary to secondary school
This study reports on the development of achievement emotions and coping/emotion regulation in primary to secondary school-aged children and adolescents. Based on two longitudinal cohorts (Grades 2–5; Grades 4–7), latent growth models were used to analyze the development of achievement emotions and coping strategies separately as well as simultaneously. The results show that enjoyment decreases across grades, whereas boredom increases, with substantial changes between Grade 5 and Grade 7. Consistently, the development of enjoyment is positively associated with the development of problem-focused coping and palli...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Recognizing socially shared regulation by using the temporal sequences of online chat and logs in CSCL
In conclusion, individual socially shared regulation plays a critical role in successful collaborative learning. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intraindividual relations between achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: An experience sampling approach
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Thomas Goetz, Fabio Sticca, Reinhard Pekrun, Kou Murayama, Andrew J. Elliot Theories on the link between achievement goals and achievement emotions focus on their within-person functional relationship (i.e., intraindividual relations). However, empirical studies have failed to analyze these intraindividual relations and have instead examined between-person covariation of the two constructs (i.e., interindividual relations). Aiming to better connect theory and empirical research, the present study (N = 120 10th grade stude...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why leave the classroom? How field trips to the church affect cognitive learning outcomes
This article is the first to present data on learning outcomes in an out-of-school learning setting in religious education and the findings add to the relevant theories about field trips. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of multitasking on retention and topic interest
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Muhterem Dindar, Yavuz Akbulut A recent and pervasive “urban legend” in education describes contemporary students as digital natives and effective multitaskers. The current study investigated the effects of sequential and concurrent multitasking scenarios on content retention and topic interest in a multimedia learning environment. Five hundred and seventy two undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the seven conditions in which either sequential or concurrent multitasking scenarios were simulated through a...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moderating effects of executive functions and the teacher–child relationship on the development of mathematics ability in kindergarten
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Clancy Blair, Rachel D. McKinnon Academic preparedness, executive function abilities, and positive relationships with teachers have each been shown to be uniquely important for school readiness and success in the early elementary grades. Few studies, however, have examined the joint influence of these readiness variables on early school outcomes. Using data from a prospective longitudinal sample of 1292 children and families in predominantly low-income and rural communities, we found that executive function at child age 48 months and ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How repeated studying and testing affects multimedia learning: Evidence for adaptation to task demands
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Alexander Eitel Two biases can occur in multimedia learning: overconfidence and over-reliance on text processing. The present research sought to identify these biases and to investigate whether they can be reduced, and hence learning fostered, when studying and testing are repeated. In 2 experiments (Exp.1: N = 79, Exp.2: N = 52), students learned either with text only or with text and pictures (multimedia) about how the toilet flush works, gave judgments-of-learning (JOLs), were tested on the learning contents; aft...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comprehension processes and outcomes with refutation and expository texts and their contribution to learning
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Irene-Anna N. Diakidoy, Thalia Mouskounti, Argyro Fella, Christos Ioannides The study compared the comprehension processes and outcomes obtained with refutation and expository text and their association with learning outcomes. After a knowledge pretest, undergraduate students read an extended expository text or a corresponding refutation text that addressed three potential misconceptions about the scientific concept of energy. Think-aloud, cued recall, and posttest data indicated that the positive impact of refutation text was more ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Solution strategies and adaptivity in multidigit division in a choice/no-choice experiment: Student and instructional factors
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Marije F. Fagginger Auer, Marian Hickendorff, Cornelis M. van Putten Adaptive expertise in choosing when to apply which solution strategy is a central element of current day mathematics, but may not be attainable for all students in all mathematics domains. In the domain of multidigit division, the adaptivity of choices between mental and written strategies appears to be problematic. These solution strategies were investigated with a sample of 162 sixth graders in a choice/no-choice experiment. Children chose freely when to apply whi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

2015 Open Call for a Special Issue
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Consistent advantages of contrasted comparisons: Algebra learning under direct instruction
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Esther Ziegler, Elsbeth Stern Contrasted comparisons are an effective means of concept learning. Many studies have investigated the effects of comparisons in self-learning settings. However, because direct instruction remains a widespread instructional method, we adapted self-learning materials from a previous experiment that demonstrated the benefits of a contrasted introduction of algebraic addition and multiplication for direct instruction at the blackboard. Ninety-eight sixth-graders were randomly assigned to two groups: in the co...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognition and classroom quality as predictors of math achievement in the kindergarten year
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): A. Nayena Blankson, Clancy Blair Using a sample of 171 children, we examined classroom quality as a potential moderator of the link between three distinct but related aspects of cognition (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and executive functioning) and math achievement across the kindergarten year. Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to account for nesting of students within classrooms. Results revealed significant aptitude by treatment interactions for fluid and crystallized intelligence, suggesting that classro...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of content and language integrated learning on students' English and history competences – Killing two birds with one stone?
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Sara Dallinger, Kathrin Jonkmann, Jan Hollm, Christiane Fiege By failing to appropriately control for selection effects, most previous research has overestimated the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) on the development of students' foreign language skills. Furthermore, the CLIL-effect on the content subject is still widely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated skill development of 1806 German CLIL and non-CLIL eighth-graders in English and History controlling for a wide range of student, classro...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A multi-user virtual environment to support students' self-efficacy and interest in science: A latent growth model analysis
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Jason A. Chen, M.Shane Tutwiler, Shari J. Metcalf, Amy Kamarainen, Tina Grotzer, Chris Dede Using latent growth models, we explored: (a) The effect of middle school students' (n = 189) pre-intervention science self-efficacy and science interest on their initial interest in an Ecosystems Multi-User Virtual Environment (EcoMUVE) and the rate of change in their interest in EcoMUVE; and (b) the mediating effect of students' initial interest in EcoMUVE and rate of change in interest on students' post-intervention science self...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are both classroom autonomy support and structure equally important for students' engagement? A multilevel analysis
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Virginie Hospel, Benoît Galand The current study was carried out within the framework of self-determination theory and aimed to investigate specific, additive and combined effects of teachers' autonomy support and structure on students' engagement. Using multilevel analyses, main effects and interaction of autonomy support and structure provided at the classroom level were tested on behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement. 744 ninth grade students from 51 classes completed a questionnaire about their engagement during lan...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do gestures matter? The implications of using touchscreen devices in mathematics instruction
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Adam K. Dubé, Rhonda N. McEwen Touchscreen devices are increasingly used in education and are a predominant tool for everyday knowledge search. An assumption about the nature of touchscreen devices is that users intuitively understand them, which improves access to knowledge. Using a framework that includes concepts from cognitive psychology, information studies, and communication theory we explored whether users' physical interactions on a touchscreen device have consequences for their conceptual understanding of content &ndas...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Spontaneous focusing on numerosity and the arithmetic advantage
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Sophie Batchelor, Matthew Inglis, Camilla Gilmore Children show individual differences in their tendency to focus on the numerical aspects of their environment. These individual differences in ‘Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity’ (SFON) have been shown to predict both current numerical skills and later mathematics success. Here we investigated possible factors which may explain the positive relationship between SFON and symbolic number development. Children aged 4–5 years (N = 130) completed a battery of t...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Weak versus strong knowledge interdependence: A comparison of two rationales for distributing information among learners in collaborative learning settings
This study illustrates how collaborative and individual learning activities interrelate, and that a slightly modified jigsaw-type script makes a valuable addition to an instructor's toolbox. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Further evidence that concept mapping is not better than repeated retrieval as a tool for learning from texts
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): M. Teresa Lechuga, Juana M. Ortega-Tudela, Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza Karpicke and Blunt (2011) showed in college students that retrieval practice produced more learning from educational texts than concept mapping on a 1-week delayed test. This finding is surprising since concept mapping is thought to involve elaborative processing. Hence, the present study (N = 84; 76 females) aimed to examine whether the advantage of repeated retrieval remains when concept mapping is performed by ad hoc trained students or students who ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Selfish learning: The impact of self-referential encoding on children's literacy attainment
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): David J. Turk, Karri Gillespie-Smith, Olave E. Krigolson, Catriona Havard, Martin A. Conway, Sheila J. Cunningham Self-referencing (i.e., thinking about oneself during encoding) can increase attention toward to-be-encoded material, and support memory for information in adults and children. The current inquiry tested an educational application of this ‘self reference effect’ (SRE) on memory. A self-referential modification of literacy tasks (vocabulary spelling) was tested in two experiments. In Experiment 1, seven-to n...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adulthood temperament and educational attainment: A population-based cohort study
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): S. Mullola, M. Hintsanen, M. Elovainio, L. Pulkki-Råback, J. Lipsanen, K. Josefsson, T. Lehtimäki, O.T. Raitakari, L. Keltikangas-Järvinen The aim of the study was to examine the associations of temperament traits and temperament profiles (i.e., the combinations of multiple traits) with adulthood educational attainment. The participants were 837 women and 592 men from a population-based cohort study. Temperament was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on the Psychobiological Model o...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How do contrasting cases and self-explanation promote learning? Evidence from fraction division
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Pooja G. Sidney, Shanta Hattikudur, Martha W. Alibali Past research has shown that both contrasting cases instruction and prompts to self-explain promote students' learning in mathematics. However, it is not clear whether these instructional approaches enhance learning through similar mechanisms or whether each supports learning in distinct ways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the unique and combined effects of comparison, defined as noticing similarities and differences, and explanation, defined as making sense of prob...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Experiencing fear appeals as a challenge or a threat influences attainment value and academic self-efficacy
In this study we examined how the appraisal of fear appeals might also influence subsequent attainment value and academic self-efficacy. Self-report data were collected from 1433 students in their final two years of secondary education over three waves. Findings revealed that when students saw fear appeals as a challenge attainment value and academic self-efficacy were higher. When students saw fear appeals as a threat, attainment value and academic self-efficacy were lower. These results highlight the functional importance of how fear appeals are appraised. Challenge and threat appraisals were not mere by products of atta...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research