Effectiveness and efficiency of adding drawing prompts to an interactive educational technology when learning with visual representations
Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Sally P.W. Wu, Martina A. Rau This paper investigates whether prompting students to draw their own visual representations enhances students’ learning from technology-based instructional activities with visual representations. Seventy-two undergraduate students were randomly assigned to receive an educational technology with (1) drawing prompts throughout instruction, (2) drawing prompts before and after instruction, or (3) no drawing prompts. We assessed learning outcomes with respect to instructional effectiveness and effic...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning by enacting: The role of embodiment in chemistry education
This study investigated the value of enactment when learning chemistry using 3D molecular models in video and classroom lectures. We hypothesized that students who used models to enact demonstrated concepts would learn more than those who only watched a model-supported demonstration. Students watched a video lecture in a small classroom in Study 1 and a live lecture in a large lecture hall in Study 2. In both studies, one group watched and enacted the instructor's model-supported demonstration and the second group watched without enacting. In both contexts, students learned more if they enacted the demonstration than if th...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Quality of educational dialogue and association with students ’ academic performance
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Heli Muhonen, Eija Pakarinen, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen, Helena Rasku-Puttonen The study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the associations between the quality of educational dialogue and students' academic performance and to analyse what kinds of dialogic teaching patterns of different levels of quality can be identified in classroom lessons. A total of 158 Grade 6 lessons were video-recorded, and the quality of the educational dialogue was assessed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Seconda...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Testing the internal/external frame of reference model of academic achievement and academic self-concept with open self-concept reports
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Fabian Wolff, Nicole Nagy, Friederike Helm, Jens Möller The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model) describes the relations between math and verbal achievement and self-concept. Whereas math and verbal achievement are positively associated with the corresponding self-concept, they are negatively associated with the non-corresponding self-concept. As yet, investigations of the I/E model have concentrated on quantitative self-concept assessments in closed-ended questionnaires. The present study aims to investi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Girls get smart, boys get smug: Historical changes in gender differences in math, literacy, and academic social comparison and achievement
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Philip D. Parker, Brooke Van Zanden, Rhiannon B. Parker Girls’ lack of self-belief has frequently been cited as a major barrier to advancement in both empirical research and in the popular imagination. With girls now outcompeting boys at almost every educational level, this paper considers if girls still have lower self-concept than boys, if this changes when controlling for academic ability, and what mechanisms explain gender differences. We compare and contrast rational choice, contrast, and assimilation approaches to s...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpersonal adaptation in teacher-student interaction
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Helena J.M. Pennings, Mieke Brekelmans, Pamela Sadler, Luce C.A. Claessens, Anna C. van der Want, Jan van Tartwijk Teacher-student relationships play a crucial role in the quality of teaching and learning. Daily interpersonal interactions in classrooms are the building blocks of teacher-student relationships. With the aim to add to insights on teaching and learning, we specifically explored interpersonal adaptation in daily interactions. Adaptation, i.e., how people respond to each other's actions and reactions, is a defining c...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interaction-based coding of scaffolding processes
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Rico Hermkes, Hanna Mach, Gerhard Minnameier In this article, we present a methodology for measuring scaffolding in small group classroom settings. We have investigated scaffolding by analysing teacher-student-interactions and developed an instrument to code student level of attainment and teacher strength of intervention as the relevant student and teacher variables. For the construction of interaction patterns the coded variables were related to each other. In order to assess the resulting interaction patterns for scaffolding...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Spontaneous orientation towards irrelevant dimensions of magnitude and numerical acuity
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Arnaud Viarouge, Philippine Courtier, Manon Hoppe, Juliette Melnik, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst When comparing collections of objects on the basis of their number, children can be influenced by non-numerical dimensions of magnitude such as size or density. By devising a new tool for assessing children's spontaneous orientation towards different dimensions of magnitude (SOMAG), we investigated the role of non-symbolic dimensions of magnitude in the development of numerical representations from a perspective of in...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning more from feedback: Elaborating feedback with examples enhances concept learning
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Bridgid Finn, Ruthann Thomas, Katherine A. Rawson Two experiments investigated whether elaborating practice-test feedback with conceptual examples could increase conceptual understanding. In the present study, participants studied psychology terms and definitions. During the practice test phase, the definition was presented and participants attempted to recall the corresponding concept term. Immediately after responding, half of the participants were given feedback that provided the correct term. The other half was shown the co...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Classroom assignments as measures of teaching quality
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Jeanette Joyce, Drew H. Gitomer, Charles J. Iaconangelo We investigate classroom assignments and resulting student work to identify important characteristics of assignments in terms of instructional quality and their validity as measures of teaching quality. We examine assignment quality within a large-scale project exploring multiple measures including classroom observations, teacher knowledge measures, and value-added estimates based on student achievement scores. Analyses included descriptive statistics, multivariate analyse...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The conceptual overlap between arithmetic and algebraic referential mapping
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Judi Humberstone, Robert A. Reeve To investigate whether arithmetic and algebra referential mapping entail similar or different representational processes, 135 13-year-olds participated in a three-phase study. In Phase 1 (the pre-algebra phase) students solved arithmetic and algebraic equations and mapped arithmetic equations (e.g., 5 + = 9) onto simple arithmetic word problems. Nine months later (Phase 2), with the assistance of problem-solving hints provided by an interviewer, students mapped symbolic equations onto...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Student emotions in class: The relative importance of teachers and their interpersonal relations with students
This study highlights the importance of teachers in relation to the emotions students experience in class. First, in line with the work of Kenny, we argue that the specific relationship that evolves between teachers and students drives students' emotional experiences. We decompose variability in student emotions not only into the commonly investigated student and teacher facets but also into facets representing specific pairings of teachers with classes and students (so-called relationship effects). Second, using interpersonal theory, we assess the degree to which the interpersonal quality of teaching accounts for variabil...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Instructional sensitivity in vocational education
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Viola Deutscher, Esther Winther Apprentices' performance after vocational educational training (VET) is commonly attributed to the effectiveness of the training. This implies the assumption that learners’ development of vocational knowledge and ability is significantly affected by vocational instruction. However, the few analyses that have been made of instructional sensitivity within the general school-based educational system, have in most cases shown little or no effect of instruction (time in school) on performance in ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Room quality and composition matters: Children's verbal and numeracy abilities in Australian early childhood settings
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Frank Niklas, Collette Tayler Early literacy and numeracy competencies are an important foundation for successful school achievement. In this large-scale study data from over 2000 Australian children who attended formal early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings were analysed to identify predictors of these competencies. In addition to child and family characteristics, the quality and the composition of the attended ECEC rooms were included in hierarchic linear models. A significant amount of variance of both, verbal and...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotionally supportive classroom interactions and students' perceptions of their teachers as caring and just
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Luciano Gasser, Jeanine Grütter, Alois Buholzer, Alexander Wettstein Emotionally supportive classrooms represent an important interactional context for the development of positive perceptions of student–teacher relationships. The present study investigated how students' perceptions of teacher care and justice develop over the upper elementary grades. Moreover, we studied to what degree teachers' observed emotional support predicts changes in perceptions of teacher care and justice in students with and without risks fo...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using sequence mining to reveal the efficiency in scientific reasoning during STEM learning with a game-based learning environment
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Michelle Taub, Roger Azevedo, Amanda E. Bradbury, Garrett C. Millar, James Lester The goal of this study was to assess how metacognitive monitoring and scientific reasoning impacted the efficiency of game completion during learning with Crystal Island, a game-based learning environment that fosters self-regulated learning and scientific reasoning by having participants solve the mystery of what illness impacted inhabitants of the island. We conducted sequential pattern mining and differential sequence mining on 64 undergraduate ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reciprocal relations between students ’ academic enjoyment, boredom, and achievement over time
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): David W. Putwain, Sandra Becker, Wendy Symes, Reinhard Pekrun The control-value theory (CVT) proposes that achievement emotions and academic achievement show reciprocal effects over time. Previous studies have examined how achievement emotions predict subsequent achievement. However, evidence is limited for whether achievement can also predict achievement emotions. To examine these reciprocal relations, data were collected about two achievement emotions: enjoyment and boredom, and mathematics achievement over four waves in a sin...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The perception of control as a predictor of emotional trends during gameplay
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Claudia Schrader, Ulrike Nett The present study investigated the effect of perceived control on trends of discrete achievement emotions during learning using a tower defense game designed for teaching human liver functionalities. A total of 124 students (Mage = 22.89 years; SDage = 3.01 years; 54.8% female) were randomly assigned to play one of three game versions (high, moderate or reduced control condition). The perception of control and achievement emotions, namely enjoyment, boredom, anger, and frustration,...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inducing adaptive emotion regulation by providing the students' perspective: An experimental video study with advanced preservice teachers
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Irina Rosa Kumschick, Valentina Piwowar, Felicitas Thiel Is it possible to promote the use of reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy during teachers’ processing of classroom disruptions? We assume that teachers who are aware of the student perspective use reappraisal more often than teachers who are not aware of the student perspective. In order to test this hypothesis, we presented several video cases that illustrated a problematic classroom situation to preservice teachers in an experimental design. In addition, we p...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of daily autonomous and controlled educational goals in students ’ academic emotion states: An experience sampling method approach
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Elina E. Ketonen, Julia Dietrich, Julia Moeller, Katariina Salmela-Aro, Kirsti Lonka The present study examines antecedents of university students' academic emotions (Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002) in the context of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000), using real-time assessment and intra-individual analyses. We investigated whether daily autonomous and controlled-motivated educational goals predicted students' academic emotions. University students (N = 55) completed smartphone d...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Beware of your teaching style: A school-year long investigation of controlling teaching and student motivational experiences
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis, Athanasios Mouratidis, Ermioni Katartzi, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Symeon Vlachopoulos Relatively little research drawing from self-determination theory has examined the links between controlling teaching environments and student motivation. To this end, two longitudinal studies were conducted to explore how students’ perceptions of controlling teaching behavior and experiences of psychological need frustration were associated with a number of motivation-related outcomes over...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Morphological training in spelling: Immediate and long-term effects of an interventional study in French third graders
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Séverine Casalis, Sébastien Pacton, Françoise Lefevre, Michel Fayol (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Strengthening networks: A social network intervention among higher education teachers
This study examined the extent to which such teaching networks could be strengthened during a professional development (PD) program. An intervention was designed to evaluate whether the development of teaching networks was affected in terms of network composition and access to teaching content. Longitudinal ego-network data of Belgian university teachers (N = 38, 1670 ties) were collected over a two-year time period. Multilevel analyses showed that the intervention group developed larger networks and increased network dynamics, compared to the control group. The intervention group also developed more diverse netw...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Variation in situation-specific engagement among lower secondary school students
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Sanni Pöysä, Kati Vasalampi, Joona Muotka, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Jari-Erik Nurmi The majority of previous research has examined school engagement as an overall student characteristic. The present study contributes to the field by examining variation in students' situation-specific engagement from one lesson to another and by investigating situational determinants of such variation. An intensive one-week lesson-to-lesson data collection was conducted in four lower secondary school classrooms. Stude...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inauthentic expressions of enthusiasm: Exploring the cost of emotional dissonance in teachers
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Jamie L. Taxer, Anne C. Frenzel Research on teacher enthusiasm has, to date, neglected how expressing enthusiasm influences teachers, particularly if they do not enjoy teaching at sufficiently high levels. To address this issue, we investigated whether teachers express teaching enthusiasm and experience teaching-related enjoyment at varying levels, and if so, how these varying levels relate to teachers' occupational well-being. In a preliminary study, we investigated whether teachers' (N = 67) and students' (N = ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive load and self-regulation: Attempts to build a bridge
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Monique Boekaerts The editors of the Special Issue called for a more integrative approach to the study of cognitive load and self-regulation. The goal formulated for the Special Issue is ambitious. In my role as a constructive critic, I first summarized the findings in the 6 papers, identifying important questions and concerns that emerged while reading the papers. I also identified some general issues that need further clarification and elaboration: I argued that there is a strong need to reach consensus on the conceptualization an...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does children's dialect awareness support later reading and spelling in the standard language form?
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Evdokia Pittas, Terezinha Nunes (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Leveraging social networking sites for knowledge co-construction: Positive effects of argumentation structure, but premature knowledge consolidation after individual preparation
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Dimitra Tsovaltzi, Raluca Judele, Thomas Puhl, Armin Weinberger Social Network Sites (SNS) like Facebook bear potential for collaboration through rich social interactions, but the shared arguments are often poorly elaborated, and lack epistemic quality. In a controlled 2 × 2 study (N = 128), we investigated how individual preparation and argumentation scripts can support argumentative knowledge co-construction in Facebook. Individual preparation has been shown to motivate participants, activate prior knowle...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Identifying determinants of teachers' judgment (in)accuracy regarding students' school-related motivations using a Bayesian cross-classified multi-level model
In this study, we investigated to what extent groups of characteristics (i.e., student, information, teacher, and class characteristics) derived from the Realistic Accuracy Model (Funder, 1995) are relevant for explaining differences in teachers' judgment accuracy regarding students' school-related self-concept and autonomous motivation. Data from 1239 students and 341 teachers were analyzed using a Bayesian cross-classified multi-level modeling approach. Our analyses showed that variance in teacher judgments is largely due to variation at the level of judgments and less due to variation in the slope (i.e., the accuracy of...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Medical students' biomedical and clinical knowledge: Combining longitudinal design, eye tracking and comparison with residents' performance
This study combines longitudinal and individual process-level analyses to investigate medical students' biomedical knowledge and how they generate a diagnosis for a patient case text. The diagnostic processes were investigated using the eye-tracking method, and students' processes were compared with those of residents. The results showed that students differed in their diagnostic performance in the beginning of the clinical phase. Of the students who had biomedical misconceptions in the preclinical phase, 69% ended up with an incorrect diagnosis, while 60% of students with accurate biomedical knowledge made a correct diagn...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bridging Cognitive Load and Self-Regulated Learning Research: A complementary approach to contemporary issues in educational research
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Anique B.H. de Bruin, Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer The aim of this Introduction to the Special Issue ‘Bridging Cognitive Load and Self-Regulated Learning Research’ is to explore how cognitive load theory, which is particularly relevant for how learners deal with complex information, and self-regulated learning theory, which is particularly relevant for how learners use information to monitor and control their learning, can be combined into one joint research paradigm that is relevant for contemporary and future devel...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Conceptual explanations and understanding fraction comparisons
In this study we challenge the notion that conceptual explanations indicate general understanding by showing that – although conceptual explanations are strongly associated with correct answers – they are not employed equally across different contexts, and the highest performing students tend to use more general explanations, which may or may not be conceptual. Overall, our results suggest that explanations of fraction magnitudes follow a learning trajectory reflected in students’ accuracy and explanations: weak students focus on concrete, non-conceptual features, stronger students use concepts to explain...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are reading difficulties associated with bullying involvement?
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Tiina Turunen, Elisa Poskiparta, Christina Salmivalli Reading difficulties (RDs) are easily noticed by classmates, may cause frustration in the affected students, and are often accompanied by emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems at school. Although interviews with students with RDs have revealed bullying experiences, whether RDs actually increase the risk of bullying involvement has not been investigated before. We tested the association of self-reported RDs with peer-reported involvement in bullying in a nationally repr...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perspective matters: The internal/external frame of reference model for self- and peer ratings of achievement
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Thomas Lösch, Augustin Kelava, Benjamin Nagengast, Ulrich Trautwein, Oliver Lüdtke The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model posits that students' academic self-concept in one domain (e.g., math) is positively associated with achievement in the same domain but negatively associated with achievement in a comparison domain (e.g., English). Whereas academic self-concept encompasses self-ratings of achievement, peer academic reputation (PAR) encompasses peer ratings of the same achievement and PAR was shown to have a...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Should self-regulated learning be integrated with cognitive load theory? A commentary
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): John Sweller, Fred Paas Research on either cognitive load theory or self-regulated learning usually proceeds without reference to the other theory. In this commentary, we have commented on the editorial introduction and the six papers included in this Special Issue intended to indicate possible links between the two theories. To assist in this process, we have analysed some of the characteristics of both theories that either facilitate or impede the establishment of links. We conclude that while links are possible, the many differenc...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What you see is what you remember? Depictions of historical figures influence memory for historical facts
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Martin Merkt, Stephan Schwan We investigated whether the characteristics of pictures affect memory for verbal learning materials. In the learning phase, participants watched a slideshow about historical figures that were depicted as more or as less powerful. The slideshow included spoken information that was more prototypical for either powerful or powerless people and thus semantically congruent (e.g., depiction and verbal information rated as powerful) or incongruent with the pictures. Congruency resulted in more errors when partic...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of fluency training on reading competence in primary school children: The role of prosody
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Nuria Calet, Nicolás Gutiérrez-Palma, Sylvia Defior Reading fluency defined as speed, accuracy, and prosody, is a critical component of reading development. The purpose of this research was to compare the efficacy of automaticity versus prosody programmes on reading comprehension. The study included 122 Spanish primary-school children (74 second and 48 fourth graders), randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) automaticity training, which consisted of repeated reading with a focus on speed and accuracy plus pho...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why do experts disagree? The role of conflict topics and epistemic perspectives in conflict explanations
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Eva Thomm, Sarit Barzilai, Rainer Bromme The present study examined the role of conflict topics and individual differences in epistemic perspectives (absolutism, multiplism, and evaluativism) in students' explanations of expert conflicts. University students (N = 184) completed an epistemic thinking assessment and a conflict explanation assessment regarding two controversies in biology and history. Additionally, thirty students were interviewed and provided detailed conflict explanations that were used to interpret and exte...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning subject content through a foreign language should not ignore human cognitive architecture: A cognitive load theory approach
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Stéphanie Roussel, Danielle Joulia, André Tricot, John Sweller Several widely implemented educational approaches aim to provide academic content in a foreign language. While Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) works because it focuses both on content and on foreign language learning, approaches aiming at transmitting academic content through a foreign language should not be implemented without explicit foreign language instructional support. Based on cognitive load theory, there are theoretical reasons to hy...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Manipulating cognitive engagement in preparation-to-collaborate tasks and the effects on learning
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Rachel Lam, Kasia Muldner While collaborating with a peer can be highly beneficial for learning, more work is needed to understand how instructional activities in collaborative contexts should be designed so as to maximize learning outcomes. To address this, we investigated the impact of different types of preparatory and cognitively engaging tasks on learning from collaborating, using a 2 × 2 experimental study conducted in situ in four introductory psychology classes. We compared individual preparation versus no-pre...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fourth-grade emergent bilinguals' uses of functional grammar analysis to talk about text
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Carrie Symons, Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar, Mary J. Schleppegrell While decades of research on reading comprehension strategy instruction has yielded significant insights into the effective use of comprehension strategies, less is known about how students—in particular students who are learning English as an additional language—can leverage their knowledge of language to make meaning with text. This descriptive case study provides insight into the ways talk about language, using a functional grammar, supports a group of ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How to sequence video modeling examples and inquiry tasks to foster scientific reasoning
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Juliane M. Kant, Katharina Scheiter, Kerstin Oschatz Scientific reasoning skills can be acquired through technology-enhanced inquiry tasks or video modeling examples showing how to conduct virtual experiments. However, inquiry tasks can be cognitively demanding for novice learners, whereas video modeling examples can induce overconfidence. The present study investigated the effectiveness of both approaches in isolation and combination. We compared the effects of four groups (example-example, example-task, task-example and task-task) o...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Advances in research on classroom dialogue: learning outcomes and assessments
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Chiel van der Veen, Bert van Oers The goal of this special issue is to examine how certain modes of classroom dialogue might contribute to students' learning outcomes. The articles in this special issue share the idea of classroom talk as a problem-oriented dialogue. In other words, an interactional configuration based on exchanges among students and teachers that go beyond the predominantly monologic approaches of classroom talk. In each of the contributions to this special issue, different types of learning outcomes were studied ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Commentary: Analyzing classroom dialogue to create changes in school
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Fernanda Liberali In this commentary, the articles of the special issue will be discussed in relation to how they address classroom dialogue to promote new forms of education. The articles present possibilities to rethink learning and education through the analysis of classroom dialogue. The commentary will address how the outcomes of the included papers lead to reflections about how practitioners and researchers may rethink school and society in a more emancipating, revolutionary, and transformative way. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Designs for learning about climate change as a complex system
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Michael J. Jacobson, Lina Markauskaite, Alisha Portolese, Manu Kapur, Polly K. Lai, Gareth Roberts This paper reports on a study in which students used agent-based computer models to learn about complex systems ideas of relevance to understanding climate change. The experimental condition used a Productive Failure (PF) learning design in which ninth grade students initially worked with agent-based computer models to solve challenge problems followed by teacher instruction about targeted climate and complexity ideas. In contrast, th...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do it twice! Test-taking fosters repeated but not initial study of multimedia instruction
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Alexander Eitel, Sebastian Martin Benito, Katharina Scheiter Are practice tests only helpful when having studied before taking them? We investigated this question in a multimedia learning scenario. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, in which they did either not study or studied before taking a test. Afterwards, all participants (re-)studied with the same materials, and took the same test again. Participants had generally higher scores in the second than in the first test; however, taking th...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Advances in research on classroom dialogue: Commentary on the articles
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Christine Howe This commentary reviews the six articles that comprise the Special Issue on ‘Advances in research on classroom dialogue: Learning outcomes and assessments’. The commentary focuses on the general methodological and conceptual messages that can be drawn from the reported research and that are relevant for progressing the field further. Issues discussed include the conceptualization and assessment of oral communicative competence; the meaning of ‘participation’ within the context of dialogue and ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Better together: Simultaneous presentation of speech and gesture in math instruction supports generalization and retention
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Eliza L. Congdon, Miriam A. Novack, Neon Brooks, Naureen Hemani-Lopez, Lucy O'Keefe, Susan Goldin-Meadow When teachers gesture during instruction, children retain and generalize what they are taught (Goldin-Meadow, 2014). But why does gesture have such a powerful effect on learning? Previous research shows that children learn most from a math lesson when teachers present one problem-solving strategy in speech while simultaneously presenting a different, but complementary, strategy in gesture (Singer & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). O...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

High-structure versus low-structure cooperative learning in introductory psychology classes for student teachers: Effects on conceptual knowledge, self-perceived competence, and subjective task values
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Marina Supanc, Vanessa A. Völlinger, Joachim C. Brunstein Using group presentation classes as a control condition, in nine introductory psychology classes we examined the impact of high-structure versus low-structure cooperative learning on N = 259 student teachers' conceptual knowledge, on their self-perceived competence, and on their appraisals of task values. To vary the structure, we first created a lesson plan built upon core principles of cooperative learning, and then eliminated from this plan critical elements...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impact of immediate test score reporting on university students' achievement emotions in the context of computer-based multiple-choice exams
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Lia M. Daniels, Mark J. Gierl Test-taking is an emotion-laden event for many students. Typically, negative emotions are highest at the start of an examination and are replaced by positive emotions as the exam progresses. The impact of computer-based testing and immediate score reporting on students' emotions has not been examined. In Study 1, we evaluated university students’ emotions at the end of a computer-based exam and found positive emotions more strongly endorsed than negative. In Study 2, we replicated this finding and...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research