Stigma and stratification limiting the math course progression of adolescents labeled with a learning disability
This study uses data on adolescents and their teachers from The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to show the negative effect of LD designations on adolescents' math course attainment is partially mediated by disparities in adolescents' earlier math course placements, and teachers' more negative attributions and expectations. Results indicate addressing low achievement through LD designations may reproduce disadvantage through stigma and stratification. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-regulated learning processes vary as a function of epistemic beliefs and contexts: Mixed method evidence from eye tracking and concurrent and retrospective reports
The objective of the current studies was to investigate how epistemic cognition related to specific phases and components of self-regulated learning and its adaptation to learning conditions of varying quality. In a multi-study, mixed method design, we presented university students with science content that relayed conceptual discrepancies and collected quantitative and qualitative data to study how students responded to discrepancies. In Study 1 (n = 42), we collected eye tracking patterns, study times, and metacognitive ratings and found that participants adapted their behavioral processing as a function of the...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dimensional comparisons in students' perceptions of the learning environment
This study aims to add empirical evidence to the generalized internal/external frames of reference (GI/E) model, according to which students' social and dimensional achievement comparisons might not only be related to students' self-concepts but also to perceptions of the learning environment. In a sample of N = 4926 German students, math and language achievements were measured along with two facets of students' perceptions of the learning environment, i.e., perceived instructional quality of math and language classes and perceived relations to math and language teachers. In the GI/E path model, achievement and p...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The development of achievement emotions and coping/emotion regulation from primary to secondary school
This study reports on the development of achievement emotions and coping/emotion regulation in primary to secondary school-aged children and adolescents. Based on two longitudinal cohorts (Grades 2–5; Grades 4–7), latent growth models were used to analyze the development of achievement emotions and coping strategies separately as well as simultaneously. The results show that enjoyment decreases across grades, whereas boredom increases, with substantial changes between Grade 5 and Grade 7. Consistently, the development of enjoyment is positively associated with the development of problem-focused coping and palli...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Recognizing socially shared regulation by using the temporal sequences of online chat and logs in CSCL
In conclusion, individual socially shared regulation plays a critical role in successful collaborative learning. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intraindividual relations between achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: An experience sampling approach
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Thomas Goetz, Fabio Sticca, Reinhard Pekrun, Kou Murayama, Andrew J. Elliot Theories on the link between achievement goals and achievement emotions focus on their within-person functional relationship (i.e., intraindividual relations). However, empirical studies have failed to analyze these intraindividual relations and have instead examined between-person covariation of the two constructs (i.e., interindividual relations). Aiming to better connect theory and empirical research, the present study (N = 120 10th grade stude...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why leave the classroom? How field trips to the church affect cognitive learning outcomes
This article is the first to present data on learning outcomes in an out-of-school learning setting in religious education and the findings add to the relevant theories about field trips. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of multitasking on retention and topic interest
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Muhterem Dindar, Yavuz Akbulut A recent and pervasive “urban legend” in education describes contemporary students as digital natives and effective multitaskers. The current study investigated the effects of sequential and concurrent multitasking scenarios on content retention and topic interest in a multimedia learning environment. Five hundred and seventy two undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the seven conditions in which either sequential or concurrent multitasking scenarios were simulated through a...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moderating effects of executive functions and the teacher–child relationship on the development of mathematics ability in kindergarten
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Clancy Blair, Rachel D. McKinnon Academic preparedness, executive function abilities, and positive relationships with teachers have each been shown to be uniquely important for school readiness and success in the early elementary grades. Few studies, however, have examined the joint influence of these readiness variables on early school outcomes. Using data from a prospective longitudinal sample of 1292 children and families in predominantly low-income and rural communities, we found that executive function at child age 48 months and ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How repeated studying and testing affects multimedia learning: Evidence for adaptation to task demands
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Alexander Eitel Two biases can occur in multimedia learning: overconfidence and over-reliance on text processing. The present research sought to identify these biases and to investigate whether they can be reduced, and hence learning fostered, when studying and testing are repeated. In 2 experiments (Exp.1: N = 79, Exp.2: N = 52), students learned either with text only or with text and pictures (multimedia) about how the toilet flush works, gave judgments-of-learning (JOLs), were tested on the learning contents; aft...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comprehension processes and outcomes with refutation and expository texts and their contribution to learning
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Irene-Anna N. Diakidoy, Thalia Mouskounti, Argyro Fella, Christos Ioannides The study compared the comprehension processes and outcomes obtained with refutation and expository text and their association with learning outcomes. After a knowledge pretest, undergraduate students read an extended expository text or a corresponding refutation text that addressed three potential misconceptions about the scientific concept of energy. Think-aloud, cued recall, and posttest data indicated that the positive impact of refutation text was more ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Solution strategies and adaptivity in multidigit division in a choice/no-choice experiment: Student and instructional factors
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Marije F. Fagginger Auer, Marian Hickendorff, Cornelis M. van Putten Adaptive expertise in choosing when to apply which solution strategy is a central element of current day mathematics, but may not be attainable for all students in all mathematics domains. In the domain of multidigit division, the adaptivity of choices between mental and written strategies appears to be problematic. These solution strategies were investigated with a sample of 162 sixth graders in a choice/no-choice experiment. Children chose freely when to apply whi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

2015 Open Call for a Special Issue
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Consistent advantages of contrasted comparisons: Algebra learning under direct instruction
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Esther Ziegler, Elsbeth Stern Contrasted comparisons are an effective means of concept learning. Many studies have investigated the effects of comparisons in self-learning settings. However, because direct instruction remains a widespread instructional method, we adapted self-learning materials from a previous experiment that demonstrated the benefits of a contrasted introduction of algebraic addition and multiplication for direct instruction at the blackboard. Ninety-eight sixth-graders were randomly assigned to two groups: in the co...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognition and classroom quality as predictors of math achievement in the kindergarten year
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): A. Nayena Blankson, Clancy Blair Using a sample of 171 children, we examined classroom quality as a potential moderator of the link between three distinct but related aspects of cognition (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and executive functioning) and math achievement across the kindergarten year. Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to account for nesting of students within classrooms. Results revealed significant aptitude by treatment interactions for fluid and crystallized intelligence, suggesting that classro...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of content and language integrated learning on students' English and history competences – Killing two birds with one stone?
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Sara Dallinger, Kathrin Jonkmann, Jan Hollm, Christiane Fiege By failing to appropriately control for selection effects, most previous research has overestimated the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) on the development of students' foreign language skills. Furthermore, the CLIL-effect on the content subject is still widely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated skill development of 1806 German CLIL and non-CLIL eighth-graders in English and History controlling for a wide range of student, classro...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A multi-user virtual environment to support students' self-efficacy and interest in science: A latent growth model analysis
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Jason A. Chen, M.Shane Tutwiler, Shari J. Metcalf, Amy Kamarainen, Tina Grotzer, Chris Dede Using latent growth models, we explored: (a) The effect of middle school students' (n = 189) pre-intervention science self-efficacy and science interest on their initial interest in an Ecosystems Multi-User Virtual Environment (EcoMUVE) and the rate of change in their interest in EcoMUVE; and (b) the mediating effect of students' initial interest in EcoMUVE and rate of change in interest on students' post-intervention science self...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are both classroom autonomy support and structure equally important for students' engagement? A multilevel analysis
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 41 Author(s): Virginie Hospel, Benoît Galand The current study was carried out within the framework of self-determination theory and aimed to investigate specific, additive and combined effects of teachers' autonomy support and structure on students' engagement. Using multilevel analyses, main effects and interaction of autonomy support and structure provided at the classroom level were tested on behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement. 744 ninth grade students from 51 classes completed a questionnaire about their engagement during lan...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do gestures matter? The implications of using touchscreen devices in mathematics instruction
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Adam K. Dubé, Rhonda N. McEwen Touchscreen devices are increasingly used in education and are a predominant tool for everyday knowledge search. An assumption about the nature of touchscreen devices is that users intuitively understand them, which improves access to knowledge. Using a framework that includes concepts from cognitive psychology, information studies, and communication theory we explored whether users' physical interactions on a touchscreen device have consequences for their conceptual understanding of content &ndas...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Spontaneous focusing on numerosity and the arithmetic advantage
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Sophie Batchelor, Matthew Inglis, Camilla Gilmore Children show individual differences in their tendency to focus on the numerical aspects of their environment. These individual differences in ‘Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity’ (SFON) have been shown to predict both current numerical skills and later mathematics success. Here we investigated possible factors which may explain the positive relationship between SFON and symbolic number development. Children aged 4–5 years (N = 130) completed a battery of t...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Weak versus strong knowledge interdependence: A comparison of two rationales for distributing information among learners in collaborative learning settings
This study illustrates how collaborative and individual learning activities interrelate, and that a slightly modified jigsaw-type script makes a valuable addition to an instructor's toolbox. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Further evidence that concept mapping is not better than repeated retrieval as a tool for learning from texts
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): M. Teresa Lechuga, Juana M. Ortega-Tudela, Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza Karpicke and Blunt (2011) showed in college students that retrieval practice produced more learning from educational texts than concept mapping on a 1-week delayed test. This finding is surprising since concept mapping is thought to involve elaborative processing. Hence, the present study (N = 84; 76 females) aimed to examine whether the advantage of repeated retrieval remains when concept mapping is performed by ad hoc trained students or students who ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Selfish learning: The impact of self-referential encoding on children's literacy attainment
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): David J. Turk, Karri Gillespie-Smith, Olave E. Krigolson, Catriona Havard, Martin A. Conway, Sheila J. Cunningham Self-referencing (i.e., thinking about oneself during encoding) can increase attention toward to-be-encoded material, and support memory for information in adults and children. The current inquiry tested an educational application of this ‘self reference effect’ (SRE) on memory. A self-referential modification of literacy tasks (vocabulary spelling) was tested in two experiments. In Experiment 1, seven-to n...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adulthood temperament and educational attainment: A population-based cohort study
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): S. Mullola, M. Hintsanen, M. Elovainio, L. Pulkki-Råback, J. Lipsanen, K. Josefsson, T. Lehtimäki, O.T. Raitakari, L. Keltikangas-Järvinen The aim of the study was to examine the associations of temperament traits and temperament profiles (i.e., the combinations of multiple traits) with adulthood educational attainment. The participants were 837 women and 592 men from a population-based cohort study. Temperament was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on the Psychobiological Model o...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How do contrasting cases and self-explanation promote learning? Evidence from fraction division
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Pooja G. Sidney, Shanta Hattikudur, Martha W. Alibali Past research has shown that both contrasting cases instruction and prompts to self-explain promote students' learning in mathematics. However, it is not clear whether these instructional approaches enhance learning through similar mechanisms or whether each supports learning in distinct ways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the unique and combined effects of comparison, defined as noticing similarities and differences, and explanation, defined as making sense of prob...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Experiencing fear appeals as a challenge or a threat influences attainment value and academic self-efficacy
In this study we examined how the appraisal of fear appeals might also influence subsequent attainment value and academic self-efficacy. Self-report data were collected from 1433 students in their final two years of secondary education over three waves. Findings revealed that when students saw fear appeals as a challenge attainment value and academic self-efficacy were higher. When students saw fear appeals as a threat, attainment value and academic self-efficacy were lower. These results highlight the functional importance of how fear appeals are appraised. Challenge and threat appraisals were not mere by products of atta...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Metaphorical graphics aid learning and memory
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Robert W. Danielson, Neil H. Schwartz, Marie Lippmann The present investigation was designed to determine the effects of metaphorical graphics on learning from an expository text. The graphics were designed to function as metaphorical representations of the semantic elements inherent in the passage, with the level of correspondence between the graphics and text varied as weak or strong. In study 1, participants (N = 168) were randomly assigned to one of three graphic/text conditions (strong, weak, or none). Learning was meas...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The influence of consequence value and text difficulty on affect, attention, and learning while reading instructional texts
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Caitlin Mills, Sidney K. D'Mello, Kristopher Kopp The present study investigated how consequence value influences affect, attention, and learning while reading instructional texts, and if text difficulty moderates these effects. Participants studied four instructional texts on research methods in a 2 × 2 consequence value (high vs. low) × text difficulty (easy vs. difficult) within-subjects experiment. Consequence value was manipulated by assigning two of the four texts as having high value and the oth...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evidence for children's error sensitivity during arithmetic word problem solving
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 40 Author(s): Amélie Lubin, Olivier Houdé, Wim de Neys Solving simple arithmetic word problems is often challenging for children. Recent research suggests that children often fail to solve certain of these problems because they fail to inhibit erroneous heuristic intuitions that bias their judgment. However it is unclear whether these errors result from an error monitoring or inhibition failure. Our study focuses on this critical error detection. Eight to eleven year-old schoolchildren were given problems in which an intuitively cued...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relations between classroom disciplinary problems and student motivation: Achievement as a potential mediator?
This study examined the relation between classroom disciplinary problems in language classes, student achievement, and three facets of student motivation: competence self-perceptions, test anxiety, and engagement. The analyses were conducted with the German sample from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 (N = 7899). The results demonstrated that discipline problems are directly and negatively related to achievement and to all motivation constructs considered. In most cases, the relation between classroom disciplinary problems and motivation constructs was mediated by verbal achieveme...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The curious case of climate change: Testing a theoretical model of epistemic beliefs, epistemic emotions, and complex learning
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Krista R. Muis, Reinhard Pekrun, Gale M. Sinatra, Roger Azevedo, Gregory Trevors, Elisabeth Meier, Benjamin C. Heddy We propose a theoretical model linking students' epistemic beliefs, epistemic emotions, learning strategies, and learning outcomes. The model was tested across two studies with 439 post-secondary students from Canada, the United States, and Germany for Study 1, and 56 students from Canada for Study 2. For Study 1, students self-reported their epistemic beliefs about climate change, read four conflicting documents ab...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Students' school performance, task-focus, and situation-specific motivation
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Lars-Erik Malmberg , Eija Pakarinen , Kati Vasalampi , Jari-Erik Nurmi Going beyond studies of individual differences in and profiles of students' motivation, we investigated situation-specific (intra-personal) experiences of autonomous (enjoyment, interest, and task choice) and controlled (having to do, and the teacher wanting them to do a task) motivation across learning situations during one week, and how these were related to student characteristics (teacher rated academic performance and task-focus). Three-hundred and fourteen prima...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teachers' beliefs about social-emotional learning: Identifying teacher profiles and their relations with job stress and satisfaction
This study examines the extent to which teachers may be grouped based on their beliefs about social-emotional learning (SEL). SEL is aimed at promoting students' social and emotional competencies (e.g., responsible decision making, social awareness). Research suggests that in addition to being relevant to student outcomes, SEL is also relevant to teachers' experiences at work. We utilized latent profile analysis to identify profiles of teachers based on three different beliefs—comfort with SEL, commitment to improving SEL skills, and perceptions of principal and school-wide support for SEL. Findings revealed three di...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Executive functioning and verbal fluency in children with language difficulties
This study provided a detailed analysis of verbal fluency in children with language difficulties, and examined the relative contributions of executive functioning (executive-loaded working memory, switching, inhibition) and language ability to verbal fluency performance. Semantic and phonemic fluency, language, and executive functioning tasks were completed by 41 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 88 children with typical development. Children with SLI showed difficulties with most aspects of verbal fluency (rates of output, errors, switching) relative to typical children. Language ability predicted nearl...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impact of elaborated feedback on text comprehension within a computer-based assessment
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Stefanie Golke , Tobias Dörfler , Cordula Artelt We investigated what impact elaborated feedback has on sixth graders' deep-level comprehension of texts within a computer-based assessment. Experiment 1 (N = 566) focused on the contents of computer-provided elaborated feedback (i.e. inference-prompts, error explanations, or monitoring-prompt) using a control-group design. Results showed that none of the feedback treatments had an effect on performance. This appeared to result from participants' low commitment to processing ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Janus-faced nature of time spent on homework: Using latent profile analyses to predict academic achievement over a school year
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Barbara Flunger , Ulrich Trautwein , Benjamin Nagengast , Oliver Lüdtke , Alois Niggli , Inge Schnyder Homework time and achievement are only modestly associated, whereas homework effort has consistently been shown to positively predict later achievement. We argue that time spent on homework can be an important predictor of achievement when combined with measures of homework effort. Latent profile analyses were applied to a longitudinal data set with 1915 eighth-grade students who had been surveyed on their homework behavior in Fren...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning verbs more effectively through meaning congruent action animations
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Lea A. Hald , Marianne van den Hurk , Harold Bekkering The current study investigates the effectiveness of learning words while displaying meaning congruent animations. We explore whether learning words with animation is sensitive to properties known to influence action understanding. We apply an embodied cognition framework and predictions from a recent theory about language and action (Action-Based Language theory, Glenberg & Gallese, 2012). The current study aims to investigate whether dynamic animations add to word learning (...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Children's emotions in math problem solving situations: Contributions of self-concept, metacognitive experiences, and performance
This study examined 1) experiences of six discrete emotions ‒ joy, pride, contentment, worry, shame, hopelessness ‒ after solving a math problem of students aged 10–12 years, and 2) the contribution of self-concept, metacognitive experiences (feeling of difficulty and feeling of success) and performance on emotions experienced after the task, controlling for gender and emotions experienced before the task. Results indicated a decrease in joy and contentment after problem solving. Performance did not contribute to emotions apart from hopelessness. The influence of performance on hopelessness was mediatized by meta...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inventing a solution and studying a worked solution prepare differently for learning from direct instruction
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Inga Glogger-Frey , Corinna Fleischer , Lisa Grüny , Julian Kappich , Alexander Renkl Solving an open problem as proposed by inventing and productive failure approaches has been shown to prepare learners effectively for subsequent direct instruction. Inventing can raise awareness of knowledge gaps (cognitive) as well as increase curiosity about and interest in the learning contents (motivational effects). However, studying the problem with a worked solution can have different cognitive and motivational advantages. In two experiments...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Becoming aware of cinematic techniques in propaganda: Instructional support by cueing and training
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Martin Merkt , Florian Sochatzy Cinematic techniques are used to induce biased interpretations of historical videos. Therefore, awareness of these techniques is necessary when working with videos as historical sources. Two studies investigated the effects of training and cueing on the analysis of propaganda. Whereas training benefitted the identification and interpretation of cinematic techniques in propaganda, cueing cinematic techniques on a category level (e.g., camera angle) resulted in less specific analyses with regard to identifyi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teacher support and its influence on students' intrinsic value and effort: Dimensional comparison effects across subjects
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Julia Dietrich , Anna-Lena Dicke , Bärbel Kracke , Peter Noack While positive influences of teacher support on students' motivational development have been widely shown, existing research has not yet considered that students' school experiences are interrelated across classrooms and subjects. The aims of this study were, thus, twofold: (a) To investigate the effects of teacher support on the development of students' intrinsic value and effort; and (b) based on dimensional comparison theory, to examine potential cross-subject contras...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do students use testing and feedback while learning? A focus on key concept definitions and learning to criterion
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): John Dunlosky , Katherine A. Rawson College students must regulate much of their learning and hence it is important to discover whether they use effective study techniques, such as testing with feedback. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the degree to which college students use testing with feedback as they are learning key concept definitions. The three main issues of interest concerned (a) whether students tested themselves during practice, (b) whether they followed tests with feedback, and (c) whether they continued to practi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The preparatory effects of problem solving versus problem posing on learning from instruction
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Manu Kapur Two randomized-controlled studies compare the preparatory effects of problem-solving versus problem-posing on learning from subsequent instruction. Students engaged in either problem-solving (where they generated solutions to a novel problem) or problem-posing (where they generated problems, and where possible, the associated solutions) prior to learning a novel math concept. Study 1 found that problem-posing prior to instruction resulted in significantly better transfer to novel problems than problem-solving, without any sign...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of a training intervention to foster precursors of evaluativist epistemological understanding and intellectual values
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Markus H. Hefter , Alexander Renkl , Werner Riess , Sebastian Schmid , Stefan Fries , Kirsten Berthold Kuhn (2001) proposed two crucial prerequisites for the will to engage in argumentative thinking: Evaluativist epistemological understanding that provides the base for regarding argumentative thinking reasonable and intellectual values that reflect the extent to which people regard intellectual engagement as being worthwhile. Against this background, we developed a computer-based training intervention in the domain of ecology to foster p...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Math achievement, stereotypes, and math self-concepts among elementary-school students in Singapore
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 39 Author(s): Dario Cvencek , Manu Kapur , Andrew N. Meltzoff Singaporean elementary-school students (N = 299) completed Child Implicit Association Tests (Child IAT) as well as explicit measures of gender identity, math–gender stereotypes, and math self-concepts. Students also completed a standardized math achievement test. Three new findings emerged. First, implicit, but not explicit, math self-concepts (math = me) were positively related to math achievement on a standardized test. Second, as expected, stronger math–ge...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exploring evolutions in reciprocal peer tutoring groups' socially shared metacognitive regulation and identifying its metacognitive correlates
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 38 Author(s): Liesje De Backer , Hilde Van Keer , Martin Valcke The present study contributes to the emerging research on socially shared metacognitive regulation (SSMR). It investigates which regulation behaviour (i.e. particular skills and low- versus deep-level regulation) is associated with a socially shared regulation focus and identifies time-bound evolutions in individually-oriented metacognitive regulation, co-regulation, and SSMR. More specifically, higher education reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) groups are studied. All sessions of a semester-...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 38 Author(s): Kristina Moll , Margaret J. Snowling , Silke M. Göbel , Charles Hulme Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological pr...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

In search for the natural number bias in secondary school students' interpretation of the effect of arithmetical operations
We examined this natural number bias in secondary school students in two related studies. In Study 1, 8th graders judged the correctness of algebraic expressions that address the effect of operations. The higher accuracy level on congruent items than on incongruent items yielded clear evidence for the natural bias. However, this bias was only significant in multiplication and division items. Additional interview data showed that students doubted more about the applicability of natural number principles in items with addition and subtraction. In Study 2 we additionally confronted 10th and 12th graders with the same tasks. T...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Modeling the developmental trajectories of rational number concept(s)
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 37 Author(s): Jake McMullen , Eero Laakkonen , Minna Hannula-Sormunen , Erno Lehtinen The present study focuses on the development of two sub-concepts necessary for a complete mathematical understanding of rational numbers, a) representations of the magnitudes of rational numbers and b) the density of rational numbers. While difficulties with rational number concepts have been seen in students' of all ages, including educated adults, little is known about the developmental trajectories of the separate sub-concepts. We measured 10- to 12-year-old students...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bridging the gap: Fraction understanding is central to mathematics achievement in students from three different continents
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 37 Author(s): Joke Torbeyns , Michael Schneider , Ziqiang Xin , Robert S. Siegler Numerical understanding and arithmetic skills are easier to acquire for whole numbers than fractions. The integrated theory of numerical development posits that, in addition to these differences, whole numbers and fractions also have important commonalities. In both, students need to learn how to interpret number symbols in terms of the magnitudes to which they refer, and this magnitude understanding is central to general mathematical competence. We investigated relations a...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research