Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of peer rejection, parent and teacher support on working memory performance: An experimental approach in middle childhood
Publication date: October 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 67Author(s): Loren Vandenbroucke, Jantine L. Spilt, Karine Verschueren, Dieter BaeyensAbstractWorking memory performance, important for children's learning, can be influenced by social interactions. The current study investigates whether parent and teacher support buffer the negative effect of peer rejection on working memory performance, using an experimental approach. Children from third to sixth grade (aged 8–14; n = 412) filled out questionnaires and completed an experiment. Working memory performance (Corsi Task Backwards) was ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multidimensionality in the measurement of math-specific anxiety and its relationship with mathematical performance
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Sarah L. Lukowski, Jack DiTrapani, Minjeong Jeon, Zhe Wang, Victoria J.Schenker, Madeline M. Doran, Sara A. Hart, Michèle M.M. Mazzocco, Erik G. Willcutt, Lee A.Thompson, Stephen A. PetrillAbstractTraditionally, mathematical anxiety has been utilized as a unidimensional construct. However, math-specific anxiety may have distinguishable factors, and taking these factors into account may better illuminate the relationship between anxiety and mathematics performance. Drawing from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Pro...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiles of foundational learning skills among first graders
This study used latent profile analysis to identify the following four subgroups (profiles) of students, using foundational learning components, in a sample of first graders (n = 324): Emergent Hyperactive, Externalizing, Generally Good Students, and Internalizing. Latent class growth analysis illustrated significant differences in the average rate of growth in literacy skills from the beginning to the end of first grade across the four profiles, after controlling for gender and socioeconomic status. Findings indicated the greatest growth in literacy skills for students in the Externalizing profile and the least ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion regulation mediates the relationship between verbal learning and internalizing, trauma-related and externalizing symptoms among early-onset, persistently delinquent adolescents
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Amy E. Lansing, Wendy Y. Plante, Shahrokh Golshan, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Sandrine ThuretAbstractResearch supports cascading relationships among internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and academic problems. This constellation of problems is characteristic of early-onset, persistent delinquent [EOPD] youth, and appropriately targeted interventions accounting for this comorbidity may improve outcomes. To investigate these relationships in EOPD youth, we characterized their cross-diagnostic psychopathology and ver...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Informative tools for characterizing individual differences in learning: Latent class, latent profile, and latent transition analysis
This article gives an introduction to latent class, latent profile, and latent transition models for researchers interested in investigating individual differences in learning and development. The models allow analyzing how the observed heterogeneity in a group (e.g., individual differences in conceptual knowledge) can be traced back to underlying homogeneous subgroups (e.g., learners differing systematically in their developmental phases). The estimated parameters include a characteristic response pattern for each subgroup, and, in the case of longitudinal data, the probabilities of transitioning from one subgroup to anot...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development and validation of the brief regulation of motivation scale
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Yeo-eun Kim, Anna C. Brady, Christopher A. WoltersAbstractThe purpose of this study was to develop and establish evidence supporting the validity of a brief scale designed to assess college students' regulation of motivation. This scale, titled the Brief Regulation of Motivation Scale, is more manageable to administer and intuitive to interpret compared to previous lengthy multidimensional scales. With a sample of 396 college students, multiple sources of validity evidence were examined. Exploratory and confirmatory anal...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiles of rational number knowledge in Finnish and Flemish students – A multigroup latent class analysis
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Jake McMullen, Jo Van Hoof, Tine Degrande, Lieven Verschaffel, Wim Van DoorenAbstractStudents have a great deal of difficulties learning about rational number concepts, as they are confounded by misapplying reasoning about natural numbers to fractions and decimals, referred to as a natural number bias. For example, students often think that the number of digits of a decimal, or the size of the component numbers of fractions, is enough information to determine the magnitude of rational numbers. As well, students have tro...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Patterns of anxiety in algebraic problem solving: A three-step latent variable analysis
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Kelly Trezise, Robert A. ReeveAbstractMath anxiety is associated with avoidance of math in high school. It is commonly assessed using questionnaires that examine anxiety experienced for arithmetic. A more nuanced understanding of math anxiety would be gained by investigating the anxiety associated with math problems encountered in high school at the time they are encountered. To this end, we investigated the anxiety associated with algebraic problem solving in 14-year-olds. We varied problem difficulty and the time allo...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Variable control and conceptual change: A large-scale quantitative study in elementary school
We describe how learning pathways vary depending on students' understanding of the control-of-variables strategy and prior content knowledge, and discuss implications for learning and instruction. (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Student perceptions of marker personality and intelligence: The effect of emoticons in online assignment feedback
In this study (N = 210 university students), the inclusion of emoticons in feedback on a faux assignment was manipulated between groups. For both groups, the assignment and the marker's feedback were identical, but for one group, three emoticons were embedded in feedback, as well as in the overall comments (in total: 4 × ☺; 2 × :/). Participants then responded to questions about the marker's personality and intelligence. When emoticons were used, the marker was perceived as being significantly more extraverted, agreeable, and open to experience, suggesting that only minimal cues are necessary to m...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The relevance/significance of stimuli appraisals for personality traits in an academic context
This study used 120 university students to investigate the relationship between conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism, and pleasantness- and relevance/significance appraisals of academic-related words (in the categories of academic-approach, academic-avoidance, performance-evaluative, and academic-neutral). The results suggested that both pleasantness- and relevance/significance-appraisals were important for explaining the variation in personality traits. Overall, stimuli-appraisals accounted for 35% of the variance in conscientiousness, and 49% of the variance in an aspect of conscientiousness related to approa...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Emotional reactivity and comprehension of multiple online texts” [Learning and Individual Differences 58 (2017) 10–21]
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Lucia Mason, Sara Scrimin, Maria Caterina Tornatora, Sonia Zaccoletti (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nostalgia counteracts the negative relation between threat appraisals and intrinsic motivation in an educational context
We examined the coping potential of nostalgia in an educational setting. In particular, we investigated whether nostalgia can protect students from the pernicious link between threat appraisal and low intrinsic motivation. Undergraduate students (N = 382) reported threat and challenge appraisals in regards to a class they were taking, their nostalgia, as well as their intrinsic motivation. Threat appraisals predicted reduced intrinsic motivation, but were also prognostic of increased nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was associated with increased intrinsic motivation. Thus, the negative direct association of threat apprai...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning to solve figural matrix analogies: The paths children take
In this study, 388 children (ages 4–10 years) solved a series of figural analogies within a pretest-training-posttest design, with training comprising either multiple tries (N = 196) or tutoring feedback (N = 192). Working memory tasks were also administered. Latent transition analyses identified five phases with qualitative individual differences in children's analogy solving: duplication, idiosyncratic, beginner analogical, intermediate analogical and advanced analogical reasoning. Children's paths through these phases were not sequential; there was great variability between children and how they progress...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning trajectories towards strategy proficiency in multi-digit division – A latent transition analysis of strategy and error profiles
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Andreas Schulz, Timo LeudersAbstractChildren's proficiency in multi-digit division is based on the application of a variety of different solution strategies with different conceptual foundations. Accordingly, we assume that children can have qualitatively distinct profiles of correctly used strategies and errors, as well as different kinds of learning trajectories towards proficiency. Moreover, children's abilities in reasoning about number relations are regarded as an enabling condition for the application of solution strat...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Commentary on latent class, latent profile, and latent transition analysis for characterizing individual differences in learning
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Bethany C. Bray, John J. DziakAbstractThe collection of articles in this special issue focus on latent variable mixture models including latent class analysis (LCA), latent profile analysis (LPA), and latent transition analysis (LTA). These are all methods for summarizing observed variables by postulating an underlying categorical latent variable representing a type or status; in the case of LTA, the status of an individual may change over time and the pathways of change are of interest. As the introductory article by Hicke...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Latent variable mixture models in research on learning and individual differences
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Jake McMullen, Marian HickendorffAbstractHerein, we provide an introduction to the special issue “Latent variable mixture models in research on learning and individual differences”. Latent variable mixture models are argued to be a powerful tool for capturing non-linear and qualitative individual differences in learners' knowledge, characteristics, and development. The current special issue provides an overview of the use of these analytical tools in investigations of learning and individual differences by prese...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Heritability and longitudinal outcomes of spelling skills in individuals with histories of early speech and language disorders
This study examined the spelling skills in middle childhood and adolescence in individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI). Youth without such histories were also included (No SSD/LI group). The heritability of spelling skills at each age level was estimated. Children with SSD were classified as SSD-only, SSD with LI but without childhood apraxia of speech (SSD + LI/No CAS), and CAS and LI (CAS + LI). The SSD-only group did not differ in spelling from the No SSD/LI group, suggesting that SSD-only did not increase risk for poor spelling. The SS...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parental support for adolescents' autonomy while making a first career decision
ConclusionsThe results highlight the positive role that parents can play in adolescents' career decisions by supporting their autonomy and helping them make an autonomous decision. (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Differentiation of academic self-concept in primary school students with mild learning difficulties: A factor mixture analysis approach
This study analyzed the latent structure of academic ability self-concepts of primary school students with mild learning difficulties (MLD) cross-sectionally at three time points. We sought to explore (a) whether MLD students at the end of primary school already show a differentiated, domain-specific self-concept, (b) whether there are subgroups of students with different degrees of self-concept differentiation, and (c) whether belonging to any of these subgroups depends on attending inclusive vs. exclusive school settings. Factor analyses with a sample of>400 students from mainstream (inclusive) and special (exclusive)...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of mothers' beliefs in students' self-concept of ability development
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Laura Pesu, Kaisa Aunola, Jaana Viljaranta, Riikka Hirvonen, Noona KiuruAbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate whether the child-related competence beliefs of mothers are associated with the development of Finnish adolescents' self-concept of mathematics and literacy ability during their transition from primary to lower secondary school and whether these associations depend on adolescents' level of performance. The results showed that, first, adolescents' self-concept of mathematics and literacy ability decreased over time...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Proactive personality and the expanded criterion domain of performance: Predicting academic citizenship and counterproductive behaviors
We examined proactive personality as a noncognitive predictor of outcomes in an expanded criterion domain that included in-role performance, citizenship behaviors, and counterproductive behaviors. Our findings indicate that proactive personality predicts both citizenship and counterproductive behaviors in an academic setting. Importantly, these results were observed after accounting for the effects of traditional cognitive predictors of student performance (i.e., high school grades and standardized test scores). These findings have implications for institutions that define “success” beyond grades and are lookin...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement: Evidence from TIMSS and PISA
We examined the predictability of non-cognitive variables for students' mathematics achievement, based on large-scale international databases of the TIMSS 2003, 2007, and 2011, and the PISA 2003 and 2012. We synthesized empirical evidence about 65 non-cognitive variables, which were categorized into 13 research domains of educational psychology—affect, curriculum/content exposure, homework, learning and instructional time, motivation, personality traits, planned behavior, school climate, self-beliefs/social-cognitive theory, self-regulatory learning style/strategies, teacher behavior, value, and vocational interest. ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Salience of primary and secondary school students' achievement emotions and perceived antecedents: Interviews on literacy and mathematics domains
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Daniela Raccanello, Rob Hall, Roberto BurroAbstractWithin the theoretical framework provided by Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory, we investigated individual differences in students' achievement emotions and antecedents. The subjects were 149 fourth, seventh, and eleventh-graders, who participated in semi-structured interviews focused on how they usually felt when facing literacy or mathematics, and on their perception of the underlying antecedents that triggered the emotions. Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) indicated high...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Need satisfaction as a mediator between classroom goal structures and students' optimal educational experience
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Ayşenur Alp, Aikaterini Michou, M. Sencer Çorlu, Gamze BarayAbstractGoal-related messages in a classroom are associated with students' experiences and functioning in learning. However, little is known about need satisfaction as a mediator that translates the classroom messages into students' optimal educational experience. In the present studies, we investigated in a sample of 171 (in Study 1) and 255 (in Study 2) Turkish undergraduate students (60% females; Mage = 19.79, SD = 1.68 and 45% females, Mage = 19.75, ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The influences of multiple informants' ratings of inattention on preschoolers' emergent literacy skills growth
This study used latent growth curve analysis to examine whether ratings of inattention, completed by multiple informants, were unique predictors of emergent literacy development in preschoolers. Participants included 284 preschool children. ADHD-rating scales were completed by three different informants (i.e., classroom teachers, project teachers, and examiners) and measures of emergent literacy skills, a measure of working memory, and a measure of non-verbal cognitive ability were completed by the preschoolers. Each informant's rating of inattention uniquely predicted children's initial emergent literacy skills, but only ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gaining insight into doctoral persistence: Development and validation of Doctorate-related Need Support and Need Satisfaction short scales
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Nicolas Van der Linden, Christelle Devos, Gentiane Boudrenghien, Mariane Frenay, Assaad Azzi, Olivier Klein, Benoît GalandAbstractBased on self-determination theory, a few studies have identified competence satisfaction as a major determinant of doctoral persistence. However, these studies did not use scales validated in the domain of doctoral studies, and failed to include all dimensions of the target constructs of need support and need satisfaction, or used a composite score of need support. To address these limitations, we ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Identifying individual differences using log-file analysis: Distributed learning as mediator between conscientiousness and exam grades
This study investigated the role of learning strategies and individual differences in cognitive abilities, high school GPA and conscientiousness for successful online learning. We used longitudinal log-file data to examine learning strategies of a large cohort (N = 424) of university students taking an online class. Distributed learning, the use of self-tests and a better high school GPA was associated with better exam grades. The positive effect of conscientiousness on exam grades was mediated by distributed learning. Conscientious students distributed their studying over the course of the semester, which in turn, imp...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inspiring integration in college students reading multiple biology texts
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Carla M. Firetto, Peggy N. Van MeterAbstractCollege students often struggle when they are faced with situations where they are required to read multiple texts and integrate across them. The present study examines an integration task designed to stimulate cross-system integration for college biology students reading about two related physiological systems. Learners (n = 617) were randomly assigned to read about the endocrine and urinary systems in the form of either two separate texts or a single text as they completed one of thr...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does perceived competence serve as a protective mechanism against performance goals for struggling readers? Path analysis of contextual antecedents and reading outcomes
This study examined the extent to which struggling readers' perceived classroom goal structures explain their adoption of personal achievement goals and ratings of perceived competence. We also investigated how these motivational characteristics relate to outcomes in word reading and reading comprehension in a sample of fourth and fifth grade struggling readers (N = 112). In a series of path analyses, different motivational patterns emerged in predicting word reading and reading comprehension. Mastery goals negatively predicted while perceived competence positively predicted word reading. For reading comprehension, onl...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Students' math performance in higher education: Examining the role of self-regulated learning and self-efficacy
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Julia Roick, Tobias RingeisenAbstractResearch on the role of learning strategies and self-efficacy for mathematics performance in higher education is sparse, especially if cognitive and metacognitive strategies are considered. In response, the current study investigated the associations between these variables with a sample of 206 university students in the context of a two-semester math course. Self-efficacy measured after one semester (t2) was positively related to both cognitive and metacognitive strategy use at the beginning (t1...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attainment-aspiration gap in students with a migration background: The role of self-efficacy
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Nele McElvany, Hanna D. Ferdinand, Miriam M. Gebauer, Wilfried Bos, Thorben Huelmann, Olaf Köller, Christian SchöberAbstractAcademic aspirations are important for academic success. Students with migration backgrounds tend to report high academic aspirations despite low success in school, a phenomenon known as the attainment-aspiration gap. This paper investigates whether the self-perception of ability (here, academic self-efficacy) can explain aspirations better than actual attainment in students with migration backgrounds...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reproducibility of young learners' susceptibility to the learning context
ConclusionAn extra program that typically provides continuous guidance and feedback can benefit children born late preterm, but does not benefit children born full term. An increased level of stress reactivity is proposed to be the mechanism underlying the susceptibility to the program found in children born late preterm. (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Letter-name knowledge longitudinally predicts young Chinese children's Chinese word reading and number competencies in a multilingual context
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Xiao ZhangAbstractDrawing on theories of cross-language transfer (Cummins, 1979; Weinreich, 1953), this study examines the longitudinal relations between young Chinese children's letter-name knowledge and their Chinese word reading and number competencies in a multilingual context. A total of 109 young Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed first at the end of their nursery year (Time 1; approximately 3 years of age) and then during the first semester of their kindergarten year (Time 2). The results show that letter-name knowled...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pro-social behavior is predictive of academic success via peer acceptance: A study of Chinese primary school children
This study was designed to investigate the potential benefits of pro-social behavior on Chinese children's academic achievement. With 456 primary school students as participants, we examined the value of pro-social behavior on children's academic outcomes and the mediating mechanism. Data was obtained from various sources (self-report, peer-rating, peer nomination, and cognitive tests). The results showed that Chinese children's pro-social behavior, regardless of self-reported or peer-rated, positively predicted their academic achievement, and peer acceptance played a mediating role in the pathway. These findings highlight...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reading comprehension development in at-risk vs. not at-risk first grade readers: The differential roles of listening comprehension, decoding, and fluency
This study examined the relations between and predictive power of three important subcomponents skills of reading comprehension: decoding, listening comprehension, and reading fluency. Through a series of structural equation models, we examine the relations within a full sample of first grade students at the beginning of the year (N = 290). Next, we conducted analyses to determine if differential relations exist between the variables in students who are identified as at-risk for reading failure, and potentially reading disability (n = 141) and those who are not (n = 149). Results indicate that in early first gr...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adult development in the wild: The determinants of autonomous learning in a Massive Open Online Course
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): W. Jackeline Torres, Margaret E. BeierAbstractThe current study examines age and non-ability traits as determinants of participation in an autonomous learning activity, a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Framed within investment theories of adult intellectual development, we tested a model in which course performance and completion were predicted by age, trait complexes (constellations of personality variables), prior knowledge, interest, and course affective engagement. Trait complexes and interests were linked to objective cours...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Need-supportive teaching practices and student-perceived need fulfillment in low socioeconomic status elementary schools: The moderating effect of anxiety and academic achievement
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Vanessa Kurdi, Isabelle Archambault, Frédéric N. Brière, Lyse TurgeonAbstractConnell and Wellborn's Self-System Model of Motivational Development (SSMMD; 1991) posits that structure, autonomy support, and involvement from teachers influence their students' perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness. However, this model has rarely been tested in low socioeconomic elementary school students presenting academic and psychological difficulties. To fill this gap, this study examined whether student anxiety a...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Differential relevance of intelligence and motivation for grades and competence tests in mathematics
Publication date: July 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65Author(s): Christin Lotz, Rebecca Schneider, Jörn R. SparfeldtAbstractPast research suggested that cognitive and motivational variables are differentially relevant for educational success when relying on competence tests or grades as achievement indicators. This differential relevance has not yet been investigated by, for example, advanced statistical methods. Therefore, reparameterization and Wald-tests were applied to statistically compare the standardized path coefficients of intelligence, academic self-concept, and interest on a schol...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reading amount as a mediator between intrinsic reading motivation and reading comprehension in the early elementary grades
Publication date: October 2018Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 67Author(s): Alexander Soemer, Ulrich SchiefeleAbstractPrevious research suggests that children's growth in reading abilities is positively related to their intrinsic reading motivation and the amount of spare time reading. Furthermore, a number of previous studies point to the possibility that spare time reading amount mediates the positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading comprehension. However, to date, most of the available evidence for a mediation model is either cross-sectional and/or limited to late elementa...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multidimensionality in the measurement of math-specific anxiety and its relationship with mathematical performance
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Sarah L. Lukowski, Jack DiTrapani, Minjeong Jeon, Zhe Wang, Victoria J.Schenker, Madeline M. Doran, Sara A. Hart, Michèle M.M. Mazzocco, Erik G. Willcutt, Lee A.Thompson, Stephen A. PetrillAbstractTraditionally, mathematical anxiety has been utilized as a unidimensional construct. However, math-specific anxiety may have distinguishable factors, and taking these factors into account may better illuminate the relationship between anxiety and mathematics performance. Drawing from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Pro...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiles of foundational learning skills among first graders
This study used latent profile analysis to identify the following four subgroups (profiles) of students, using foundational learning components, in a sample of first graders (n = 324): Emergent Hyperactive, Externalizing, Generally Good Students, and Internalizing. Latent class growth analysis illustrated significant differences in the average rate of growth in literacy skills from the beginning to the end of first grade across the four profiles, after controlling for gender and socioeconomic status. Findings indicated the greatest growth in literacy skills for students in the Externalizing profile and the least ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion regulation mediates the relationship between verbal learning and internalizing, trauma-related and externalizing symptoms among early-onset, persistently delinquent adolescents
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Amy E. Lansing, Wendy Y. Plante, Shahrokh Golshan, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Sandrine ThuretAbstractResearch supports cascading relationships among internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and academic problems. This constellation of problems is characteristic of early-onset, persistent delinquent [EOPD] youth, and appropriately targeted interventions accounting for this comorbidity may improve outcomes. To investigate these relationships in EOPD youth, we characterized their cross-diagnostic psychopathology and ver...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Informative tools for characterizing individual differences in learning: Latent class, latent profile, and latent transition analysis
This article gives an introduction to latent class, latent profile, and latent transition models for researchers interested in investigating individual differences in learning and development. The models allow analyzing how the observed heterogeneity in a group (e.g., individual differences in conceptual knowledge) can be traced back to underlying homogeneous subgroups (e.g., learners differing systematically in their developmental phases). The estimated parameters include a characteristic response pattern for each subgroup, and, in the case of longitudinal data, the probabilities of transitioning from one subgroup to anot...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development and validation of the brief regulation of motivation scale
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Yeo-eun Kim, Anna C. Brady, Christopher A. WoltersAbstractThe purpose of this study was to develop and establish evidence supporting the validity of a brief scale designed to assess college students' regulation of motivation. This scale, titled the Brief Regulation of Motivation Scale, is more manageable to administer and intuitive to interpret compared to previous lengthy multidimensional scales. With a sample of 396 college students, multiple sources of validity evidence were examined. Exploratory and confirmatory anal...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiles of rational number knowledge in Finnish and Flemish students – A multigroup latent class analysis
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Jake McMullen, Jo Van Hoof, Tine Degrande, Lieven Verschaffel, Wim Van DoorenAbstractStudents have a great deal of difficulties learning about rational number concepts, as they are confounded by misapplying reasoning about natural numbers to fractions and decimals, referred to as a natural number bias. For example, students often think that the number of digits of a decimal, or the size of the component numbers of fractions, is enough information to determine the magnitude of rational numbers. As well, students have tro...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Patterns of anxiety in algebraic problem solving: A three-step latent variable analysis
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Learning and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Kelly Trezise, Robert A. ReeveAbstractMath anxiety is associated with avoidance of math in high school. It is commonly assessed using questionnaires that examine anxiety experienced for arithmetic. A more nuanced understanding of math anxiety would be gained by investigating the anxiety associated with math problems encountered in high school at the time they are encountered. To this end, we investigated the anxiety associated with algebraic problem solving in 14-year-olds. We varied problem difficulty and the time allo...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Variable control and conceptual change: A large-scale quantitative study in elementary school
We describe how learning pathways vary depending on students' understanding of the control-of-variables strategy and prior content knowledge, and discuss implications for learning and instruction. (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Student perceptions of marker personality and intelligence: The effect of emoticons in online assignment feedback
In this study (N = 210 university students), the inclusion of emoticons in feedback on a faux assignment was manipulated between groups. For both groups, the assignment and the marker's feedback were identical, but for one group, three emoticons were embedded in feedback, as well as in the overall comments (in total: 4 × ☺; 2 × :/). Participants then responded to questions about the marker's personality and intelligence. When emoticons were used, the marker was perceived as being significantly more extraverted, agreeable, and open to experience, suggesting that only minimal cues are necessary to m...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research