[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study1 has attracted considerable attention in both academia and the public domain. The conclusions of the study challenge the dietary advice and guidelines people have adhered to for decades. Scholars have questioned the accuracy of macronutrient distribution data reported in the PURE study for the Chinese population. The study reported that about 77% of the population in China consume at least 60% of energy from carbohydrate and 43% of individuals consume at least 70% of energy from carbohydrate, with a mean of 67 ·0% energy derived from carbohydrate and 17·...
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Xi-Peng Cao, Chen-Chen Tan, Jin-Tai Yu Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
We congratulate Mahshid Dehghan and colleagues on the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study.1 Their results are consistent with evidence suggesting that a diet high in fat might reduce mortality2 and incidence of cardiovascular disease.3 (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Salvatore Carbone, Hayley Billingsley, Antonio Abbate Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study1 investigators did outstanding work, but we have concerns regarding data presentation and interpretation. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Stefan Lorkowski, Margrit Richter, Jakob Linseisen, Bernhard Watzl, German Nutrition Society Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
As intake of dietary fat remains a topic of intense debate,1,2 both in the scientific field and the media, epidemics of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in some low-income countries threaten to become pandemic.3 Scholars, including the authors of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study,4 warn that guidelines on dietary fat have been made on the basis of observational data, which should not be relied on. In India, clinical and public health professionals trying to prevent and control type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease have developed guidelines and interventions using risk factors, includin...
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Raj S Bhopal, Anoop Misra Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) investigators previously published ecological analyses showing that total and cardiovascular mortality was substantially higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (total mortality hazard ratio [HR] 3 ·66 and cardiovascular mortality HR 6·05).1 (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jacques E Rossouw, Ross L Prentice Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
It is better to be rich and healthy than poor and sick: this is the main conclusion from a study1 by Mahshid Dehghan and colleagues published in The Lancet. In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, investigators examined nutrition and disease in 18 countries, focusing on understudied regions. More than 135  000 participants were enrolled between 2003 and 2013, with a median follow-up of 7·4 years. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hana Kahleova, Lee Crosby, Susan Levin, Neal D Barnard Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
Much has been said on the results from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study by Mahshid Dehghan and colleagues.1 Data from 18 countries are represented, providing a valuable contribution to the body of prospective observational evidence. PURE is not the largest, most comprehensive, or longest running cohort study; however, the diverse sampling method is a valuable addition to nutrition epidemiology, should the PURE data be found usable. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Andrew N Reynolds Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality —PURE and simple?
The authors of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study (Nov 4, 2017, p 2050)1 suggest that “removing current restrictions on fat intake, but limiting carbohydrate (when high) might improve health” and that global guidelines should be reconsidered in light of their findings. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jim Mann, Joerg Meerpohl, Chizuru Nishida, Rachael McLean, Lisa Te Morenga Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Partnering over the limit: The Global Fund's brewing crisis
We strongly disagree with the recent comments from Peter Sands, the new executive director of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.1 In response to serious concerns from civil society,2 researchers,3 journals,4 and national representatives5,6 about The Global Fund's partnership with Heineken, Sands states that “the global health community needs to engage the private sector more rather than less…Because if we really want to achieve the SDGs [Sustainable Development Goals] and build more resilient health systems, we need to partner with the private sector to leverage their resources and their ...
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Robert Marten, Ben Hawkins Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] The Global Fund links with Lombard Odier bank
At the World Economic Forum in Davos in January, 2018, Peter Sands —then incoming director of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and former chief executive officer of Standard Chartered Bank—set up deals with Heineken, Lombard Odier, and Unilever. The deal with Heineken, the second largest alcohol brewer in the world, has been severely cri ticised.1 The deal with the Swiss private bank Lombard Odier aims to look at “structures that allow investors to share a proportion of the gains they receive from putting their capital to work”. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Anthony Costello Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Obituary] Gerald Reaven
Pioneer of insulin resistance and endocrinologist credited with identifying the metabolic syndrome. He was born in Gary, IN, USA, on July 28, 1928, and died on Feb 12, 2018, in Stanford, CA, USA, aged 89 years. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ivan Oransky, Adam Marcus Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

[World Report] Concern for human rights in Turkey as Erdo ğan plans election
Experts from the UN, European Union, and USA deplore reversing progress on human rights in Turkey, as Erdo ğan calls for a snap presidential election in June. Sharmila Devi reports. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sharmila Devi Tags: World Report Source Type: research

[World Report] Scientists and physicians run for office in the USA
Frustrated by what they say is the US Government's disregard for science, more scientists and physicians are entering politics. Susan Jaffe, The Lancet's Washington correspondent, reports. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Susan Jaffe Tags: World Report Source Type: research

[Comment] Offline: Towards a Pax Sinica?
One's immediate impression on meeting China's new Minister of Health, Ma Xiaowei, is his sense of humour. Laughter frequently punctuates his sentences. He discusses his love of Agatha Christie. Minister Ma has worked in the National Health Commission (Ministry of Health) for two decades. He knows the job and understands its enormous responsibilities. We met on what he pointed out was his 1-month anniversary in the role. Now is “a very critical period” for the health of the Chinese people. He identified two priorities. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Richard Horton Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Excess oxygen in acute illness: adding fuel to the fire
Oxygen is essential for life and is the third most abundant element in the universe. This abundance is evident in the treatment of acutely ill adults admitted to intensive and progressive care units around the world, in whom excess oxygen is frequently provided for inhalation. The typical motivation for liberal oxygen administration is the prevention of hypoxaemia. By contrast, few health-care providers are concerned about hyperoxaemia —ie, highly elevated arterial oxygen concentrations (arterial oxygen tension>100 mm Hg). (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: John W McEvoy Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression
Depression is a common and disabling condition that is the leading single cause of disability in high-income and middle-income countries. There is good evidence that antidepressants and psychotherapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), are effective treatments. However, many people do not respond to these treatments. Only about 30% of people respond to a 3-month course of antidepressants1 and, in the CoBalT study2 of people who had not responded to antidepressants, about half also did not respond to CBT. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Glyn Lewis Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] Solitary confinement of children and young people
Last week, in a joint statement, the British Medical Association (BMA), the Royal College of Psychiatrists, and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health called for an end to the solitary confinement of children and young people held in UK detention facilities. According to a survey from the HM Inspectorate of Prisons, 38% of boys detained in the UK have spent time in solitary confinement, physically and socially isolated from others, with almost no purposeful interaction or environmental stimuli, for periods that can stretch for up to 80 days. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Editorial] Addressing decreasing vaccine coverage in the EU
In recent years, the European Union (EU) has seen large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles due to declining vaccine coverage, supply shortages, and growing vaccine hesitancy. To address the challenges facing vaccination programmes, the European Commission set an ambitious goal: to put together a Recommendation to strengthen cooperation against vaccine-preventable diseases in EU countries. A roadmap for the Recommendation was published on Dec 4, 2017, and was opened for public consultation for 4 weeks. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Editorial] Making more of multimorbidity: an emerging priority
Multimorbidity would seem a relatively straightforward term, denoting multiple medical conditions within a single patient. Yet an Academy of Medical Sciences report, Multimorbidity: a priority for global health research, published in April, 2018, suggests that competing definitions in the medical literature have impeded research and improvements in patient care. The report recommends that a path forward must include a standardised definition that can be incorporated into research agendas to identify the evidence gaps and to inform the organisation of health-care systems globally. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Department of Error] Department of Error
Sperber A. Mediators help migrants access health services in Italy. Lancet 2018; 391: 1468 –69—In this World Report, the name of one contributor, Ousmane Thiam, was occasionally misspelled. The online version has been corrected as of April 27, 2018. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Department of Error Source Type: research

[Articles] Development and validation of a Hospital Frailty Risk Score focusing on older people in acute care settings using electronic hospital records: an observational study
The Hospital Frailty Risk Score provides hospitals and health systems with a low-cost, systematic way to screen for frailty and identify a group of patients who are at greater risk of adverse outcomes and for whom a frailty-attuned approach might be useful. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Thomas Gilbert, Jenny Neuburger, Joshua Kraindler, Eilis Keeble, Paul Smith, Cono Ariti, Sandeepa Arora, Andrew Street, Stuart Parker, Helen C Roberts, Martin Bardsley, Simon Conroy Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] What proportion of older adults in hospital are frail?
Despite the increasing level of knowledge about individual illnesses, modern health-care systems seem lost when seeing patients whose diseases come not one at a time, but all at once —especially when they come with equally complex social needs. Although some geriatricians proclaimed the end of the disease era1 to focus on the complexity of frailty in geriatric assessment,2 the argument is falling flat. Disease-focused specialists who push on with the only course they know some times decry their frail patients as being unsuitable or requiring social support or failing to cope or thrive. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Samuel D Searle, Kenneth Rockwood Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Articles] Effect of generalised access to early diagnosis and treatment and targeted mass drug administration on Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Eastern Myanmar: an observational study of a regional elimination programme
Providing early diagnosis and effective treatment substantially decreased village-level incidence of artemisinin-resistant P falciparum malaria in hard-to-reach, politically sensitive regions of eastern Myanmar. Targeted mass drug administration significantly reduced malaria incidence in hotspots. If these activities could proceed in all contiguous endemic areas in addition to standard control programmes already implemented, there is a possibility of subnational elimination of P falciparum. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Khin Maung Lwin, Gilles Delmas, Fran çois H Nosten, Malaria Elimination Task Force Group Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] Can improving access to care help to eliminate malaria?
Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, with 32% of the world's population living in areas of risk.1 Despite the progress that has been made in reducing the burden of malaria through improved access to preventive interventions,1 there remain many challenges to the eventual eradication of the parasite. Perhaps one of the greatest challenges is the continual battle with resistance, to both the drugs used to treat the cases and the insecticides used to kill the mosquito hosts. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Azra C Ghani Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Department of Error] Department of Error
Chen I, Cooney R, Feachem RGA, Lal A, Mpanju-Shumbusho W. The Lancet Commission on malaria eradication. Lancet 2018; 391: 1556 –58—In this Comment (published online first on April 16, 2018), the affiliation for Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho should be RBM Partnership to End Malaria, and the weblink should be RBM Partnership to End Malaria. These corrections have been made to the online version as of April 19, 2018, and the pri nted Comment is correct. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Department of Error Source Type: research

[Department of Error] Department of Error
Cohen AJ, Brauer M, Burnett R, et al. Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015. Lancet 2017; 389: 1907 –18—In this Article (published online first on April 10, 2017), the mathematical form for the IER has been corrected. This correction has been made to the online version as of April 19, 2018. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Department of Error Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prevention of dementia by targeting risk factors – Authors' reply
We welcome the opportunity to respond to the letters about The Lancet Commission1 on dementia prevention, intervention, and care. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gill Livingston, Andrew Sommerlad, Lon Schneider, Naaheed Mukadam, Sergi Costafreda Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prevention of dementia by targeting risk factors
The Lancet Commission (Dec 16, 2017, p 2673)1 on prevention and management of dementia reviews the mounting evidence that hearing loss is a major risk factor for cognitive decline. Crucial information is still absent about the nature of this linkage and what factors might modify the cognitive effect of peripheral hearing loss. Particularly, the potential relevance of central hearing impairment should not be underestimated. As Gill Livingston and colleagues1 acknowledge, on pathophysiological and neuroanatomical grounds, central auditory processing is likely to be susceptible early in the course of Alzheimer's disease and o...
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jason D Warren, Doris-Eva Bamiou Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prevention of dementia by targeting risk factors
The report by Gill Livingston and colleagues (Dec 16, 2017 p 2673)1 is a valuable collation of a large body of medical research evidence that aims to combat the dementia epidemic, the greatest global challenge for health and social care in the 21st century. One of the key messages of the Commission is the need to be ambitious in terms of prevention. Using population attributable fractions (PAF), the authors estimate that as much as 35% of dementia cases could be prevented by targeting nine modifiable risk factors. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mika Kivim äki, Archana Singh-Manoux Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prophylactic mesh augmentation in midline laparotomy
The conclusions of the PRIMA (PRImary Mesh closure of Abdominal midline wounds) trial1 (Aug 5, 2017, p 567) need to be taken with caution for several reasons. The rate of 18% of incisional hernia in patients receiving prophylactic sublay mesh implantation is very high compared with frequencies below 5% in many other reports.2,3 Furthermore, most series report a lower recurrence rate after sublay than onlay mesh implantation in the repair of incisional hernia.4,5 Therefore, the technical problems or insufficient training with the sublay group does not allow the conclusion that onlay mesh reinforcement has the potential to b...
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Manuel Jakob, Guido Beldi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prophylactic repair to prevent midline incisional hernia
The PRIMA (PRImary Mesh closure of Abdominal midline wounds) trial by An Jairam and colleagues (Aug 5, 2017, p 567),1 provides relevant information on the outcomes of prophylactic repair of midline laparotomies for the prevention of incisional hernia. The trial shows significant reduction in the incidence of incisional hernia with onlay and sublay mesh reinforcement compared with primary suture only repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, but not in patients with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/m2, contrary to the claim made by the authors of the PRIMA trial (ie, superior outcome of onlay mesh repair ...
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Badri M Shrestha Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Mesh augmentation for midline abdominal closure
In the 2-year follow-up of the PRIMA (PRImary Mesh closure of Abdominal midline wounds) trial (Aug 5, 2017, p 567),1 prophylactic onlay mesh augmentation for midline abdominal closure significantly reduced the risk of incisional hernia, with similar risks of surgical site infection compared with primary closure. Consequently, An Jairam and colleagues1 conclude that onlay mesh augmentation has the potential to become the standard treatment for patients at high risk of incisional hernia. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tetsuji Fujita Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] The hepatitis B epidemic in China should receive more attention
China's childhood hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programme is a great public health success, resulting in a prevalence of HBsAg of only 1% in children under 5 years. However, the burden of HBV infection in China is still the highest in the world, with one third of the world's 240 million people with chronic HBV living in China.1 Nevertheless, most people with HBV infection in China are unaware that they carry the disease, making HBV infection a truly silent epidemic.2 (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shanquan Chen, Jun Li, Dan Wang, Hong Fung, Lai-yi Wong, Lu Zhao Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Healthier lives for all Africans
In their Commission, Irene Agyepong and colleagues (Dec 23, 2017, p 2803)1 provide a comprehensive report on the pathway to healthier lives for all Africans by 2030. As highlighted in the Commission, we have been involved in training family physicians in Africa for the past 20 years within the framework of the Primary Care and Family Medicine Education (Primafamed) network, a South –South cooperation that brings together family medicine, primary care, and public health in more than 20 African countries. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Robert Mash, Akye Essuman, Innocent Besigye, Olayinka Ayankogbe, Per Kallestrup, Jan De Maeseneer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Surgical surveillance in resource-poor settings
We congratulate the African Surgical Outcomes Study team, led by investigators from low-income and middle-income countries, for quantifying the scale of global inequality in surgical care, and for providing measurable goals for future improvement efforts (April 21, p 1589).1 This work also highlights the poor availability of the detailed information necessary to translate these inequalities into potential solutions.2,3 Continuous surveillance systems or registries could provide such information but are notoriously challenging; disparate paper-based systems, inadequate resources, and overburdened staff are seemingly insurmo...
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Abi Beane, Duncan Wagstaff, Anuja Abayadeera, David Walker, Rashan Haniffa Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Obituary] Dame Beulah Rosemary Bewley
Public health physician and champion of women in medicine. She was born in Derry, UK, on Sept 2, 1929, and died with heart disease and dementia in London, UK, on Jan 20, 2018, aged 88 years. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Geoff Watts Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

[Perspectives] Stories of shame
The American physician and writer, Danielle Ofri, tells the story of a near fatal mistake that she made at the beginning of the second year of her residency. A patient was brought to the emergency room in a diabetic coma, and although her initial management was fine, Ofri then made an error and “proceeded to nearly kill…[the] patient”. Recognising her predicament, she called for senior assistance. When an explanation was demanded of her performance, Ofri's words dried up. Humiliation set in as she was questioned in front of her intern: “I could almost feel myself dying away on the spot. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Barry Lyons, Matthew Gibson, Luna Dolezal Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

[Perspectives] Water and our planet
From worryingly low precipitation in California to acute water shortages in Cape Town, climate change is exacerbating natural variations in weather patterns. Problems of water use and security are apparent worldwide and underpin Edward Burtynsky: Water Matters, an exhibition at Arup's offices in London's Fitzrovia. Canadian photographer and film maker Burtynsky has been photographing our environment for over 30 years, documenting the industrially ravaged earth in the process. He turned his attention to water in 2009, releasing the critically acclaimed film Watermark with Jennifer Baichwal in 2013. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Helen Bynum, Bill Bynum Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

[Perspectives] Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho: leader in the fight against malaria
“The malaria fight is at a crossroads. If we don't seize the moment now, our hard-won gains against the disease will be lost,” says Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho. “After a decade of progress, malaria cases have increased for the first time, and funding for malaria treatments and prevention has plate aued…especially in Africa which carries more than 90% of the disease burden and progress has stalled over the past few years. We need a new movement to mobilise the political will and resources, as well as citizen action, towards effective malaria control and elimination.” As Board Chair of the RBM Part...
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: John Zarocostas Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

[Special Report] Claims of sexual harassment and assault threaten UN agency
Sexual harassment and assault investigation at UNAIDS draws attention to an endemic problem. Critics say the UN's internal system is flawed and call for external oversight. John Zarocostas reports. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: John Zarocostas Tags: Special Report Source Type: research

[Comment] Offline: The legacy and lessons of May '68
Doctors have only cared for the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it. Imagine you are a distinguished Professor of Medicine, the Rector of one of your country's most garlanded universities. Your students are angry. They have seen fellow students at a nearby university rebel against atrociously poor conditions —overcrowding, incompetent curriculum reforms, and feelings of utter alienation. Tensions are palpable. The air is chilled by the threat of violence. What would you do? Let us not judge. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Richard Horton Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Social lobbying: a call to arms for public health
The term lobbying derives from the public lobbies of the UK Houses of Parliament in London, where concerned citizens have gathered since at least the 16th century to speak with elected officials on the sidelines of legislative debates. In today's parlance, lobbying has evolved to represent a more pernicious and systematic approach to influencing lawmakers, occurring much deeper within the corridors of power. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Alessandro Demaio, Robert Marshall Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] UK COPD treatment: failing to progress
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality in the world today. More than a million British people lived with diagnosed COPD in the UK in 2014 –15, or just under 2% of the population. COPD admissions to emergency services in the UK are on the rise, but, access to treatments shown to reduce patients' time spent in hospital is still woefully inadequate. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Editorial] Sexual harassment and abuse —the sinister underbelly
This week, The Lancet, publishes a Special Report on allegations of sexual harassment and abuse at UNAIDS. The report suggests that UNAIDS has at best marginalised and at worst buried allegations of sexual harassment. Its responses have been unduly weak and unacceptable, and the announcements of remediation are too little too late. Furthermore, internal loyalty to the existing leadership seems to trump integrity in the organisation, and has contributed to a culture devoid of transparency and accountability. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Editorial] Orban not delivering health for Hungary
Viktor Orban's re-election to a third consecutive term in Hungary offers a preview for western countries of what the health consequences could be for governments that value populism and economic strength over the health of their people. The controversial populist was swept back into power by a wave of support, with a manifesto that included a crackdown on liberal non-governmental organisations. Orban said before the election that his opponents will face “moral, political, and legal revenge”, in the aftermath. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Articles] Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995 –2015
From 1995 to 2015, total health spending increased worldwide, with the fastest per capita growth in middle-income countries. While these national disparities are relatively well known, low-income countries spent less per person on health and HIV/AIDS than did high-income and middle-income countries. Furthermore, declines in development assistance for health continue, including for HIV/AIDS. Additional cuts to development assistance could hasten this decline, and risk slowing progress towards global and national goals. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Articles] Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016 –40
We chart future scenarios for health spending and its relationship with UHC. Ensuring that all countries have sustainable pooled health resources is crucial to the achievement of UHC. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Series] Intervention strategies to improve nutrition and health behaviours before conception
The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentiv...
Source: LANCET - April 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mary Barker, Stephan U Dombrowski, Tim Colbourn, Caroline H D Fall, Natasha M Kriznik, Wendy T Lawrence, Shane A Norris, Gloria Ngaiza, Dilisha Patel, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Falko F Sniehotta, R égine Steegers-Theunissen, Christina Vogel, Kathryn Woods- Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Origins of lifetime health around the time of conception: causes and consequences
Parental environmental factors, including diet, body composition, metabolism, and stress, affect the health and chronic disease risk of people throughout their lives, as captured in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept. Research across the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science fields has identified the period around conception as being crucial for the processes mediating parental influences on the health of the next generation. During this time, from the maturation of gametes through to early embryonic development, parental lifestyle can adversely influence long-term risks of offspring cardiovascu...
Source: LANCET - April 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tom P Fleming, Adam J Watkins, Miguel A Velazquez, John C Mathers, Andrew M Prentice, Judith Stephenson, Mary Barker, Richard Saffery, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Judith J Eckert, Mark A Hanson, Terrence Forrester, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health
We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Judith Stephenson, Nicola Heslehurst, Jennifer Hall, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Jayne Hutchinson, Janet E Cade, Lucilla Poston, Geraldine Barrett, Sarah R Crozier, Mary Barker, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Janis Baird, Gita D Mishra Tags: Series Source Type: research