Pathogenicity of an FAdV-4 isolate to chickens and its genomic analysis
AbstractFowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) strain SD1511 was isolated from chickens with severe inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome in Shandong Province, China. The isolate was cultured in primary chicken embryo kidney cells. A study of pathogenicity indicated that SD1511 readily infected 7 –35-d-old chickens by intramuscular injection and intranasal and oral routes, causing 50%–100% mortality. The 35-d-old chickens suffered more severe infection than 7- and 21-d-old chickens with mortality highest in the intramuscular injection group. The serum from surviving chickens showed poten t viral n...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a novel strain (YH01) of Micropterus salmoides rhabdovirus and expression of its glycoprotein by the baculovirus expression system
In this study, a new strain ofM. salmoides rhabdovirus (MSRV) was isolated from Yuhang, Zhejiang Province, China, and named MSRV-YH01. The virus infected the grass carp ovary (GCO) cell line and displayed virion particles with atypical bullet shape, 300 –500 nm in length and 100–200 nm in diameter under transmission electron microscopy. The complete genome sequence of this isolate was determined to include 11 526 nucleotides and to encode five classical structural proteins. The construction of the phylogenetic tree indicated that this new isola te is clustered into theVesiculovirus genus and most closely relate...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Impact of LDB3 gene polymorphisms on clinical presentation and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in Chinese patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
AbstractObjectiveMutations in LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3) gene cause idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), a structural heart disease with a complicated genetic background. However, the association of polymorphisms in theLDB3 gene with susceptibility to IDCM in Chinese populations remains unexplored as dose the impact on clinical presentation.MethodsWe sequenced all exons and the adjacent part of introns of theLDB3 gene in 159 Chinese Han IDCM patients and 247 healthy controls. Then we detected the distribution of polymorphisms in theLDB3 gene in all participants and assessed their associations with risk of IDCM. Addit...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of a panel of biomarkers related to protein phosphatase 2A between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues
抽象目 的探讨喉癌患者组织样本中蛋白磷酸酶 2A 及其相关蛋白在癌组织与癌旁组织之间的表达差异, 建立可用于临床进行喉癌患者预后分层的多指标预测体系。创新点以蛋白磷酸酶 2A 为核心, 探讨系列肿瘤转移相关指标参与喉癌发生发展的分子机制。方 法收集 2012∼2015 年间浙江大学医学院附属第二医院耳鼻咽喉科 28 例喉鳞状细胞癌患者的临床组织样本, 提取总蛋白后进行免疫印迹分析。结 论与癌旁正常组织相比, 喉癌组织中 phospho-PP2A/C (Y307)、α4、CIP2A、Akt、ezrin、pho...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Antepenultimate residue at the C-terminus of NADPH oxidase RBOHD is critical for its function in the production of reactive oxygen species in Arabidopsis
In this study, we isolated mutants defective in LPS-triggered biphasic ROS burst (delt) inArabidopsis, and cloned theDELT1 gene that was shown to encode RBOHD. In thedelt1-2 allele, the antepenultimate residue, glutamic acid (E919), at the C-terminus of RBOHD was mutated to lysine (K). E919 is a highly conserved residue in NADPH oxidases, and a mutation of the corresponding residue E568 in human NOX2 has been reported to be one of the causes of chronic granulomatous disease. Consistently, we found that residue E919 was indispensable for RBOHD function in the MAMP-induced ROS burst and stomatal closure. It has been suggeste...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Sensors for the mTORC1 pathway regulated by amino acids
AbstractThe mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to various environmental inputs, especially amino acids. In fact, the activity of mTORC1 is highly sensitive to changes in amino acid levels. Over past decades, a variety of proteins have been identified as participating in the mTORC1 pathway regulated by amino acids. Classically, the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), which reside on the lysosome, transmit amino acid availability to the mTORC1 pathway and recruit mTORC1 to the lysosome upon amino acid sufficiency. Recently, several sensors of leucine, argin...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Comprehensive genetic diagnosis of patients with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) and pathogenicity analysis of splice site variants in the DMD gene
AbstractDuchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are caused by mutations in theDMD gene. The aim of this study is to identify pathogenicDMD variants in probands and reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease in affected families. Variations in 100 unrelated DMD/BMD patients were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Pathogenic variants inDMD were successfully identified in all cases, and 11 of them were novel. The most common mutations were intragenic deletions (69%), with two hotspots located in the 5 ′ end (exons 2&nd...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - August 7, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Lymphatic vasculature in tumor metastasis and immunobiology
AbstractLymphatic vessels are essential for tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and intestinal lipid absorption. The lymphatics have long been recognized to serve as conduits for distant tumor dissemination. However, recent findings suggest that the regional lymphatic vasculature also shapes the immune microenvironment of the tumor mass and potentiates immunotherapy. This review discusses the role of lymphatic vessels in tumor metastasis and tumor immunity. (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 12, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Eyelid margin cleaning using Deep Cleaning Device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction-associated dry eye: a preliminary investigation
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the safety and effectiveness of eyelid margin cleaning using Deep Cleaning Device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction-associated dry eye.MethodsThis was a prospective, randomized, open-label, investigator-masked, and self-controlled study. We randomly assigned one eye of patients with meibomian gland dysfunction-associated dry eye to the treatment group, and the other eye to the control group. Both groups received artificial tears and lid warming; the treatment group received an additional one-time in-office eyelid margin cleaning using Deep Cleaning Device. Non-invasive tear break...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

DNA sequences homologous to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the extrachromosomal circular DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HCV-negative subjects
ConclusionsThe experimental results confirm our assumption that parts of the HCV 5 ′-NCR genomic RNA sequences are present at the DNA level in the eccDNA fraction of PBMCs. The tests for methylation patterns therein revealed individual methylomes which could represent an epigenetic feature. The respective sequence section might be subject to genetic regulation. (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Bionic mechanical design and 3D printing of novel porous Ti6Al4V implants for biomedical applications
We describe the mechanical properties of this implant, which we suggest is capable of providing important biological functions for bone tissue regeneration. We characterize a novel bionic design and fabrication process for porous implants. A design concept of “reducing dimensions and designing layer by layer” was used to construct layered slice and rod-connected mesh structure (LSRCMS) implants. Porous LSRCMS implants with different parameters and porosities were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). Printed samples were evaluated by microstru cture characterization, specific mechanical properties were a...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Phosphorylation residue T175 in RsbR protein is required for efficient induction of sigma B factor and survival of Listeria monocytogenes under acidic stress
In this study, the role of RsbR inL. monocytogenes under mild and severe stresses was investigated. Strains with genetic deletion ( ΔrsbR), complementation (C-ΔrsbR), and phosphorylation site mutations in thersbR (RsbR-T175A, RsbR-T209A, and RsbR-T175A-T209A) were constructed to evaluate the roles of these RsbR sequences in listerial growth and survival. SigB was examined at the transcriptional and translational levels. Deletion ofrsbR reduced listerial growxth and survival in response to acidic stress. Substitution of the phosphorylation residue RsbR-T175A disabled RsbR complementation, while RsbR-T209A signif...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Estrogen modulation of visceral pain
AbstractIt is commonly accepted that females and males differ in their experience of pain. Gender differences have been found in the prevalence and severity of pain in both clinical and animal studies. Sex-related hormones are found to be involved in pain transmission and have critical effects on visceral pain sensitivity. Studies have pointed out the idea that serum estrogen is closely related to visceral nociceptive sensitivity. This review aims to summarize the literature relating to the role of estrogen in modulating visceral pain with emphasis on deciphering the potential central and peripheral mechanisms. (Source: Jo...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatotoxicity induced by Ageratina adenophora in mice
抽象目 的研究紫茎泽兰造成小鼠肝脏毒性损伤后, 肝脏线粒体结构和功能发生变化的情况。创新点紫茎泽兰可以导致肝脏细胞发生凋亡和焦亡, 从而产生中毒损伤, 然而尚未有报道其对线粒体超微结构和功能的改变。 本研究通过多种手段解决了这一问题。方 法将 40 只小鼠随机分成 4 组, 分别饲喂不同浓度的紫茎泽兰饲料 (对照组、 100、 200 和 300 g/kg 紫茎泽兰添加饲料组)。 采用苏木精-伊红染色法 (H&E) 研究肝脏损伤情况, 利用透射电子显微技术研究线粒体超微结构改变。 ...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Zn metabolism of monogastric species and consequences for the definition of feeding requirements and the estimation of feed Zn bioavailability
AbstractA major goal of mineral nutrition research is to provide information of feed zinc (Zn) utilization efficiency and gross Zn requirements as affected by changing rearing conditions. This can be achieved only by applying precise experimental models that acknowledge the basic principles of Zn metabolism. This review article summarizes the most important aspects of Zn homeostasis in monogastric species, including molecular aspects of Zn acquisition and excretion. Special emphasis is given to the role of the skeleton as well as the exocrine pancreas for animal Zn metabolism. Finally, we discuss consequences arising from ...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Coexistence of proangiogenic potential and increased MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels in the plasma of patients with critical limb ischemia
概 要本研究通过比较间歇性跛行 (IC) 和严重肢体缺血 (CLI) 患者的血液参数, 选择合适的临床和生化特指标, 以评估促血管生成的潜力和抑制血管生成的作用。 结果表明, 通过刺激下肢动脉疾病 (LEAD) 病人血浆中的血管生成, 内皮生长因 子 A (VEGF-A) 浓度会显著增加, 同时依赖于循环受体 sVEGFR-1 和 sVEGFR-2 的抑制也会显著减少。 与 IC 病人相比, CLI 病人具有较高的 VEGF-A、 金属蛋白酶 9 (MMP-9) 、 金属蛋白酶组织抑制因子 1 (TIMP-1) 和 TIMP-2 浓度。 (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Adult sacrococcygeal teratoma: a retrospective study over eight years at a single institution
ConclusionsOur retrospective study demonstrated: (1) adult SCT is difficult to diagnose because of a lack of typical clinical symptoms and signs; (2) a combination of CT and MRI examination is beneficial for preoperative diagnosis; (3) the choice of surgical approach and surgical resection modality depends on the size, location, and components of the tumor, which can be defined from preoperative CT and MRI evaluation; (4) most adult SCTs are benign; the surgical outcome for the malignant SCT patient was good after complete resection. Even for the patient with recurrent malignant SCT, the surgical outcome was good after re-...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Improvement in post-partum uterine involution in rats treated with Apios americana
Conclusions: These results, based on experimental observation s at the molecular and protein levels, verified our hypothesis that Apios can improve uterine involution, and demonstrated the potential application of Apios in post-partum care. (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Epigenetics recording varied environment and complex cell events represents the origin of cellular aging
AbstractAlthough a relationship between epigenetics and aging phenotypic changes has been established, a theoretical explanation of the intrinsic connection between the epigenetics and aging is lacking. In this essay, we propose that epigenetic recording of varied cell environment and complex history could be an origin of cellular aging. Through epigenetic modifications, the environment and historical events can induce the chromatin template into an activated or repressive accessible structure, thereby shaping the DNA template into a spectrum of chromatin states. The inner nature of diversity and conflicts born by the cell...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive pulse therapy in the treatment of paraquat poisoning
AbstractParaquat (PQ), a highly effective herbicide, is widely used worldwide. PQ poisoning can cause multiple organ failure, in which the lung is the primary target organ. After PQ poisoning, the patient mortality rate is as high as 90%, and there is currently no specific antidote. The main clinical treatment is the use of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide for pulse therapy, but its effectiveness and safety are still uncertain. We investigated the effectiveness and safety of immunosuppressive pulse therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide to evaluate the treatment value in patients with acute PQ poisoning. Thi...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Relationship between genetic variation in the α 2A -adrenergic receptor and the cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine in the Chinese Han population
AbstractThere are differences in individual cardiovascular responses to the administration of dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) agonist. The aim of this study was to investigateADRA2A gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population and their association with the cardiovascular response to intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion. Sixty elective surgery patients of Chinese Han nationality were administered 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine intravenously over 10 min as a premedication.ADRA2A C-1291G and A1780G polymorphism status was determined in these patients, and their relationships to c...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Comparison of volatile profiles and bioactive components of sun-dried Pu-erh tea leaves from ancient tea plants on Bulang Mountain measured by GC-MS and HPLC
AbstractTo explore the volatile profiles and the contents of ten bioactive components (polyphenols and caffeine) of sun-dried Pu-erh tea leaves from ancient tea plants on Bulang Mountain, 17 samples of three tea varieties were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 75 volatile components were tentatively identified. Laomaner (LME), Laobanzhang (LBZ), and other teas on Bulang Mountain (BL) contained 70, 53, and 71 volatile compounds, respectively. Among the volatile compounds, alcohols (30.2% –...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Hypolipidemic activity of low-cholesterol ovum oil of Rana chensinensis and phytosterol (stigmasterol) in rats
中文概要目的:探索林蛙副产物林蛙卵油的开发价值。创新点:首次验证了低胆固醇林蛙卵油的减重降脂功能。方法:Sprague-Dawley 大鼠连续被灌胃8 周后,分成8组:(1)对照组喂食标准饲料;(2)高脂组喂食60%高脂饲料;(3)阳性对照组喂食3.33 mg/(kg·d)辛伐他汀;(4)OORC 组喂食2 g/(kg·d)的低胆固醇林蛙卵油(OORC);(5)植物甾醇组喂食0.48 g/(kg·d) 的豆甾醇;( 6 ) 低剂量组喂食1 g/(kg·d)的低胆固醇OORC 和0.24 g/(kg·d)的豆甾醇;(7)中剂量组喂食2 g/(kg·d)的低胆固醇OORC 和0.48 g/(kg·...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Exosome-derived galectin-9 may be a novel predictor of rejection and prognosis after liver transplantation
AbstractAcute cellular rejection (ACR) remains a major concern after liver transplantation. Predicting and monitoring acute rejection by non-invasive methods are very important for guiding the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies have shown that exosomes and their contents are potential biomarkers for various liver diseases. Here, we identify and validate the role of exosomes and galectin-9 in ACR after liver transplantation. Exosomes were isolated from three sets of paired patients, with and without ACR, and the proteins within the exosomes were isolated and identified. Candidate proteins were then validated using...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Recent advances in the neural regulation of feeding behavior in adult Drosophila
AbstractThe ability to maintain metabolic homeostasis is a key capability critical for the survival and well-being of animals living in constantly changing environments. Metabolic homeostasis depends on neuromodulators, such as biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, to signal changes in animals ’ internal metabolic status and to orchestrate their behaviors accordingly. An important example is the regulation of feeding behavior by conserved molecular and cellular mechanisms across the animal kingdom. Its relatively simple brain coupled with well-characterized genetics and behavioral parad igms makes the fruit f...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - June 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

On the necessity of an integrative approach to understand protein structural dynamics
AbstractProteins are dynamic, fluctuating between multiple conformational states. Protein dynamics, spanning orders of magnitude in time and space, allow proteins to perform specific functions. Moreover, under certain conditions, proteins can morph into a different set of conformations. Thus, a complete understanding of protein structural dynamics can provide mechanistic insights into protein function. Here, we review the latest developments in methods used to determine protein ensemble structures and to characterize protein dynamics. Techniques including X-ray crystallography, cryogenic electron microscopy, and small angl...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Novel insights into cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination
AbstractThe stem/progenitor cell has long been regarded as a central cell type in development, homeostasis, and regeneration, largely owing to its robust self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities. The balance between self-renewal and stem/progenitor cell differentiation requires the coordinated regulation of cell cycle progression and cell fate determination. Extensive studies have demonstrated that cell cycle states determine cell fates, because cells in different cell cycle states are characterized by distinct molecular features and functional outputs. Recent advances in high-resolution epigenome profiling,...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Genomic data mining for functional annotation of human long noncoding RNAs
AbstractLife may have begun in an RNA world, which is supported by increasing evidence of the vital role that RNAs perform in biological systems. In the human genome, most genes actually do not encode proteins; they are noncoding RNA genes. The largest class of noncoding genes is known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are transcripts greater in length than 200 nucleotides, but with no protein-coding capacity. While some lncRNAs have been demonstrated to be key regulators of gene expression and 3D genome organization, most lncRNAs are still uncharacterized. We thus propose several data mining and machine learning app...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

p53 and its isoforms in DNA double-stranded break repair
AbstractDNA double-stranded break (DSB) is one of the most catastrophic damages of genotoxic insult. Inappropriate repair of DNA DSBs results in the loss of genetic information, mutation, and the generation of harmful genomic rearrangements, which predisposes an organism to immunodeficiency, neurological damage, and cancer. The tumor repressor p53 plays a key role in DNA damage response, and has been found to be mutated in 50% of human cancer. p53, p63, and p73 are three members of thep53 gene family. Recent discoveries have shown that humanp53 gene encodes at least 12 isoforms. Different p53 members and isoforms play vari...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Bacterial degradation of anthraquinone dyes
AbstractAnthraquinone dyes, which contain anthraquinone chromophore groups, are the second largest class of dyes after azo dyes and are used extensively in textile industries. The majority of these dyes are resistant to degradation because of their complex and stable structures; consequently, a large number of anthraquinone dyes find their way into the environment causing serious pollution. At present, the microbiological approach to treating printing and dyeing wastewater is considered to be an economical and feasible method, and reports regarding the bacterial degradation of anthraquinone dyes are increasing. This paper ...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Pericarp and seed of litchi and longan fruits: constituent, extraction, bioactive activity, and potential utilization
AbstractLitchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruits have a succulent and white aril with a brown seed and are becoming popular worldwide. The two fruits have been used in traditional Chinese medicine as popular herbs in the treatment of neural pain, swelling, and cardiovascular disease. The pericarp and seed portions as the by-products of litchi and longan fruits are estimated to be approximately 30% of the dry weight of the whole fruit and are rich in bioactive constituents. In the recent years, many biological activities, such as tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immun...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Mechanisms and regulation of aluminum-induced secretion of organic acid anions from plant roots
AbstractAluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal element in the earth ’s crust. On acid soils, at pH 5.5 or lower, part of insoluble Al-containing minerals become solubilized into soil solution, with resultant highly toxic effects on plant growth and development. Nevertheless, some plants have developed Al-tolerance mechanisms that enable them to counteract this Al toxicity. One such well-documented mechanism is the Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions, including citrate, malate, and oxalate, from plant roots. Once secreted, these anions chelate external Al ions, thus protecting the secreting plant from Al tox...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Exosomal long non-coding RNAs: biological properties and therapeutic potential in cancer treatment
AbstractExosomes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important elements contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of cancer development and progression. The discovery of lncRNAs in exosomes further indicates their bona fide biological functional roles in cancer development and drug resistance. In this review, we describe the biogenesis of exosomes and summarize the function of exosomal lncRNAs in the field of cancer research. These findings strikingly advance current knowledge of exosomal lncRNAs and suggest that they may be promising diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer. (Source...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Tumor immunology and immunotherapy: a journey I started from Hangzhou
概 要为庆祝浙江大学生命科学学院九十华诞, 谨写此文。作者冯根生是原杭州大学生物学系七七级学生; 在杭大求学期间, 选修了免疫学和肿瘤生物学, 深受启发。 冯现在是加州大学圣地亚哥校区医学院病理系和生命科学学院的教授。 实验室目前的研究重点是肝癌发病机理和肝癌免疫治疗。 这得益于当年在杭大的启蒙教育。 (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Bile-ology: from bench to bedside
AbstractBile acids (BAs) are originally known as detergents essential for the digestion and absorption of lipids. In recent years, extensive research has unveiled new functions of BAs as gut hormones that modulate physiological and pathological processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, inflammation, tumorigenesis, cardiovascular disease, and even the central nervous system in addition to cholesterol homeostasis, enterohepatic protection and liver regeneration. BAs are closely linked with gut microbiota which might explain some of their crucial roles in organs. The signaling actions of BAs can a...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Complex roles of necroptosis in cancer
AbstractNecroptosis is a tightly regulated form of necrosis that requires the activation of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3, as well as the RIPK3 substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Because of membrane rupture, necroptotic cells release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that evoke immune responses. Necroptosis is emerging as an important cellular response in the modulation of cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Necroptosis of cancer cells is considered to be an immunogenic cell death capable of activating anti-tumor immunity. Necroptosis also particip...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Role of SIRT1 in hematologic malignancies
AbstractSirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a protein deacetylase, which regulates various physiological activities by deacetylating different protein substrates. An increasing number of studies have revealed critical roles of SIRT1 in different aspects of cancers including metabolism, proliferation, genomic instability, and chemotherapy resistance. Depending on the protein targets in a certain oncogenic context, SIRT1 may play a unique role in each individual blood cancer subtype. Our previous work showed that activation of SIRT1 in primitive leukemia cells of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) promotes ...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

O -GlcNAcylation, a sweet link to the pathology of diseases
AbstractO-linkedN-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic post-translational modification occurring on myriad proteins in the cell nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. The donor sugar forO-GlcNAcylation, uridine-diphosphateN-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), is synthesized from glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). The recycling ofO-GlcNAc on proteins is mediated by two enzymes in cells —O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) andO-GlcNAcase (OGA), which catalyze the addition and removal ofO-GlcNAc, respectively.O-GlcNAcylation is involved in a number of important cell processes including transcription, tran...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Estrogen receptor coactivator Mediator Subunit 1 (MED1) as a tissue-specific therapeutic target in breast cancer
AbstractBreast cancer, one of the most frequent cancer types, is a leading cause of death in women worldwide. Estrogen receptor (ER) a is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays key roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. About 75% of breast cancer cases are diagnosed as ER-positive; however, nearly half of these cancers are either intrinsically or inherently resistant to the current anti-estrogen therapies. Recent studies have identified an ER coactivator, Mediator Subunit 1 (MED1), as a unique, tissue-specific cofactor that mediates breast cancer metastasis and treatment resistance. MED1 is overexpressed in o...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Cell models and drug discovery for mitochondrial diseases
AbstractMitochondrion is a semi-autonomous organelle, important for cell energy metabolism, apoptosis, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation is one of the primary factors in mitochondrial disorders. Though much progress has been made, there remain many difficulties in constructing cell models for mitochondrial diseases. This seriously restricts studies related to targeted drug discovery and the mechanism and therapy for such diseases. Here we summarize the characteristics of patient-specific immortalized lymphoblastoid cells, fibroblastoid cells, cytoplasm...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Roles of hyaluronan in cardiovascular and nervous system disorders
AbstractHyaluronan is a widely occurring extracellular matrix molecule, which is not only a supporting structural component, but also an active regulator of cellular functions. The chemophysical and biological properties of hyaluronan are greatly affected by its molecular size and several hyaluronan-binding proteins, making hyaluronan a fascinating molecule with great functional diversity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of hyaluronan in cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke, with the aim to provide a foundation for future resea...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

A special issue to mark the 90th Anniversary of College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University
(Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Development of a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Rice stripe virus
In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 16E6 and 11C1 against RSV and a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip were developed for specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of RSV in rice plant and planthopper samples. The MAb 16E6 was conjugated with colloidal gold and the MAb 11C1 was coated on the test line of the nitrocellulose membrane of the test strip. The specificity of the test strip was confirmed by a positive reaction to RSV-infected rice plants and small brown planthopper (SBPH), and negative reactions to five other rice viruses, healthy rice plants, four other vectors of five rice viruses, and ...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Simulation of inter atrial block based on a human atrial model
AbstractInter atrial block (IAB) is a prevailing cardiac conduction abnormality that is under-recognized in clinical practice. IAB has strong association with atrial arrhythmia, left atrial enlargement, and electromechanical discordance, increasing the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and myocardial ischemia. IAB was generally believed to be caused by impaired conduction along the Bachmann bundle (BB). However, there are three other conduction pathways, including the fibers posteriorly in the vicinity of the right pulmonary veins (VRPV), transseptal fibers in the fossa ovalis (FO), and muscular bundles on the inferior atri...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Advances in low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles in targeted tumor therapy
AbstractThe development of low-frequency ultrasound imaging technology and the improvement of ultrasound contrast agent production technology mean that they play an increasingly important role in tumor therapy. The interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles and their biological effects can transfer and release microbubbles carrying genes and drugs to target tissues, mediate the apoptosis of tumor cells, and block the embolization of tumor microvasculature. With the optimization of ultrasound parameters, the development of targeted microbubbles, and the emergence of various composite probes with both diagnostic and the...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Regulation of flowering time via miR172-mediated APETALA2-like expression in ornamental gloxinia ( Sinningia speciosa )
AbstractWe investigated the microRNA172 (miR172)-mediated regulatory network for the perception of changes in external and endogenous signals to identify a universally applicable floral regulation system in ornamental plants, manipulation of which could be economically beneficial. Transgenic gloxinia plants, in which miR172 was either overexpressed or suppressed, were generated usingAgrobacterium-mediated transformation. They were used to study the effect of altering the expression of this miRNA on time of flowering and to identify its mRNA target. Early or late flowering was observed in transgenic plants in which miR172 w...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Mitochondrial superoxide anions induced by exogenous oxidative stress determine tumor cell fate: an individual cell-based study
AbstractObjectiveReactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a variety of biological phenomena and serve both deleterious and beneficial roles. ROS quantification and assessment of reaction networks are desirable but difficult because of their short half-life and high reactivity. Here, we describe a pro-oxidative model in a single human lung carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell that was created by application of extracellular H2O2 stimuli.MethodsModified microfluidics and imaging techniques were used to determine O2•− levels and construct an O2•− reaction network. To elucidate the consequences of increased O2&bul...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Screening, purification, and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Aureobasidium pullulans isolated from stuffed buns steamers
AbstractAn extracellular lipase fromAureobasidium pullulans was obtained and purified with a specific activity of 17.7 U/mg of protein using ultrafiltration and a DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column. Characterization of the lipase indicated that it is a novel finding from the speciesA. pullulans. The molecular weight of the lipase was 39.5 kDa, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited its optimum activity at 40 °C and pH of 7. It also showed a remarkable stability in some organic solutions (30%, v/v) includingn-propanol, isopropanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO...
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Dexamethasone protects the glycocalyx on the kidney microvascular endothelium during severe acute pancreatitis
ConclusionsDexamethasone protects the endothelial glycocalyx from inflammatory degradation possibly initiated by TNF- α during SAP. This is might be a significant discovery that helps to prevent tissue edema and hypoperfusion in the future. (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Incidence and clinical correlates of anger attacks in Chinese patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
ConclusionsThese data suggest that anger attacks are relatively common in Chinese patients with OCD. The severity of anger attacks is related to educational level, obsessing symptoms, and anxiety, which may be a latent variable reflecting executive functioning and emotion regulation skills. (Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B.)
Source: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. - April 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research