Malaria in Sri Lanka: Investigating causes of the recent elimination and making plans to prevent reintroduction.
Authors: Perera WDHN, Gunathilaka PADHN, Taylor-Robinson AW Abstract Sri Lanka is a country that has long suffered from epidemics of malaria. In this historical context, it is remarkable that in 2016 the Indian Ocean island nation was able to officially celebrate the elimination of this parasitic disease of major public health importance. The most devastating outbreak recorded in Sri Lanka was during 1934-35, when close to 80,000 human deaths were reported. Indoor residual spraying with the insecticides, DDT and malathion commenced in 1947 and was successful in causing a rapid decline in malaria incidence. However,...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

A novel quinoline-appended chalcone derivative as potential Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide.
CONCLUSION: The consolidated in silico molecular modeling and in vitro study described herein may give an insight into the interaction patterns of quinoline-chalcone hybrids with critical gametocyte proteins in the mosquito. This study will possibly pave the way for further exploration of similar heterocyclic quinoline-chalcone hybrids to open up new avenues in drug candidate development against P. falciparum gametocytes. PMID: 32655067 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Use of cyclopoid copepods for control of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito larvae to prevent re-emergence of malaria in Sri Lanka.
Authors: Ranathunge T, Abeyewickreme W, Iqbal MCM, Hapugoda M Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although malaria is eliminated from Sri Lanka, there is a possible risk of spread from infected persons coming from malaria endemic countries. The presence of major and potential vectors in several parts of the country along with drug resistance, necessitates the identification of effective and novel control methods. The present study focused on identifying effective biological control agents for anopheline larvae using carnivorous copepods under laboratory and field conditions to prevent re-introduction of malaria i...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Effects of insecticide resistance on the reproductive potential of two sub-strains of the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii.
Authors: Sy FA, Faye O, Diallo M, Dia I Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors raise concerns over the control of malaria disease. Therefore, the implementation of better control strategies need a thorough understanding of the effects and mechanisms of resistance on vector adaptation capacities. We studied the effects of insecticide resistance on the reproductive potential of two laboratory sub-strains of the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii characterised by phenotypic resistance/susceptibility to DDT. METHODS: The two sub-strains wer...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Assessment of NS1 protein as an early diagnostic marker for Kyasanur forest disease virus.
CONCLUSION: The study points out that the half-life, expression and secretion levels of KFDV NS1 protein are not sufficient enough for its use as early diagnostic marker. The protein may have to be expressed in eukaryotic host to counter the lack of glycosylation in bacterial plasmid based expression of proteins. Hence, bacterially expressed KFDV NS1 protein may not be an ideal early diagnostic marker for the virus. PMID: 32655070 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Synthesis of novel amodiaquine analogs and evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities.
CONCLUSION: The newly synthesized amodiaquine analogs presented sufficient antiplasmodial activity with excellent suppressions and high in vitro heme detoxification inhibition. Higher mean survival time of the mice treated with synthetic compounds further confirmed the in vivo antimalarial activity of these new AQ analogs. Therefore, these compounds have the potential to replace common drugs from 4-aminoquinoline class. However, further investigations such as pharmacokinetic evaluations, cytotoxicity, toxicity, and formulation seem to be necessary. PMID: 32655071 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Circulation of Asian-I and Cosmopolitan genotypes of Dengue-2 virus in northeast India, 2016-2017.
Authors: Ujwal S, Sabeena S, Bhaskar R, D'Souza G, Santhosha D, Auti A, Kumar R, Ramachandran S, Hindol M, Aithal A, Bhandari Y, Jazeel A, Arunkumar G Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dengue is a major public health problem in northeast India where the majority of the cases go unreported and undiagnosed. Even though all four dengue serotypes are reported, there is a dearth of information on genetic diversity. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2016-17 to determine the genetic variance of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) based on the envelope (E) glycoprotein gene. METHODS: The serum sa...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Nifurtimox response of Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from an outbreak of Chagas disease in Caracas, Venezuela.
CONCLUSION: The high heterogeneity in nifurtimox IC50 values in the isolates and clones from the OChD patients, suggests that the therapeutic failure to nifurtimox could be due in part to a phenotypic variability that existed in the wild parasite population at the original source of contamination. Though, further pharmacological studies are needed to confirm the existence of natural nifurtimox resistance in the parasite. PMID: 32655073 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Human visceral leishmaniasis in northern Greece: Seroepidemiology and risk factors in endemic region.
CONCLUSION: Evaluation of both human seroprevalence and high incidence of canine leishmaniasis, as well as favorable landscape and climatic conditions of the study area, indicates that high level of clinical awareness need to be employed by physicians, as human and canine visceral leishmaniasis constitutes a serious public health concern. PMID: 32655074 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. coinfection in mammals of Venezuelan coendemic areas.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the double or triple infection is a phenomenon existing in almost all the coendemics areas and mammals studied, which might influence the mechanisms of adaptation and pathogenicity of these parasites. PMID: 32655075 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Khuzestan province, southwestern Iran, 2016-2017.
Authors: Kalantari M, Salehi-Vaziri M, Pouriayevali MH, Baniasadi V, Salmanzadeh S, Kharat M, Fazlalipour M Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic Flavivirus transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. As there is no specific antiviral treatment or approved vaccine against WNV, control and prevention of the infection is the best strategy to reduce the burden of WNV-related diseases. The circulation of WNV has been indicated in several regions of Iran including the Khuzestan province. Considering the complex ecology of WNV, the latest data are necessary for the implementation ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

A comparative study of the trends in epidemiological aspects of Lyme disease infections in Korea and Japan, 2011-2016.
This study was undertaken with the aim of a comparative and quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects of LD infections in Korea and Japan from 2011 to 2016. The raw data analyzed in this study were obtained from the websites of the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), Korea, and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan. In total 65 cases of LD were observed with a cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of 0.22 per million population in Korea from 2011 to 2016. During the same period in Japan, there were 75 cases of LD with a CIR of 0.10 [significantly higher than that in Korea (p
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Reversible splenial lesion in primary dengue fever.
Authors: Daniel E, Mishra AK, Mannam P, Ramya I PMID: 32655078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Asia 2 genotype in Qeshm Island, southern Iran: A case report.
Authors: Fazlalipour M, Baniasadi V, Pouriayevali MH, Jalali T, Mohammadi T, Azad-Manjiri S, Azizizadeh S, Hosseini M, Fereydouni Z, Tavakoli M, Ghalejoogh M, Khakifirouz S, Salehi-Vaziri M PMID: 32655079 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Urinary schistosomiasis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria from 2006 to 2017.
Authors: Chiamah OC, Ubachukwu PO, Anorue CO, Ebi S Abstract Urinary schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium is very common in Nigeria, with Ebonyi State implicated to have the highest prevalence in the southeastern part of the country. The aim of this review was to estimate the status of urinary schistosomiasis in the State with regards to the elimination goals of World Health Organization (WHO). A comprehensive search of published articles on urinary schistosomiasis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria from 2006 to 2017 was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed and African Journals Online (AJOL) databases. Out of...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Pilot survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from southeastern Georgia, USA for Wolbachia and Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae).
This study tested the hypothesis that mosquitoes from southeastern Georgia, USA may be infected with Rickettsia felis and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium of the order Rickettsiales. Methods: Specimens of the five most common mosquito species occurring in the region were collected using gravid and light-traps and identified using morphological keys. Mosquitoes were then pooled by species, sex, trap and collection site and their DNA was extracted. Molecular methods were used to confirm mosquito identification, and presence of Wolbachia and R. felis. Results: Wolbachia DNA was detected in 90.8% of the mosquito p...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Transient knockdown of Nucleoside transporter 4 gene expression as a therapeutic target in Leishmania major by antisense RNA: In vitro and in vivo studies.
In this study, a 502 bp segment of NT4 gene sequence was selected and designed as antisense transcripts after insertion in the parasite. The NT4 construct was transfected into L. major promastigotes for in vitro study of gene expression. Then, BALB/c mice infected with transgenic Leishmania and wild-type strain along with the number and size of lesions were studied in vivo. Results: The study showed that relative expression of NT4 gene in mutant Leishmania was lower than in the control on Day 3 to 20. The percentages and the number of amastigotes in infected macrophages with wild-type strain L. major were more than inf...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Latex agglutination test for rapid on-site serodiagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in pigs using recombinant NS1 antigen.
Authors: Grace MR, Dhanze H, Pantwane P, Sivakumar M, Gulati BR, Kumar A Abstract Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquitoe-borne viral zoonotic disease and globally around three billion people are at the risk of disease. The occurrence of JE cases has shown a rising trend during last decade in India. Pig is the amplifying host for JE virus and serves as a suitable sentinel model for the prediction of disease outbreak in humans. The development of a diagnostic test that is suitable for surveillance of JE in pigs is the need of the hour. The existing tests require elaborate laboratory fa...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Isovaleric acid and avicequinone-C are Chikungunya virus resistance principles in Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa.
This study was carried out with the objectives of profiling the phytocompounds in this plant through LC-MS/MS and to identify the active antiviral constituents and their drug-likeliness through molecular docking. Methods: Phytocompounds were extracted hydro-alcoholically from powdered plant parts and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Based on mass-to-charge ratio from LC-MS/MS, compounds were identified and used as ligands for molecular docking against chikungunya target proteins. The active principles were subjected to ADME/T analysis to verify their drug-likeliness. Results: The docking results and ADME/T evaluation showe...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

C-reactive protein as a prognostic marker of Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria severity.
Authors: Bhardwaj N, Ahmed MZ, Sharma S, Nayak A, Anvikar AR, Pande V Abstract Background & objectives: Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria causes wide variety of clinical symptoms ranging from a mild febrile illness to life-threatening complications. For prevention of the severity and early diagnosis, evaluation of potential biomarkers is much needed. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein and well-recognized marker of inflammation in the body. It is synthesized by liver in response to pro-inflammatory responses and has correlation with complications associated with malaria. The study was aimed to assess,...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Ecological niche modeling for the prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemiology in current and projected future in Adana, Turkey.
Authors: Artun O Abstract Background & objectives: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world including, Tukey. Environmental determinants for the CL endemic areas in Turkey are relatively poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to develop a model based on ecological niche modeling (ENM) to predict the distribution of CL in endemic areas of Adana Province in Turkey. Methods: The environmental data from different sources were extracted and information on 1831 native CL cases, obtained from the Provincial Health Directorate of Adana were recorde...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Annotated checklist of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and lice (Insecta: Anoplura) associated with rodents in Iran, with new reports of fleas and lice.
In this study, ectoparasitic insect fauna of rodents found across the Iran were studied, to generate an annotated checklist of fleas and lice species. Methods: Several field expeditions focused on different habitats of northeastern Iran were conducted between January 2017 and May 2018. Rodent trapping was carried out using custom-made mesh live traps and "Faragir" live traps baited mainly with scorched sunflower and gourd seeds. The trapped rodents were examined for ectoparasites on their body, and then released at their trapping point. The rodents and ectoparasite species were identified based on available k...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Commercial herbal preparations ameliorate Plasmodium berghei NK65-induced aberrations in mice.
This study evaluated the effects of three selected commercial herbal preparations on albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65, a lethal strain of rodent malaria. Methods: This study was conducted in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka between February and September 2017. A total of 30 adult albino mice were randomized into six groups of five mice each. Group 1 served as normal control. Mice in Groups 2-6 were parasitized with P. berghei. Group 2 mice were untreated while mice in Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 20 mg/kg body weight of artesunate; and 5 ml/kg body weight of the seleceted commercial herbal p...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Serological examination of trypanosomes infestation in cattle reared in Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
This study was targeted at examining trypanosome species prevalent among cattle breeds reared in Keffi metropolis. Methods: A total of 110 cattle, purely based on availability were screened within five working days for trypanosomes infestation using haematocrit centrifugation technique and buffy coat technique. The breeds of cattle examined included White Fulani (64), Sokoto Gudali (26), N'dama (16) and Muturu (4); reared in Jarmai, Gauta and Keffi North districts of Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Data collected were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. Results: It was observed that ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

A retrospective study on demographic and clinical characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis suspected cases in southern Israel, 2013-2016: Comparison between confirmed and negative cases.
This study assessed CL-suspected episodes, in an attempt to differentiate confirmed CL and non-CL diagnoses. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, medical files of CL-suspected episodes, tested by a biopsy for Leishmania-PCR, from 2013 to 2016, were collected and analysed statistically. Results: Of 324 suspected CL episodes, 48.8% were PCR-confirmed CL (96.2% Leishmania major) and 51.2% were non-CL (57.1% bacterial infections). Overall, 59.3% episodes were in males. Mean (± SD) duration until diagnosis was 3.7 ± 7.2 months. Lesions (mean 2.9 ± 3.8 per episode) were mostly (60.8%) ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Simultaneous zika and dengue serotype-4 viral detection and isolation from a donor plasma unit.
Authors: Slavov SN, Ferreira FU, Rodrigues ES, Gomes R, Covas DT, Kashima S Abstract During zika and dengue viruse (ZIKV and DENV) outbreaks, the majority of the infected individuals remain clinically asymptomatic. Such asymptomatic individuals may occasionally acquire both arboviruses, donate blood, and contaminate haemoderivatives. The aim of this study was to characterize a ZIKV/DENV-4 coinfection in asymptomatic blood donor who donated blood during a large mixed ZIKV/DENV outbreak in the Säo Paulo State, Brazil. On the basis of post-donation information, one blood donor sample was found positive for ZIKV a...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Amino acid mutation in Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.
Authors: Maghsoodloorad S, Hosseinzadeh N, Haghighi A, Solgi R, Yusuf MA, Hatam G Abstract Molecular analysis of antifolate resistance-associated genes-dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) of Plasmodium vivax is important in predicting the emergence of drug resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The present study aimed to determine the polymorphism of dhfr and dhps genes in P. vivax field isolates. Samples from 80 microscopically diagnosed vivax malaria cases were collected from endemic areas of malaria in Hormozgan Province of Iran, from June 2010 to November 2015. The two s...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Seroepidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever among high-risk groups in the west of Iran.
Authors: Shahbazi N, Firouz SK, Karimi M, Mostafavi E Abstract Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic disease. This disease is more common in people who work with animals infected with CCHF virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CCHF exposure in high-risk occupational groups in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in three counties of Kurdistan Province, viz. Sanandaj, Marivan and Sarvabad. About 50 butchers and slaughterhouse workers, 50 hunters, 50 health care workers and 100 subjects referred to clinical laboratories ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - August 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

MERA India: Malaria Elimination Research Alliance India.
Authors: Rahi M, Anvikar AR, Singh OP, Jambulingam P, Vijayachari P, Das A, Pati S, Narain K, Gangakhedkar RR, Dhingra N, Bhargava B PMID: 31070158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

ICMR research initiatives enabling malaria elimination in India.
Authors: Rahi M, Das P, Jambulingam P, Vijayachari P, Das A, Pati S, Narain K, Kumar A, Gangakhedkar RR, Valecha N PMID: 31070159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Essential guidance on malaria elimination in its history.
Authors: Baird JK PMID: 31070160 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Partnering to fight malaria in India: Past, present and future.
Authors: Samby K, Ramachandruni H, Banerji J, Burrows JN, Daumerie PG, Hooft van Huijsduijnen RAM, Duparc S, Wells TNC Abstract The global fight against malaria requires continual development of new tools. Collaborations in India have played a key role in MMV's partnerships to discover, develop and deliver new medicines. Over the last decade, India has become a focal point of global medicinal chemistry, and combined with investments in basic science, this has led to the discovery of new potential drugs. India also brings significant experience to drug development, in clinical trials, but also in formulation and man...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Some considerable issues concerning malaria elimination in India.
Authors: Kumar A Abstract Malaria elimination is a health priority of India for the national development and to meet UN sustainable development goals. In this article, an attempt has been made to highlight some of the key issues that need attention and consideration. These include addressing the gaps in malaria burden and adopting District Health Information System (DHIS) for real time data gathering, transfer and analysis for rapid response. The article highlights threat to malaria elimination from human migration, asymptomatic malaria, P. malariae as a neglected species, need for updating vector information and d...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Malaria elimination in India-The way forward.
Authors: Ghosh SK, Rahi M Abstract The World Malaria Report 2018 published by the World Health Organization highlights that no significant progress in reducing global malaria cases was achieved for the period 2015-2017. India carries 4% of the global malaria burden and contributes 87% of the total malaria cases in South-East Asia. India is in malaria elimination mode, and set targets for malaria-free status by 2030. Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic falciparum malaria cases continues to be a challenge for health care providers. To overcome these hurdles innovative solutions along with the existing tools and s...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Malaria control in India: A national perspective in a regional and global fight to eliminate malaria.
Authors: Guerin PJ, Dhorda M, Ganguly NK, Sibley CH Abstract Since the declaration of the vision of malaria eradication in 2007, the overall burden of malaria has been reduced substantially in many countries in the endemic world. This progress has, however, recently slowed worldwide and even an increase of morbidity and mortality has been observed in some regions. That reality has led to reflection on the strategy for malaria elimination, noting that focusing only on low transmission sites has competed with the efforts in countries that still have foci with high malaria burdens. This opinion piece outlines the coll...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Preparedness for malaria elimination in the wake of climate change in the State of Uttarakhand (India).
Authors: Dhiman RC, Singh P, Yadav Y, Saraswat S, Kumar G, Singh RK, Ojha VP, Joshi BC, Singh P Abstract Background & objectives: Climate change is an emerging issue particularly in the context of vector-borne diseases. A study was undertaken in Nainital and Almora districts of Uttarakhand to provide evidences of changing climatic conditions, abundance of vectors, and knocking of malaria in hilly areas. Material and methods: Longitudinal data on temperature and relative humidity were procured from Tussar Silk Centre, Bhimtal, India as well as generated using HOBO device. Monthly density of malaria vectors, ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Malaria elimination drive in Odisha: Hope for halting the transmission.
Authors: Pradhan MM, Meherda PK PMID: 31070166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Comprehensive case management of malaria: Operational research informing policy.
Authors: Pradhan MM, Anvikar AR, Daumerie PG, Pradhan S, Dutta A, Shah NK, Joshi PL, Banerji J, Duparc S, Mendis K, Murugasampillay S, Valecha N Abstract In 2013, the Odisha state Vector Borne Disease Control Programme led a five year operational research project, under programmatic conditions, in close collaboration with several partners. This Comprehensive Case Management Project covered a population of 900,000 across paired control and intervention blocks in four districts, each with different transmission intensities. Key gaps in access to malaria services were identified through household surveys and a detaile...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Malaria elimination: Using past and present experience to make malaria-free India by 2030.
This article provides insights into the past and present malaria control and elimination efforts that may be useful for the national programme for eliminating malaria from India by 2030. PMID: 31070168 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Role of a dedicated support group in retaining malaria-free status of Sri Lanka.
Authors: Datta R, Mendis K, Wikremasinghe R, Premaratne R, Fernando D, Parry J, Rolfe B PMID: 31070169 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Unravelling the trends of research on malaria in India through bibliometric analysis.
Authors: Singh US, Mahanty S Abstract Background & objectives: With the development of technological know-how, in recent years, malaria research in India has advanced to a great extent and the corresponding research is being translated into the form of publications, which has started to pile in thousands over the years. The purpose of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis on malaria research in India from its inception. Methods: The Web of Science (WoS) platform developed by Clarivate Analytics was utilized to retrieve publications on malaria research in India. The publications were retri...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of submicroscopic malaria in low transmission state of Punjab: A potential threat to malaria elimination.
The objectives of the study was to explore the prevalence of sub-microscopic infections in low transmission areas of Punjab using highly sensitive molecular tool. Methods: A total of 1114 finger prick blood samples were collected through active surveillance and tested for malaria diagnosis using light microscopy, RDT and PCR. Nested PCR amplification was performed using a pair of Plasmodium genus-specific primers from the 18S rRNA small subunit gene (18S rRNA). The amplified PCR products were analysed using a 2% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and observed under transilluminator. Results: Test positive r...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Deletions in the Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 gene: An emerging threat to the elimination of malaria in India.
Authors: Singh V, Kojom LP PMID: 31070172 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Strengthening of vector control in South-East Asia: Outcomes from a WHO regional workshop.
Authors: Nagpal BN, Knox TB, Risintha P, Yadav RS, Ghosh SK, Uragayala S, Valecha N, Christophel EM, Jamsheed M PMID: 30997884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Approaches for the successful isolation and cell culture of American Rickettsia species.
Authors: Tello-Martin R, Dzul-Rosado K, Zavala-Castro J, Lugo-Caballero C Abstract Rickettsia are intracellular vector-borne bacteria, which are the etiologic agent of severe infections that could inflict death to their host. The intracellular behaviour of Rickettsia makes the study of its genetics, proteomics and cellular processes very difficult. Hence, isolation remains an important experimental technique that permits the obtention of important yields of bacteria, useful for a broad range of experiments. Isolation of Rickettsia using passages in animals or embryonated eggs has been described for long time; howev...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Detection and distribution of Wolbachia endobacteria in Culex quinquefasciatus populations (Diptera : Culicidae) from Metropolitan Manila, Philippines.
Authors: Carvajal TM, Capistrano JDR, Hashimoto K, Go KJD, Cruz MAIJ, Martinez MJLB, Tiopianco VSP, Amalin DM, Watanabe K Abstract Background & objectives: Culex quinquefasciatus is a peridomestic mosquito known for its ability to transmit pathogenic diseases such as filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. The development and use of novel and innovative vector control measures such as the utilization of Wolbachia, along with the existing ones, are necessary to prevent the transmission of these diseases. Studies exploring the diversity of Wolbachia, particularly in Cx. quinquefasciatus are very limited in the Phil...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Genetic diversity and structural analysis of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase (IspE) from Plasmodium falciparum.
Authors: Kadian K, Vijay S, Rawal R, Singh J, Anvikar A, Pande V, Sharma A Abstract Background & objectives: Plasmodium parasite harbours unique methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway which is obligatory for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. In malaria parasites, the isoprenoids are indispensable during hepatic, erythrocytic and gametocytic stages. Owing to the criticality of MEP pathway and the potential of its enzymes to act as antimalarial drug target, this study comprehensively investigated the genetic diversity and structural composition of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase (IspE), fourth e...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Larvicidal activity of Ricinus communis extract against mosquitoes.
Authors: Sogan N, Kapoor N, Singh H, Kala S, Nayak A, Nagpal BN Abstract Background & objectives: Vector control strategies play significant role in reducing the transmission of malaria, dengue and other vector-borne diseases. The control of vector population using synthetic insecticides has resulted in development of insecticide resistance and negative effects on humans and environment. The present investigation evaluated the larvicidal potential of methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts of leaves and seeds of Ricinus communis (castor) plant against the early IV instar larvae of the dengue vector, Aedes...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Mosquito abundance and pig seropositivity as a correlate of Japanese encephalitis in human population in Assam, India.
Authors: Baruah A, Hazarika RA, Barman NN, Islam S, Gulati BR Abstract Background & objectives: Assam is the most vulnerable state for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in India. The situation warrants characterization of epidemiological patterns of JE in vectors, pigs and human population. This investigation was aimed to determine the relative abundance of mosquito species and seroprevalence of JE in pigs in order to draw an epidemiological association with reported human JE cases in Assam. Methods: Pig sera and mosquitoes from selected farms in Sivasagar and Kamrup districts of Assam were collected fortnightly f...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research

Modeling spatial distribution of Rhombomys opimus as the main reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Iran.
Authors: Sofizadeh A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Shoraka HR Abstract Background & objectives: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is among the most endemic zoonotic diseases in Golestan Province of Iran. The aim of this study was to find the high risk areas of this infection by considering the distribution of reservoirs and human infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which Rhombomys opimus (Gerbils) were captured from different collection sites across the Golestan Province, Iran. records about the occurrence of Rh. opimus in the Province was obtained from earlier studies and were gathered in...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - April 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research