Social Capital Effects on the Relation between Neighborhood Characteristics and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Women
AbstractIntimate partner violence (IPV) remains a public health issue plaguing families and communities in the USA. Despite considerable research devoted to individual-level factors affecting IPV and a smaller body of ecological IPV research, few studies explore the interaction between individual-level protective factors and neighborhood- or community-level factors in predicting the incidents of IPV among women. Moreover, most IPV studies utilize a unidimensional approach for social capital, despite strong empirical and theoretical support for a multi-dimensional conceptualization. In a sample of heterosexual women in the ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 29, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Geographic Mobility, Place Attachment, and the Changing Geography of Sex among African American and Latinx MSM Who Use Substances in Los Angeles
We describe the places in which African American and Latinx MSM interviewees live and socialize, and how these places influence sexual behavior, drug use, and access to health care. We find common spatial patterns in mobility, incongruence in residential and sexual places, and differing geographic patterns of sex by men who use geo-social hook-up apps. Significant instability in home life and varying forms of mobility and risk-taking were a response to cumulative disadvantage and intersecting structural forces including poverty, racism, and homophobia. Our results strongly suggest that geographic mobility is a syndemic fac...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 29, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Opioid Overdose –Related Emergency Department Visits and Accidental Deaths during the COVID-19 Pandemic
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 28, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Global Climate Implications for Homelessness: A Scoping Review
AbstractHomelessness is a persistent global challenge with significant health impacts on those affected. Homeless people are by definition the most exposed to weather conditions and the social and economic problems caused by extreme weather and climate change and variability. This systematic review was designed to synthesize the academic literature that addresses the health and social implications of global climate change for homelessness. The question examined in this systematic scoping review is the following: What is the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature on the health and social implications of glo...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Gig Workers during the COVID-19 Crisis in France: Financial Precarity and Mental Well-Being
AbstractWe set out to explore how precarious workers, particularly those employed in the gig economy, balance financial uncertainty, health risks, and mental well-being. We surveyed and interviewed precarious workers in France during the COVID-19 crisis, in March and April 2020. We oversampled gig economy workers, in particular in driving and food delivery occupations (hereafter drivers and bikers), residing in metropolitan areas. These workers cannot rely on stable incomes and are excluded from the labor protections offered to employees, features which have been exacerbated by the crisis. We analyzed outcomes for precario...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 22, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Addressing Food Insecurity through a Health Equity Lens: a Case Study of Large Urban School Districts during the COVID-19 Pandemic
This study identifies strategies that have the potential to increase equitable access to nutrition assistance programs. Our findings can support (1) ongoing efforts to address child food insecurity during the pandemic and (2) future meal provision through programs like the Summer Food Service Program and Seamless Summer Option. Future research should further examine the rationale behind meal site placement and how site availability changed over time. (Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 21, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Binge Drinking, Non-injection Drug Use, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescent Sexual Minority Males, 3 US Cities, 2015
AbstractIn 2016, more than 90% of HIV diagnoses among young men aged 13 –19 years were attributed to male-male sexual contact. Little is known about how binge drinking and non-injection drug use may be associated with risky sexual behavior among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM). Using data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, we examined how binge dr inking and non-injection drug use may be associated with sexual risk among ASMM. ASMM were recruited for interviews in 3 cities: Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia. Among 16–18-year-olds (N = 488), we evaluated the associat...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 11, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Housing Stability and Hepatitis C Infection for Young Adults Who Inject Drugs: Examining the Relationship of Consistent and Intermittent Housing Status on HCV Infection Risk
AbstractHousing status affects drug using behaviors, but less is known about the relationship between housing patterns and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV-negative young people who inject drugs (PWID) were enrolled into a prospective cohort (2003 –2019) with quarterly study visits. We used Cox regression to estimate the independent association of recent housing status (housed vs. unhoused, housing stability, and housing trajectory) on HCV incidence. Among 712 participants, 245 incident HCV infections occurred over 963.8 person-years (py) (cumulative incidence 24.4/100 py). An inverse relationship between ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 8, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Underground Gun Markets and the Flow of Illegal Guns into the Bronx and Brooklyn: A Mixed Methods Analysis
AbstractNew York City (NYC) has experienced large reductions in violent crime over the last two decades, but gun-related violence continues to pose a threat to public safety. Despite strong gun laws, high-risk individuals in NYC neighborhoods are unfortunately still able to access and misuse firearms. This research analyzes NYC ’s underground gun market by closely examining the flow of guns into the two boroughs where gun violence and crime gun recoveries are most prevalent: the Bronx and Brooklyn. A mixed methods approach is utilized that consists of an assessment of firearms trace data and in-depth interviews with ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 4, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Indicators of Healthy Architecture —a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractThe design of the built environment plays an important role as a determinant of health. As a society, we are spending an increasing proportion of our time indoors and now spend over 80% of our life inside, so the design of buildings can greatly impact on human health. Accordingly, architecture health indices (AHIs) are used to evidence the effects on human health associated with the design of buildings. AHIs provide quantitative and empirical data upon which architects, clients, users and other stakeholders might monitor and evaluate the healthiness (or otherwise) of architectural design. A systematic literature re...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 4, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Quantile Regression Forests to Identify Determinants of Neighborhood Stroke Prevalence in 500 Cities in the USA: Implications for Neighborhoods with High Prevalence
AbstractStroke exerts a massive burden on the US health and economy. Place-based evidence is increasingly recognized as a critical part of stroke management, but identifying the key determinants of neighborhood stroke prevalence and the underlying effect mechanisms is a topic that has been treated sparingly in the literature. We aim to fill in the research gaps with a study focusing on urban health. We develop and apply analytical approaches to address two challenges. First, domain expertise on drivers of neighborhood-level stroke outcomes is limited. Second, commonly used linear regression methods may provide incomplete a...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 4, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Did Playground Renovations Equitably Benefit Neighborhoods in Chicago?
This study evaluated whether short-term and longer-term impacts of renovations on park use and park-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) differed by neighborhood income level and neighborhood concentration of Black residents. A total of 39 parks with renovated playgrounds and 39 matched comparison parks with playgrounds that needed repair but not selected for renovation in year 1 were studied. Three waves of observational data were collected at each park: baseline, 12  months post-renovation, and 24 months post-renovation. Difference-in-differences mixed-effects Poisson regression models estimated ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - September 1, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Healthy Young Men ’s Cohort: Health, Stress, and Risk Profile of Black and Latino Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (YMSM)
In this study, we recruited and surveyed an urban sample of 448 young African American/Black (Black), Hispanic/Latino (Latino), and multi-racial/ethnic YMSM, ages 16 –24 years (mean = 22.3 years), about stressful life events, their health and mental health, their access to and utilization of care, and their involvement in risk-related behaviors. We found that the majority reported experiences of racism (87%) and homophobia (76%). A high percentage reported foo d insecurity/hunger (36%), residential instability (15%), financial hardship (63%), and conflict with family/friends (62%). The prevalence of risk behaviors wa...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Assessing Urban Health Inequities through a Multidimensional and Participatory Framework: Evidence from the EURO-HEALTHY Project
This study, by integrating local evidence in combination with social elements, pinpoints the importance of a place-based approach for assessing urban health equity. (Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 28, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Impacts of Gentrification on Health in the US: a Systematic Review of the Literature
AbstractGentrification in the largest 50 US cities has more than doubled since the 1990s. The process of gentrification can bring about improved neighborhood conditions, reduced rates of crime, and property value increases. At the same time, it can equally foster negative conditions associated with poorer health outcomes, such as disrupted social networks from residential displacement and increases in stress. While neighborhood environment is consistently implicated in health outcomes research, gentrification is rarely conceptualized as a public health issue. Though research on gentrification is growing, empirical studies ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 22, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

COVID-19 Containment in Asia ’s Largest Urban Slum Dharavi-Mumbai, India: Lessons for Policymakers Globally
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 19, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

“Hey, We Can Do This Together”: Findings from an Evaluation of a Multi-sectoral Community Coalition
AbstractMulti-sectoral coalitions focused on systemic health inequities are commonly promoted as important mechanisms to facilitate changes with lasting impacts on population health. However, the development and implementation of such initiatives present significant challenges, and evaluation results are commonly inconclusive. In an effort to add to the evidence base, we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of the Claremont Healthy Village Initiative, a multi-sectoral partnership based in the Bronx, New York City. At an organizational level, there were positive outcomes with respect to expanded services, increased access t...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 17, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Awareness, Willingness, and Perceived Efficacy of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among Adolescent Sexual Minority Males
AbstractDespite the approval of PrEP for adolescents by the FDA in 2018, little is known about the awareness and attitudes about PrEP use among adolescent sexual minority males, who are at the greatest risk for HIV. We analyzed baseline data from the MyPEEPS Mobile study, a multi-site randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a mobile behavioral HIV prevention intervention. A substantial proportion (68.2%) of study participants (ages 13 –18) had previously heard about PrEP, and an overwhelming majority (90.8%) reported willingness to take PrEP, to prevent HIV. On the other hand, only about one third...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 12, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Health Disparities, Transportation Equity and Complete Streets: a Case Study of a Policy Development Process through the Lens of Critical Race Theory
AbstractHistoric disinvestment in transportation infrastructure is directly related to adverse social conditions underlying health disparities in low-income communities of color. Complete Streets policies offer a strategy to address inequities and subsequent public health outcomes. This case study examines the potential for an equity-focused policy process to address systemic barriers and identify potential measures to track progress toward equity outcomes. Critical race theory provided the analytical framework to examine grant reports, task force notes, community workshop/outreach activities, digital stories, and stakehol...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Sexual and Reproductive Health Burden Index: Development, Validity, and Community-Level Analyses of a Composite Spatial Measure
AbstractThe Sexual and Reproductive Health Burden Index (SRHBI) was developed to provide a composite spatial measure of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) indicators that can be widely adopted by urban public health departments for the planning of SRH services. The index was constructed using eight indicators: teen births, low birthweight, infant mortality, new HIV diagnoses, people living with HIV, and incidences of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Chicago Department of Public Health data (2014 –2017) were used to calculate index scores for Chicago community areas; scores were mapped to provide geovisualization...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Using Land Policy to Improve Population Health
AbstractWe examine whether zoning can increase health equity and population health by assessing a new zoning ordinance in the City of Baltimore that forced 76 liquor stores in residential areas to relocate, close, or convert to an approved use. To do so, we undertake a baseline assessment of neighborhoods with affected liquor stores, and predict the potential impact of the zoning change by estimating the impact of previous closures and openings of liquor stores on neighborhood crime in Baltimore using a spatial Poisson random trend fixed effects model. We find that affected stores are concentrated in high poverty, majority...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 1, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Individual and Social Network Factors Associated with High Self-efficacy of Communicating about Men ’s Health Issues with Peers among Black MSM in an Urban Setting
We examined the characteristics associated with high self-efficacy of communicating with peers about men’s health issues among 256 BMSM from a behavioral HIV intervention conducted in Baltimore, Maryland. In the multivariate logistic model, gay identity (AOR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.15,3.83), involvement in the house and ballroom community (AOR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.14,5.49), larger number of network members who are living with HIV (AOR: 6.34, 95% C I: 1.48,27.11), and larger number of network members who would loan them money (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05,2.03) were statistically significantly associated with high self-efficacy of co...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - August 1, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Increasing Opportunities for Spiritual and Religious Supports to Improve HIV-Related Outcomes for Black Sexual Minority Men
AbstractGiven the importance of spirituality and religion in the lives of many Black gay, bisexual, and other Black sexual minority men (SMM) and the need for additional resources to improve HIV outcomes within this population, research on how spiritual and religious support can promote HIV prevention and treatment among Black SMM is greatly needed. We conducted nine focus groups with 52 spiritual and religious Black SMM in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore opportunities for HIV-related programming that incorporates spiritual and/or religious supports. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using an i...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 29, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A Community Responds to the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Case Study in Protecting the Health and Human Rights of People Who Use Drugs
AbstractEffective responses to a global pandemic require local action. In the face of a pandemic or similar emergencies, communities of people who use drugs face risks that result from their ongoing drug use, reduced ability to secure treatment for drug use and correlated maladies, lack of access to preventive hygiene, and the realities of homelessness, street-level policing, and criminal justice involvement. Herein, we document the efforts of a coalition of people who use drugs, advocates, service providers, and academics to implement solutions to reduce these risks at a municipal and state level focusing on New Haven and...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 27, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

2020: the Year of the Nurse and Midwife
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 21, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Inequity: a Comparative Spatial Analysis of New York City and Chicago Hot Spots
AbstractThere have been numerous reports that the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic has disproportionately impacted traditionally vulnerable communities associated with neighborhood attributes, such as the proportion of racial and ethnic minorities, migrants, and the lower income households. The goal of this ecological cross-sectional study is to examine the demographic and economic nature of spatial hot and cold spots of SARS-CoV-2 rates in New York City and Chicago as of April 13, 2020 using data from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Illinois Department of Public Health, and the American C...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 20, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Neighborhood Poverty and Physical Health at Midlife: The Role of Life-Course Exposure
AbstractStudies of the effect of neighborhood poverty on health are dominated by research designs that measure neighborhood poverty at a single point in time, ignoring the potential influence of exposure to neighborhood poverty over the life course. Applying latent class analysis to restricted residential history data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort, we identify four trajectories of life-course exposure to high-poverty neighborhoods between adolescence and midlife and then examine how these groups differ in their physical health conditions (SF-12 score) and self-rated health at around age 40. Li...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 13, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Using Zoning as a Public Health Tool to Reduce Alcohol Outlet Oversaturation, Promote Compliance, and Guide Future Enforcement: a Preliminary Analysis of Transform Baltimore
AbstractAlcohol outlet oversaturation often exacerbates negative public health outcomes. Recently, Baltimore City passed an extensive zoning rewrite ( “TransForm Baltimore”) that sought to give local government and residents a tool to reduce alcohol outlet oversaturation through land use regulation. The present investigation evaluated the outlet and neighborhood characteristics of stores impacted by two components of TransForm Baltimore: (1) a requirement that taverns licensed for on-premise consumption in addition to off-premise, carryout sales generate at least 50% of their business from on-premise sales, and...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 6, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Correction to: Responding to COVID-19: What ’s the Problem?
Several types of resources coexist for coordinated action and systemic responses to this extraordinary situation--administrative, behavioural, financial, health care, legal and medical resources--that have been used at different geo-political levels, sometimes in an uncoordinated fashion of ‘winner takes all’. (Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A Mixed Method Study to Inform the Implementation and Expansion of Pop-Up Parks for Economic, Behavioral, and Social Benefits
AbstractThe availability of parks and urban green spaces has been associated with a number of benefits, including increased physical activity, improvements in mental health, increases in social interactions, improvements to the environment, and increases in property values. The installation of temporary pop-up parks in urban areas is one way for urban communities to obtain these benefits. In this mixed-methods study, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered by researchers, the city council, a local investment company, and community residents that informed the initiation, iteration, and incremental expansion of a ser...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - July 1, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Time to Reconsider Diverse Ways of Working in Japan to Promote Social Distancing Measures against the COVID-19
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Age-Friendly Features in Home and Community and the Self-Reported Health and Functional Limitation of Older Adults: the Role of Supportive Environments
This study aims to identify age-friendly community features that are associated with better health for older adults. This cross-sectional study utilized the 2015 AARP Age-Friendly Communities (AFC) Survey, which includes 66 home and community features that fall within the eight domains specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) ’s age-friendly cities guidelines. Two measures of health (self-rated health and functional limitations) were examined using multi-level linear and logistic regressions. Both a greater perceived availability of age-friendly features in communities and a good person-environment fit were a...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Building a Methodological Foundation for Impactful Urban Planetary Health Science
This report presents observations from a participatory workshop focused on challenges and opportunities for urban planetary health research. The workshop, held at the 16th International Conference on Urban Health (ICUH) in Xiamen, China, in November 2 019, brought together 49 participants and covered topics related to collaboration, data, and research impact. It featured research projects funded by the Wellcome Trust’s Our Planet Our Health (OPOH) programme. This report aims to concisely summarise and disseminate participants’ collective cont ributions to current methodological practice in urban planetary healt...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 22, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

When Blackness Does Not Fade After a Pandemic: An Appeal to Acknowledge the Unequal Burden of Social Isolation
This article is an appeal to our posterity, inviting a conversation about how we will remember the Coronavirus ’ impact on our lives. Will we selectively provide compassion for the racial groups we perceive more favorable when this is over? Or will we play favorites when it is time to pick up the pieces? This article provides scenarios and commentary on how social distancing could affect Black American pop ulations – regardless of income or socioeconomic status. It argues that history has not been kind to Black Americans who have bought into mass national causes, and that there is an opportunity here to act dif...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 13, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Racial Disparities in Overdose Prevention among People Who Inject Drugs
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 8, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Responding to COVID-19: What ’s the Problem?
We describe the virtuous relations between three prerequisite conditions —multilevel governance, knowledge and types of resources and individual and collective behaviours—that should be combined in transdisciplinary responses. (Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 5, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Food Insecurity: an Uneven Patchwork of Responses
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 5, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

COVID-19 Outbreaks at Correctional Facilities Demand a Health Equity Approach to Criminal Justice Reform
(Source: Journal of Urban Health)
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Impact of Racially Motivated Housing Discrimination on Allostatic Load among Indigenous University Students
AbstractAllostatic load (AL) is an aggregate measure of wear and tear on the body due to the chronic activation of the stress response system. The goal of this study was to examine the association between racially motivated housing discrimination (HD) and AL score within a sample of Indigenous university students. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from Indigenous adults attending university in a small city in western Canada between 2015 and 2017 (N = 104; mean age = 27.8 years). An item adapted from the Experience of Discrimination Scale was to assess racially motivated HD ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Local Extreme Heat Planning: an Interactive Tool to Examine a Heat Vulnerability Index for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
AbstractExposure to extreme heat contributes to high morbidity and mortality relative to other climate hazards. The city of Philadelphia, PA is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme heat, due to the urban heat island effect and high prevalence of sensitive populations. We developed a heat vulnerability index, which identified priority areas that are most at-risk of experiencing adverse heat-related health outcomes and in need of preparedness and mitigation interventions. An interactive website was created to display the maps and allow the public to navigate the data with links to potential resources for relief ...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Targeting the World ’s Slums as Fat Tails in the Distribution of COVID-19 Cases
AbstractA recent article by Corburn et al. lays out the policies that would help slum communities in the global south deal with COVID-19. That article notes the vulnerabilities of people in these informal settlements and argues that any assistance program must recognize these realities so that the policies do not further jeopardize the survival of large segments of the population of these communities. This note extends the arguments in that paper, focusing on some of the logistic issues involved in providing assistance to informal settlements. It argues that such assistance is essential not only for the help it would provi...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - June 2, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Evaluating Housing Health Hazards: Prevalence, Practices and Priorities in Delhi ’s Informal Settlements
AbstractHousing quality is crucially linked to health and sustainability goals, yet there is limited research on informal housing and settlements where housing quality is poor, and the health risks are expected to be greatest. This paper describes the investigation of housing conditions in a low-income resettlement colony in Delhi. A novel transdisciplinary methodology to evaluate multiple housing health hazards and establish intervention priorities in participation with the community was developed. Findings from housing surveys and indoor environmental monitoring were contrasted with a participatory self-assessment &mdash...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - May 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Social-Environmental Resilience, PrEP Uptake, and Viral Suppression among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Young Black Transgender Women: the Neighborhoods and Networks (N2) Study in Chicago
AbstractYoung black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young black transgender women (TGW) have experienced a stark disparity in HIV prevention and care. Resilience, collective resources to adapt stressors or adversities, may improve HIV prevention and care outcomes. The present study investigated the association of resilience-based factors with PrEP uptake and viral suppression from a socioecological perspective among YBMSM and young black TGW. Data were from the baseline cycle of the Neighborhoods and Networks (N2) Study, an ongoing cohort study of 16 –34-year-old YBMSM and young black TGW in Chicago (n =...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - May 28, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Modeling COVID-19 and Its Impacts on U.S. Immigration and Customs  Enforcement (ICE) Detention Facilities, 2020
AbstractU.S. Immigration and Customs  Enforcement (ICE) facilities house thousands of undocumented immigrants in environments discordant with the public health recommendations to reduce the transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Using ICE detainee population data obtained from the ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations (ER O) website as of March 2, 2020, we implemented a simple stochastic susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to estimate the rate of COVID-19 transmission within 111 ICE detention facilities and then examined impacts on regional hospital intensive care unit (ICU) capacity. Models cons...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - May 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Social Stability Relates Social Conditions to the Syndemic of Sex, Drugs, and Violence
AbstractThe distribution of violence, sexually transmitted infections, and substance use disorders is not random, but rather the product of disease, behavior, and social conditions that co-occur in synergistic ways (syndemics). Syndemics often disproportionately affect urban communities. Studies of syndemics, however, rarely apply consistent measures of social conditions. Here, the construct of social stability (SS) (housing, legal, residential, income, employment, and relationship stability) was evaluated as a consistent measure of social conditions related to sex, drug, and violence exposures in a new population in a Mid...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - May 7, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Geospatial Variations and Neighborhood Deprivation in Drug-Related Admissions and Overdoses
The objective of this paper is to investigate spatial distributions of patients admitted for drug-related admissions and overdoses from a large, urban, tertiary care center using electronic health record data. Additionally, these spatial distributions were adjusted for a validated socioeconomic index called the Area Deprivation Index (ADI). We showed spatial heterogeneity in patients admitted for opioid, amphetamine, and psychostimulant-related diagnoses and overdoses. While ADI was associated with drug-related admissions, it did not correct for spatial variations and could not account alone for this spatial heterogeneity....
Source: Journal of Urban Health - May 4, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Slum Health: Arresting COVID-19 and Improving Well-Being in Urban Informal Settlements
AbstractThe informal settlements of the Global South are the least prepared for the pandemic of COVID-19 since basic needs such as water, toilets, sewers, drainage, waste collection, and secure and adequate housing are already in short supply or non-existent. Further, space constraints, violence, and overcrowding in slums make physical distancing and self-quarantine impractical, and the rapid spread of an infection highly likely. Residents of informal settlements are also economically vulnerable during any COVID-19 responses. Any responses to COVID-19 that do not recognize these realities will further jeopardize the surviv...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - April 24, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Disability, Urban Health Equity, and the Coronavirus Pandemic: Promoting Cities for All
AbstractPersons with disabilities (PWDs) living in cities during the COVID-19 pandemic response may be four times more likely to be injured or die than non-disabled persons, not because of their “vulnerable” position but because urban health policy, planning and practice has not considered their needs. In this article, the adverse health impacts on PWDs during the COVID-19 pandemic reveals the “everyday emergencies” in cities for PWDs and that these can be avoided through more inclu sive community planning, a whole-of-government commitment to equal access, and implementation of universal design stra...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - April 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

ZIP Code-Level Estimates from a Local Health Survey: Added Value and Limitations
AbstractWe assessed the added value and limitations of generating directly estimated ZIP Code-level estimates by aggregating 5  years of data from an annual cross-sectional survey, the New York City Community Health Survey (n = 44,886) from 2009 to 2013, that were designed to provide reliable estimates only of larger geographies. Survey weights generated directly-observed ZIP Code (n = 128) level estimates. We assessed the heterogeneity of ZIP Code-level estimates within coarser United Hospital Fund (UHF) neighborhood areas (n = 34) by using the Rao-Scott Chi-Square test and o...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - April 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Gendered Racial Microaggressions Associated with Depression Diagnosis among Black Women Living with HIV
AbstractBlack women are disproportionately impacted by HIV and depression has been linked to negative HIV outcomes. Little attention has been given to social/structural factors that may drive depression among Black women living with HIV (BWLWH), including discrimination and gendered racial microaggressions (GRM). One hundred BWLWH completed measures on GRM, race- and HIV-related discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as a clinical interview for major depressive episode (MDE). GRM and race- and HIV-related discrimination were significantly associated with depressive symptoms and increased likelihood of MDE, but on...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - April 14, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research