The Influence of Premigration Trauma Exposure and Early Postmigration Stressors on Changes in Mental Health Over Time Among Refugees in Australia
AbstractAs a result of the precarious conditions in which they migrate, refugees are likely to have experiences that increase their risk of mental health problems. Refugees tend to be predisposed to relatively high levels of distress upon resettlement, and a key predictor of these issues is traumatic experiences that occur before their arrival. Despite high initial levels of ill ‐health, on average, refugees tend to experience mental health recovery over time. However, both levels of mental health upon settlement and recovery over time may be negatively influenced by stressors in the postsettlement period. The present st...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jaimee Stuart, Jemima Nowosad Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Military Combat, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and the Course of Alcohol Use Disorders in a Cohort of Australian Vietnam War Veterans
AbstractThe present study examined the course of diagnosed alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a cohort of Australian veterans of the Vietnam War (N = 388) who were assessed 22 and 36 years after returning home. Standardized interviews provided data on AUDs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychiatric diagnoses, and combat exposure. Overall, 148 veterans (38.1%) had no history of alcohol ‐related diagnoses, 151 veterans (38.9%) had a past AUD diagnosis that was not current at the second assessment point, and 89 veterans (22.9%) had a current AUD diagnosis at the second assessment. Less education, lower intelligen...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brian I. O'Toole, Patrick Gorman, Stanley V. Catts Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters in Service Members Predict New ‐Onset Depression Among Military Spouses
AbstractMilitary operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought increased attention to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among service members and, more recently, its impact on spouses. Existing research has demonstrated that PTSD among service members is associated with depression among military spouses. In the current study, we extended these findings by using data from service member –spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study for which the service member had evidence of PTSD (n = 563). Prospective analyses identified the association between PTSD symptom clusters reported by the service member...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kristen H. Walter, Cynthia A. LeardMann, Carlos E. Carballo, Hope Seib McMaster, Carrie J. Donoho, Valerie A. Stander Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Best Practices for Approaching Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic
AbstractThe COVID ‐19 pandemic presents major challenges for mental health care providers. In particular, providers who treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are now tasked with determining whether to initiate trauma‐focused therapy during the pandemic and, if so, whether and how to adapt treatment. The purp ose of this communication is to identify and organize key considerations for whether and how to deliver commonly used evidence‐supported therapy protocols for trauma treatment—specifically, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy—during the ongoing COVID‐19 pan de...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sarah L. Hagerty, Joseph Wielgosz, Jaclyn Kraemer, Hong V. Nguyen, Dorene Loew, Debra Kaysen Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Identifying Change Targets for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Suicidal and Self ‐Injuring Women With Borderline Personality Disorder
AbstractResearch on psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly focused on understanding not only which treatments work but why and for whom they work. The present pilot study evaluated the temporal relations between five hypothesized change targets —posttraumatic cognitions, guilt, shame, general emotion dysregulation, and experiential avoidance—and PTSD severity among women with PTSD, borderline personality disorder, and recent suicidal and/or self‐injurious behaviors. Participants (N = 26) were randomized to receive 1 year of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) with or without t...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Melanie S. Harned, Skye Fitzpatrick, Sara C. Schmidt Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Comparing Exposure ‐ and Coping Skills–Based Treatments on Trauma‐Related Guilt in Veterans With Co‐Occurring Alcohol Use and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) commonly co ‐occur, and this comorbidity (PTSD–SUD) is associated with more severe symptoms and functional impairment than either disorder alone. Growing evidence indicates that trauma‐related guilt, typically concerning negative appraisals of one's actions or inaction during a traumatic event, is associa ted with PTSD, depression, suicidality, and, possibly, substance use. The present study examined whether integrated treatment for PTSD–SUD was effective in reducing trauma‐related guilt as measured by the Trauma‐Related Guil...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Christy Capone, Jessica C. Tripp, Ryan S. Trim, Brittany C. Davis, Moira Haller, Sonya B. Norman Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Associated Comorbidity During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic in Ireland: A Population‐Based Study
This study was conducted to determine rates of COVID‐19–related PTSD in the Irish general population, the level of comorbidity with depression and anxiety, and the sociodemographic risk factors associated with COVID‐19–rela ted PTSD. A nationally representative sample of adults from the general population of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1,041) completed self ‐report measures of all study variables. The rate of COVID‐19–related PTSD was 17.7% (n = 184), 95% CI [15.35%, 19.99%], and there was a high level of comorbidity with generalized anxiety (49.5%) and depression (53.8%). Meeting the diagnostic ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy, Orla McBride, Menachem Ben ‐Ezra, Richard P. Bentall, Frédérique Vallières, Philip Hyland Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Erratum
Journal of Traumatic Stress, Volume 33, Issue 4, Page 617-617, August 2020. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Journal of Traumatic Stress, Volume 33, Issue 4, Page 361-364, August 2020. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Commentary on the Special Issue on Moral Injury: Leveraging Existing Constructs to Test the Heuristic Model of Moral Injury
AbstractThe literature on moral injury (MI) is currently undermined by the lack of clear boundaries regarding the construct and a dearth of research on the processes by which potentially morally injurious events lead to MI. The heuristic continuum model of moral stressors proposes ways of distinguishing between moral frustrations, moral distress, and MI. In this commentary, we highlight five testable principles that can be derived from the heuristic model and evaluated using well ‐established constructs. Specifically, we describe meaningful distinctions between guilt and shame and address how these moral emotions can be ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alyson K. Zalta, Philip Held Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Response to Zalta and Held's “Commentary on the Special Issue on Moral Injury: Leveraging Existing Constructs to Test the Heuristic Model of Moral Injury”
AbstractZalta and Held (2020) generated some interesting and potentially useful principles to distinguish moral distress and moral injury, leveraging ideas from our introduction to theJournal of Traumatic Stress special issue on moral injury. In this response, I provide feedback and commentary about the principles generated by Zalta and Held. I also attempt to modify and expand the various principles to accommodate any moral emotion and all possible dimensions of response to exposure to potentially morally injurious experiences. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brett T. Litz Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

The Impact of Treatment Description Format on Patient Preferences for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment
AbstractThe present study examined how the format in which treatment information is presented impacts individuals ’ preferences for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments. Adults who screened positive for PTSD (N = 301) were randomized into groups to learn about five first ‐line treatments; participants either read sequential text descriptions or reviewed a comparison chart that presented side‐by‐side information. Participants rated treatment acceptability, rank ordered treatments from most to least preferred, and indicated their confidence in this ranking. Comp ared with participants in the text group...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Juliette M. Harik, Kathleen M. Grubbs, Jessica L. Hamblen Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Development of the PTSD ‐Repository: A Publicly Available Repository of Randomized Controlled Trials for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractGiven the extensive research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment, a single, updatable repository of data from PTSD treatment studies would be useful for clinical, research, and policy stakeholders. To meet this need, we established a preliminary dataset of abstracted PTSD trial data, which serve as the basis for the PTSD Trials Standardized Data Repository (PTSD ‐Repository), maintained by the National Center for PTSD (NCPTSD). We followed systematic review methods to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PTSD interventions. We consulted with a panel of experts to determine a pri...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maya E. O'Neil, Juliette M. Harik, Marian S. McDonagh, Tamara P. Cheney, Frances C. Hsu, David C. Cameron, Kathleen F. Carlson, Sonya B. Norman, Jessica L. Hamblen Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Delivering Prolonged Exposure Therapy via Videoconferencing During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic: An Overview of the Research and Special Considerations for Providers
AbstractLeveraging technology to provide evidence ‐based therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as prolonged exposure (PE), during the COVID‐19 pandemic helps ensure continued access to first‐line PTSD treatment. Clinical video teleconferencing (CVT) technology can be used to effectively deliver PE while reducing the risk of C OVID‐19 exposure during the pandemic for both providers and patients. However, provider knowledge, experience, and comfort level with delivering mental health care services, such as PE, via CVT is critical to ensure a smooth, safe, and effective transition to virtual care. Fur...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stephanie Y. Wells, Leslie A. Morland, Emily R. Wilhite, Kathleen M. Grubbs, Sheila A.M. Rauch, Ron Acierno, Carmen P. McLean Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Examining Insomnia During Intensive Treatment for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does it Improve and Does it Predict Treatment Outcomes?
AbstractPrevious research has demonstrated that sleep disturbances show little improvement with evidence ‐based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, sleep improvements are associated with PTSD treatment outcomes. The goal of the current study was to evaluate changes in self‐reported insomnia symptoms and the association between insomnia symptoms and treatment outcome dur ing a 3‐week intensive treatment program (ITP) for veterans with PTSD that integrated cognitive processing therapy (CPT), mindfulness, yoga, and other ancillary services. As part of standard clinical procedures, veterans (...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alyson K. Zalta, Linzy M. Pinkerton, Zerbrina Valdespino ‐Hayden, Dale L. Smith, Helen J. Burgess, Philip Held, Randy A. Boley, Niranjan S. Karnik, Mark H. Pollack Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The Role of Gender in the Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Anger, and Aggression in Russian Adolescents
AbstractSymptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to anger and aggressive behavior in adult and veteran populations. However, research on the associations among anger, aggression, and PTSD in adolescents is lacking, particularly regarding differences between the sexes. To address this research gap, we used self ‐report data from Russian adolescents (N = 2,810; age range: 13 –17 years) to perform a full path analysis examining the associations between PTSD symptoms and the emotional (anger traits) and cognitive (rumination) components of anger as well as physical/verbal and social aggression,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Johan Isaksson, Denis G. Sukhodolsky, Roman Koposov, Andrew Stickley, Vladislav Ruchkin Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Intensive Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractVarious clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified two frontline evidence ‐based psychotherapies (EBPs)—prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT)—as well as other empirically supported treatments (EST), such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT for PTSD). However, researchers and clinicians c ontinue to be concerned with rates of symptom improvement and patient dropout within these treatments. Recent attempts to address these issues have resulted in intens...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nicole A. Sciarrino, Ashlee J. Warnecke, Ellen J. Teng Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Defining Moral Injury Among Military Populations: A Systematic Review
AbstractMilitary service often requires engaging in activities, witnessing acts, or immediate decision ‐making that may violate the moral codes and personal values to which most individuals ascribe. If unacknowledged, these factors can lead to injuries that can affect the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual health of military men and women. The termmoral injury has been assigned to these soul ‐ceasing experiences. Although researchers have attempted to define moral injury and what leads to such experiences, inconsistencies across definitions exist. In addition, nearly all existing definitions have lacked emp...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Natalie M. Richardson, Angela L. Lamson, Maggie Smith, Sheena M. Eagan, Anisa M. Zvonkovic, Jakob Jensen Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Minority Participation in Randomized Controlled Trials for Prolonged Exposure Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature
AbstractPer the most recent census, non ‐Latinx White individuals comprise the majority of the U.S. population (76.6%); Latinx individuals make up 18.3% of the total U.S. population, followed by African Americans (13.4%) and Asians (5.9%). Given the high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed across many ethno racial minority groups in the United States, the fact that PTSD presentation may vary across culture, and the National Institute of Health's mandates for the inclusion of women and minorities in clinical outcome research, the aim of the present systematic review was to examine minority in...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lorraine T. Benuto, Natalie M. Bennett, Jena B. Casas Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The Prevalence and Longitudinal Patterns of Continuous Community Violence Exposure and Trauma ‐Related Symptoms in Adolescent Male Serious Offenders
AbstractThe current study examined the longitudinal patterns of continuous exposure to community violence (ECV) and associated symptoms in serious adolescent male offenders. Using data from the Pathways to Desistance Study (Schubert et  al., 2004), the current study examined the prevalence of continuous ECV and the stability in exposure over a 3‐year period in 1,170 adolescent male offenders (M age at baseline = 16.05 years,SD = 1.15). The results revealed variability in adolescent offenders ’ ECV and trauma‐related symptoms. A latent class analysis identified three classes of participants at each time point...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Noni K. Gaylord ‐Harden, Amanda Burnside, Don'Terius Tinsley Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Neurocomputational Changes in Inhibitory Control Associated With Prolonged Exposure Therapy
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with inhibitory control dysfunction that extends beyond difficulties inhibiting trauma ‐related intrusions. Inhibitory learning has been proposed as a potential mechanism of change underlying the effectiveness of extinction‐based therapies such as prolonged exposure (PE), a first‐line treatment for PTSD. To identify neurocognitive markers of change in inhibitory learning associa ted with PE, we applied a Bayesian learning model to the analysis of neuroimaging data collected during an inhibitory control task, both before and after PE treatment. Veterans (N = 2...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Katia M. Harl é, Andrea D. Spadoni, Sonya B. Norman, Alan N. Simmons Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Pathways to Help ‐Seeking Among Black Male Trauma Survivors: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis
The objective of the present study was to understand how traumatic symptoms and social factors combine in complex ways toward the outcome of psychological help ‐seeking. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from 32 injured Black men admitted to a Level 1 trauma center. Qualitative interviews explored their attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. We analyzed quantitative data, collected using validated instruments, on posttrauma tic stress and depression symptoms, financial worry, and discrimination/stigma. Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was conducted by calibrating each cond...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: John A. Rich, Theodore J. Corbin, Sara F. Jacoby, Jessica L. Webster, Therese S. Richmond Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Moral Injury and Social Well ‐Being: A Growth Curve Analysis
AbstractMoral injury (MI) may occur in the context of committing transgressions (i.e., self ‐directed MI reactions), witnessing transgressions, or being the victims of others’ transgressions (i.e., other‐directed MI reactions) that violate an individual's moral principles. Veterans with MI may experience impaired social well‐being (SWB). Studies on MI and veterans’ SWB have focus ed almost exclusively on social support and used cross‐sectional data. The present study used growth curve analyses to examine the associations between self‐ and other‐directed MI reactions and veterans’ levels of soc...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ryan P. Chesnut, Cameron B. Richardson, Nicole R. Morgan, Julia A. Bleser, Daniel F. Perkins, Dawne Vogt, Laurel A. Copeland, Erin Finley Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Social Support Moderates the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment Duration and Treatment Outcomes in Telemedicine ‐Based Treatment Among Rural Veterans
AbstractFor patients participating in trauma ‐focused psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as cognitive processing therapy (CPT), pretreatment characteristics may moderate treatment effectiveness. For instance, preexisting supportive relationships may encourage skill utilization or provide contrasts to maladaptive c ognitive biases highlighted in trauma‐focused treatments for PTSD. Such pretreatment characteristics are important to study in rural individuals, who may experience barriers to initiating and completing treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether pretreatment social sup...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sarah B. Campbell, Christopher Erbes, Kathleen Grubbs, John Fortney Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Residual Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder Following Integrated Exposure Treatment Versus Coping Skills Treatment
We examined residual symptoms of PTSD and AUD in 73 veterans with PTSD/AUD who completed a posttreatment assessment after being randomized to receive either Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE) or Seeking Safety (SS). We used logistic regression to identify differences (a) in residual PTSD and AUD symptoms among participants randomized to COPE versus SS and (b) among those with versus without a posttreatment PTSD/AUD diagnosis within both treatment conditions. Participants randomized to SS were more likely to report persistent avoidance, inability to experience positive e...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jessica C. Tripp, Abigail Angkaw, Paula P. Schnurr, Ryan S. Trim, Moira Haller, Brittany C. Davis, Sonya B. Norman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) for Veterans in Primary Care
AbstractThis randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a five ‐session version of Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) among veterans obtaining treatment in primary care. Veterans who screened positive for either posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression (N = 26) were enrolled and randomized into either five ‐session STAIR or treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist forDSM ‐5; PCL ‐5), depression (Beck Depression Inventory–II; BDI‐II), emotion regulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; DERS), and social engagement diff...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Shaili Jain, Kile Ortigo, Julia Gimeno, Denine A. Baldor, Brandon J. Weiss, Maryl ène Cloitre Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Prolonged Exposure and Sertraline Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Also Improve Multiple Indicators of Social Functioning
AbstractTrauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently also suffer from difficulties in social functioning that range across emotional, cognitive, and environmental domains. A detailed evaluation of the differential impacts of effective PTSD treatments on social functioning is needed. Men and women (N = 200) with chronic PTSD received 10 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE) or sertraline in a randomized clinical trial and were followed for 24 months. A secondary data analysis examined changes in social functioning with regard to fear of intimacy; receipt of social support; and distress, avoidance, and ne...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Belinda Graham, Natalia M. Garcia, Hannah E. Bergman, Norah C. Feeny, Lori A. Zoellner Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Implementation Patterns of Two Evidence ‐Based Psychotherapies in Veterans Affairs Residential Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Programs: A Five‐Point Longitudinal National Investigation
AbstractThe present study examined the patterns of adoption of two evidence ‐based psychotherapies (EBPs)—prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT)—in U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment programs. A total of 526 providers from 39 programs nationwide completed online quantitative surve ys and qualitative interviews, collected at five assessment points between 2008 and 2015, concerning the use of PE and CPT. By the midpoint of the study period, responders from most programs reported having adopted one or both EBPs as either cor...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Joan M. Cook, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Margaret ‐Anne Mackintosh, Craig Rosen, Nina Sayer, Paula P. Schnurr Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Assessing Triggers of Posttrauma Nightmares
AbstractPosttrauma nightmares are recurring nightmares that begin after a traumatic experience and can occur as often as multiple times per week, often in a seemingly random pattern. Although these nightmares are prevalent in trauma survivors, little is known about the mechanisms underlying their sporadic occurrence. The present study aimed to investigate predictors of posttrauma nightmares. The sample included 146 observations nested within 27 female college students who reported frequent nightmares related to sexual trauma. Participants were recruited from an undergraduate student subject pool (n = 71) or were clinical r...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Westley A. Youngren, Nancy A. Hamilton, Kris j. Preacher Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Predictors of Attrition Among Young Children Receiving Trauma ‐Focused Therapy
AbstractFindings from studies of predominately school ‐aged children indicate that few children complete trauma‐focused treatment; however, researchers have not specifically examined risk factors for dropout among young trauma‐exposed children. The purpose of the present study was to investigate risk factors for attrition among young children rec eiving trauma‐focused therapy. Study participants were 189 treatment‐seeking children aged 3–5 years (M = 4.86 years,SD = 0.71; 54.1% female, 47.7% White) and their nonoffending legal guardian(s). Child and family characteristics, number of traumatic events, and pr...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachel Wamser ‐Nanney Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The Effects of Prolonged Exposure on Substance Use in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders
AbstractDespite research demonstrating the benefit of exposure ‐based therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with co‐occurring substance use disorders, there remains a strong clinical expectation that this treatment will exacerbate substance use or other psychiatric symptoms. The present study evaluated within‐session and session‐t o‐session changes in (a) craving and use of substances for a range of drug classes and (b) symptoms of PTSD and other psychiatric distress in a sample of 44 SUD patients who received prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for PTSD. Visual analog scales showed no within...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jessica M. Peirce, Rebecca L. Schacht, Robert K. Brooner Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder via Telehealth: Practical Considerations During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic
AbstractThe global outbreak of COVID ‐19 has required mental health providers to rapidly rethink and adapt how they provide care. Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a trauma‐focused, evidence‐based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder that is effective when delivered in‐person or via telehealth. Given current limitati ons on the provision of in‐person mental health treatment during the COVID‐19 pandemic, this article presents guidelines and treatment considerations when implementing CPT via telehealth. Based on lessons learned from prior studies and clinical delivery of CPT via telehealth, recommendat...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: John C. Moring, Katherine A. Dondanville, Brooke A. Fina, Christina Hassija, Kathleen Chard, Candice Monson, Stefanie T. LoSavio, Stephanie Y. Wells, Leslie A. Morland, Debra Kaysen, Tara E. Galovski, Patricia A. Resick Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Journal of Traumatic Stress, Volume 33, Issue 4, Page 361-364, August 2020. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

A Life ‐Course Model of Trauma Exposure and Mental Health Among Low‐Income Survivors of Hurricane Katrina
AbstractPrior research has provided robust evidence that exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) during a disaster is predictive of adverse postdisaster mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and nonspecific psychological distress (PD). However, few studies have explored the role of exposure to other PTEs over the life ‐course in shaping postdisaster mental health. Based on the broader literature on trauma exposure and mental health, we hypothesized a path analytic model linking predisaster PTEs to long‐term postdisaster PTSS and PD via predisaster PD, short‐term postdisaster s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sarah R. Lowe, Ethan J. Raker, Mariana C. Arcaya, Meghan L. Zacher, Mary C. Waters, Jean E. Rhodes Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Social Anhedonia is Associated with Low Social Network Diversity in Trauma ‐Exposed Adults
AbstractSocial anhedonia has been proposed to contribute to social isolation in several psychiatric disorders, but it has not been examined in relation to deficits in social connection that also characterize posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A growing body of evidence emphasizes the health importance of structural features of social networks, including their size and complexity. The current study examined the association between social anhedonia and social network features in a sample of trauma ‐exposed participants with and without PTSD as well as in non–trauma‐exposed controls. Participants (N = 101;n = 37 ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Elizabeth A. Olson, Diego A. Pizzagalli, Isabelle M. Rosso Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

A Life ‐Course Model of Trauma Exposure and Mental Health Among Low‐Income Survivors of Hurricane Katrina
AbstractPrior research has provided robust evidence that exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) during a disaster is predictive of adverse postdisaster mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and nonspecific psychological distress (PD). However, few studies have explored the role of exposure to other PTEs over the life ‐course in shaping postdisaster mental health. Based on the broader literature on trauma exposure and mental health, we hypothesized a path analytic model linking predisaster PTEs to long‐term postdisaster PTSS and PD via predisaster PD, short‐term postdisaster s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sarah R. Lowe, Ethan J. Raker, Mariana C. Arcaya, Meghan L. Zacher, Mary C. Waters, Jean E. Rhodes Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Social Anhedonia is Associated with Low Social Network Diversity in Trauma ‐Exposed Adults
AbstractSocial anhedonia has been proposed to contribute to social isolation in several psychiatric disorders, but it has not been examined in relation to deficits in social connection that also characterize posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A growing body of evidence emphasizes the health importance of structural features of social networks, including their size and complexity. The current study examined the association between social anhedonia and social network features in a sample of trauma ‐exposed participants with and without PTSD as well as in non–trauma‐exposed controls. Participants (N = 101;n = 37 ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Elizabeth A. Olson, Diego A. Pizzagalli, Isabelle M. Rosso Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Health Problems in Norwegian Peacekeepers 18 –38 Years Postdeployment
AbstractPeacekeeping missions involve experiences that may impact the mental health of participating soldiers. However, research on the long ‐term mental health consequences of peacekeeping is sparse. The present study aimed to find the prevalence of mental health problems (MHPs), possible MHP predictors, and associations between predictors and MHPs in Norwegian peacekeepers 18–38 years after deployment to a United Nations peacekeepi ng mission. We used data from a cross‐sectional, postdeployment survey of Norwegian peacekeepers who served in Lebanon between 1978 and 1998 (N = 10,605). Participants were assessed ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Christer Lunde Gjerstad, Hans Jakob B øe, Erik Falkum, Egil Wilhelm Martinsen, Andreas Espetvedt Nordstrand, Arnfinn Tønnesen, Jon Gerhard Reichelt, June Ullevoldsæter Lystad Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Academic Achievement and Psychosocial Adjustment in Child Refugees: A Systematic Review
This study was a systematic review and included studies that reported on outcomes of interest in child refugees between 5 and 12 years of age. Our search generated 3,172 articles; we select ed 313 for review and included 45. Child refugees are diverse in their educational performance, and early deficits often resolve with time spent in the host country. These children are at an increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, and multiple factors are associated with these outco mes. Although educational difficulties of primary school–aged child refugees in high‐income countries tend to resolve, the risks fo...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fariba Aghajafari, Emilie Pianorosa, Zahra Premji, Soheil Souri, Deborah Dewey Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Effects of Polyvictimization on Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in an LGBTQ Sample
AbstractLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) individuals are at elevated risk for violent victimization and often experience increased health disparities compared to their non ‐LGBTQ counterparts. The present study examined associations between polyvictimization and mental and physical health in an LGBTQ sample. Participants included 385 LGBTQ individuals involved in a larger health‐needs assessment of LGBTQ individuals living in the southeastern United States. The sa mple primarily identified as gay/lesbian (63.4%), cisgender (78.7%), and White (66.5%), and the mean participant age was 34...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Francesca Kassing, Tracy Casanova, James A. Griffin, Elizabeth Wood, Lara M. Stepleman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Modified Prolonged Exposure to Prevent the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients Hospitalized With Traumatic Injuries
AbstractIndividuals who require hospitalization after traumatic injuries are at increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few early behavioral interventions have been effective at preventing PTSD within this population. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of modified prolonged exposure therapy (mPE) to prevent PTSD and depression symptoms among patients hospitalized after aDSM ‐5 single ‐incident trauma. Hospitalized patients were eligible if they screened positive for PTSD risk. Participants (N = 74) were randomly assigned in a parallel ‐grou...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sadie E. Larsen, Joshua C. Hunt, Tim Geier, Katelyn Heyrman, Nicholas Schumann, Amber Brandolino, Sydney Timmer ‐Murillo, Carisa Bergner, Christine Larson, Terri A. deRoon‐Cassini Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Human Remains Identification, Grief, and Posttraumatic Stress in Bereaved Family Members 14 Years After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks
We examined the number of notifications received, continuing questions about the death, grief severity, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in family members bereaved by the September 11, 2001 attacks (N = 454). One notification was associated with fewer continuing questions compared to zero notifications,p = .037, or two or more notifications,p = .009. A model using notifications and continuing questions to predict grief severity showed there was no difference between receiving one and zero notifications,p = .244; however, receipt of two or more notifications was associated with higher grief severity compared to zero notificat...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stephen J. Cozza, Joscelyn E. Fisher, Kathryn R. Hefner, Mary A. Fetchet, Shenglin Chen, Rafael F. Zuleta, Carol S. Fullerton, Robert J. Ursano Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Role of Depressive Symptoms in Substance Use Among African American Boys Exposed to Community Violence
AbstractAdolescents exposed to community violence (CV) are at increased risk for alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use. The disproportionate exposure to CV among African American boys heightens their susceptibility to substance use and related problems. Depressive symptoms are linked to both CV exposure and adolescent substance use; however, their role in the link between CV exposure and substance use in African American male adolescents has received little attention. The current study examined whether depressive symptoms mediate or moderate the associations between CV exposure and substance use among African American male a...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachel M. Tache, Sharon F. Lambert, Nicholas S. Ialongo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Delivering Prolonged Exposure Therapy via Videoconferencing During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic: An Overview of the Research and Special Considerations for Providers
AbstractLeveraging technology to provide evidence ‐based therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as prolonged exposure (PE), during the COVID‐19 pandemic helps ensure continued access to first‐line PTSD treatment. Clinical video teleconferencing (CVT) technology can be used to effectively deliver PE while reducing the risk of C OVID‐19 exposure during the pandemic for both providers and patients. However, provider knowledge, experience, and comfort level with delivering mental health care services, such as PE, via CVT is critical to ensure a smooth, safe, and effective transition to virtual care. Fur...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stephanie Y. Wells, Leslie A. Morland, Emily R. Wilhite, Kathleen M. Grubbs, Sheila A.M. Rauch, Ron Acierno, Carmen P. McLean Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Academic Achievement and Psychosocial Adjustment in Child Refugees: A Systematic Review
This study was a systematic review and included studies that reported on outcomes of interest in child refugees between 5 and 12 years of age. Our search generated 3,172 articles; we select ed 313 for review and included 45. Child refugees are diverse in their educational performance, and early deficits often resolve with time spent in the host country. These children are at an increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, and multiple factors are associated with these outco mes. Although educational difficulties of primary school–aged child refugees in high‐income countries tend to resolve, the risks fo...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fariba Aghajafari, Emilie Pianorosa, Zahra Premji, Soheil Souri, Deborah Dewey Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Effects of Polyvictimization on Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in an LGBTQ Sample
AbstractLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) individuals are at elevated risk for violent victimization and often experience increased health disparities compared to their non ‐LGBTQ counterparts. The present study examined associations between polyvictimization and mental and physical health in an LGBTQ sample. Participants included 385 LGBTQ individuals involved in a larger health‐needs assessment of LGBTQ individuals living in the southeastern United States. The sa mple primarily identified as gay/lesbian (63.4%), cisgender (78.7%), and White (66.5%), and the mean participant age was 34...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Francesca Kassing, Tracy Casanova, James A. Griffin, Elizabeth Wood, Lara M. Stepleman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Modified Prolonged Exposure to Prevent the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients Hospitalized With Traumatic Injuries
AbstractIndividuals who require hospitalization after traumatic injuries are at increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few early behavioral interventions have been effective at preventing PTSD within this population. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of modified prolonged exposure therapy (mPE) to prevent PTSD and depression symptoms among patients hospitalized after aDSM ‐5 single ‐incident trauma. Hospitalized patients were eligible if they screened positive for PTSD risk. Participants (N = 74) were randomly assigned in a parallel ‐grou...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sadie E. Larsen, Joshua C. Hunt, Tim Geier, Katelyn Heyrman, Nicholas Schumann, Amber Brandolino, Sydney Timmer ‐Murillo, Carisa Bergner, Christine Larson, Terri A. deRoon‐Cassini Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Human Remains Identification, Grief, and Posttraumatic Stress in Bereaved Family Members 14 Years After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks
We examined the number of notifications received, continuing questions about the death, grief severity, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in family members bereaved by the September 11, 2001 attacks (N = 454). One notification was associated with fewer continuing questions compared to zero notifications,p = .037, or two or more notifications,p = .009. A model using notifications and continuing questions to predict grief severity showed there was no difference between receiving one and zero notifications,p = .244; however, receipt of two or more notifications was associated with higher grief severity compared to zero notificat...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stephen J. Cozza, Joscelyn E. Fisher, Kathryn R. Hefner, Mary A. Fetchet, Shenglin Chen, Rafael F. Zuleta, Carol S. Fullerton, Robert J. Ursano Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Role of Depressive Symptoms in Substance Use Among African American Boys Exposed to Community Violence
AbstractAdolescents exposed to community violence (CV) are at increased risk for alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use. The disproportionate exposure to CV among African American boys heightens their susceptibility to substance use and related problems. Depressive symptoms are linked to both CV exposure and adolescent substance use; however, their role in the link between CV exposure and substance use in African American male adolescents has received little attention. The current study examined whether depressive symptoms mediate or moderate the associations between CV exposure and substance use among African American male a...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachel M. Tache, Sharon F. Lambert, Nicholas S. Ialongo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research