A Network Analysis of the Associations Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth Among Disaster ‐Exposed Chinese Young Adults
AbstractPosttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) have been shown to coexist following exposure to a traumatic event, but consensus about what accounts for this association is lacking. Network analysis is a novel analytic method that can explain this linkage. In a sample of 1,809 Chinese college students (66.1% female, age range: 16 –35 years) who were directly exposed to a typhoon, we investigated the network structure of PTSS and PTG, along with bridge symptoms and elements, to elucidate how distress and growth coexist. The seven strongest edges found in the model included two between elem...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Guangzhe Yuan, Crystal L. Park, Samuel R. Birkeland, Paul S. Y. Yip, Brian J. Hall Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Indirect Associations Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Other Psychiatric Symptoms, Alcohol Use, and Well ‐being via Psychological Flexibility Among Police Officers
AbstractPolice officers experience a high number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) often associated with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). In addition, PTSS are related to co ‐occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression), alcohol misuse, and low perceived well‐being. Yet, behavioral processes that may account for the associations between PTSS and unfavorable outcomes remain unspecified. Psychological flexibility, or one's response to private experiences (e.g., PTE‐related memories) with an open, aware, and active approach, may be one such process. The present study aimed to evaluate ps...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lucas D. Baker, Joel C. Stroman, Emily A. Kalantar, Rachel C. Bock, Christopher R. Berghoff Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cognitive Processing Therapy for Substance ‐Involved Sexual Assault: Does an Account Help or Hinder Recovery?
AbstractSexual assault (SA) often occurs in the context of substances, which can impair the trauma memory and contribute to negative cognitions like self ‐blame. Although these factors may affect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment, outcomes for substance‐involved SA have not been evaluated or compared with other types of SA. As such, we conducted a secondary analysis of a dismantling trial for cognitive processing therapy (CPT), focus ing on 58 women with an index trauma of SA that occurred since age 14. Women who experienced a substance‐involved SA (n = 21) were compared with those who experienced a non ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Anna E. Jaffe, Debra Kaysen, Brian N. Smith, Tara Galovski, Patricia A. Resick Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Effect of Therapeutic Alliance on Dropout in Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractA substantial number of individuals who undergo cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) drop out before receiving a full course of treatment. Therapeutic alliance, defined as the working relationship between the therapist and client, is a dynamic process within therapy that may change over time. Research suggests that therapeutic alliance is associated with dropout in various treatments. However, no studies have yet examined the association between therapeutic alliance and dropout in CPT, and few studies have examined therapeutic alliance longitudinally over the course of treatme...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Iris Sijercic, Rachel E. Liebman, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Candice M. Monson Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Effects of Microaggressions on Depression in Young Adults of Color: Investigating the Impact of Traumatic Event Exposures and Trauma Reactions
AbstractMicroaggressions are a common way that individuals experience racism in the United States.  The current study examined the extent to which microaggressions contribute to mental health difficulties, namely trauma reactions and depression, after controlling for other traumatic event exposures. We sought to address gaps in the literature by quantitatively assessing the associations among microaggressions, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression symptoms. Participants were 140 young adults of color (68.8% female) who were recruited online. Linear regression analyses evidenced that microaggress...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Evan E. Auguste, Keith R. Cruise, Maria C. Jimenez Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress in Professionals and Volunteers Working With Forcibly Displaced People: A Systematic Review and Two Meta ‐Analyses
AbstractResearch suggests that professionals and volunteers who work with forcibly displaced people (FDP) experience burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of working with such a highly traumatized population. In the present systematic review and meta ‐analyses, we report the pooled prevalence rates of burnout and STS in individuals working both professionally and voluntarily with FDP. The CINAHL Complete, E‐Journals, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, OpenDissertations, PsycARTICLES, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published historica lly to September 2019. Studies (N = 15) were included and a...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fritha Roberts, Bonnie Teague, Jennifer Lee, Imogen Rushworth Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Syrian Arabic Version of the Impact of Event Scale –Revised in the Context of the Syrian Refugee Crisis
AbstractThe Impact of Event Scale –Revised (IES‐R) is a widely used self‐report questionnaire used to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the IES‐R has been translated and validated in multiple languages, no previous version has employed the Arabic dialect commonly spoken in Syria. The present w ork aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a Syrian Arabic version of the IES‐R. Syrian citizens (N = 288) living in refugee camps in Turkey were administered the Syrian Arabic IES ‐R as part of a humanitarian aid project focused on providing psychological assistance. The data w...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Michele Grassi, Sandra Pellizzoni, Marta Vuch, Gian Matteo Apuzzo, Tiziano Agostini, Mauro Murgia Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Impact of Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Substance Problems on Graduation Among Female Offenders in a Prescription Drug Court Program
AbstractTrauma exposure and comorbid substance use are highly prevalent among female drug court participants. Despite the pervasiveness of the issue, few studies have investigated the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and nonmedical prescription drug use among this specific population. The present study examined the impact of posttraumatic stress, social support, and nonmedical prescription drug use on graduation outcomes among female participants in a specialized drug court program (N = 210). Participants either received motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive behavioral therapy (MET ‐CBT;N = 210) or bot...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cristina N. Abarno, Ardhys De Leon, Amanda G. Sharp, Kathleen Moore, Roger Boothroyd Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Correspondence Between Retrospective and Momentary Self ‐Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Evidence for Peak and End Effects in Veterans
AbstractValidated retrospective self ‐report symptom rating scales are recommended for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening and treatment. However, such reports may be affected by a respondent's most intense (“peak”) or most recent (“end”) symptoms. The present study evaluated the correspondence between PTSD symptom s assessed using a standard past‐month retrospective rating scale and recorded by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over the same period and tested hypotheses that retrospective scores would be predicted by peak and end‐period momentary symptoms. Male U.S. veterans (N...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Suzanne E. Decker, Marc I. Rosen, Ned L. Cooney, Paula P. Schnurr, Anne C. Black Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Disentangling the Symptom ‐Level Nuances in Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Problematic Alcohol Use in Northern Irish Military Veterans: A Network Analysis
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use are highly prevalent among military veteran populations. Several theories have been proposed to account for the comorbidity between PTSD and problematic alcohol use, but research examining the symptom ‐level associations between the two is limited. The current study used network analysis to examine the associations between PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Data were collected through a cross‐sectional survey of veterans of the United Kingdom Armed Forces living in Northern Ireland. The sample comprised 511 (91.2% male) veterans with a history of trauma exposu...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Emily McGlinchey, Jana Ross, Dominic Murphy, Gillian W. Shorter, Cherie Armour Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation as Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans
AbstractPreliminary studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Transcendental Meditation (TM) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study extended previous research with a pilot trial of TM as a treatment for PTSD via a single ‐blinded, randomized controlled design. veterans with PTSD (N = 40) were assigned to a TM intervention or treatment ‐as‐usual (TAU) control group. Participants in the TM group engaged in 16 sessions over 12 weeks, primarily in a 60‐min group format. Change in PTSD symptoms, measured via the Clinician‐Administered PTSD Scale forDSM ‐5 (CAPS ‐5) was the primary out...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mayer Bellehsen, Valentina Stoycheva, Barry H. Cohen, Sanford Nidich Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Treatment Outcomes for Adolescents Versus Adults Receiving Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder During Community Training
AbstractCognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a gold ‐standard treatment for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, adolescents may also benefit from CPT, particularly when existing evidence‐based treatments for adolescents are unavailable or not a good fit. In this program evaluation study, a modular version of CPT was deliver ed by community‐based therapists‐in‐training to 32 adolescents (age range: 14–17 years) and 174 adults recruited at their sites (overall sample: 81.1% female, 59.7% White, 31.6% Black, 21.6% Hispanic, 2.9% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 1.9% Asian, and 9.7% other...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stefanie T. LoSavio, Robert A. Murphy, Patricia A. Resick Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Integration of Well ‐Being Therapy and Positive Psychotherapy: A Response to Fava and Guidi's (2021) Commentary on Radstaak et al. (2020)
AbstractThe results of our study on the effects of well ‐being therapy (WBT) compared with a treatment‐as‐usual (TAU) control condition among individuals with residual symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were recently published in theJournal of Traumatic Stress (Radstaak et  al., 2020). In a subsequent commentary, Fava and Guidi (2020) raised several conceptual and methodological issues that they asserted potentially limited the interpretation of the results. In this response, we aim to clarify these issues, thus contributing to the optimal interpretation of the findi ngs. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mirjam Radstaak, Laura H üning, Ernst T Bohlmeijer Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Racial Discrimination is Associated with Acute Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Predicts Future Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in Trauma ‐Exposed Black Adults in the United States
AbstractIn the United States, Black residents exposed to a traumatic event are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experiencing more severe symptoms compared to their non ‐Hispanic White counterparts. Although previous work has suggested a link between racial discrimination and PTSD symptoms, no studies have assessed this association in a sample of traumatic injury survivors. The current study investigated whether (a) past racial discrimination was associated with acute posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and (b) discrimination prospectively contributed to the prediction of future...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Claire M. Bird, E. Kate Webb, Andrew T. Schramm, Lucas Torres, Christine Larson, Terri A. deRoon ‐Cassini Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Associations Among Increases in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Neurocognitive Performance, and Long ‐Term Functional Outcomes in U.S. Iraq War Veterans
This study of Iraq War veterans examined the associations between increases in PTSS and long‐term functional outcomes, including the potential contributions of neurocognitive decrements. Service members and veterans (N = 594) completed self ‐report measures of functioning and PTSS severity before Iraq War deployment and again after their return (M = 9.3 years postdeployment). Some participants (n = 278) also completed neurocognitive testing at both times. Multiple regression analyses with the full sample —adjusted for TBI, demographic characteristics, military variables, and predeployment PTSS and functioning&mda...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Colleen E. Jackson, Maria M. Ciarleglio, Mihaela Aslan, Brian P. Marx, John Ko, John Concato, Susan P. Proctor, Jennifer J. Vasterling Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Treating Veterans at Risk for Suicide: An Examination of the Safety, Tolerability, and Outcomes of Cognitive Processing Therapy
AbstractIndividuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, clinicians often report apprehension about recommending trauma ‐focused therapy to patients with an increased risk of suicide. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and response to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) among a sample of military veterans with PTSD and increased suicide risk. A secondary aim was to provide a clinically use ful definition of high suicide risk. Chart review was used to classify the suicide risk level of 290 veterans who participated in CPT at...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Erika M. Roberge, Julia A. Harris, Harrison R. Weinstein, David C. Rozek Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Network Analysis of DSM ‐5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Event Centrality
AbstractThe centrality of a traumatic event to one's autobiographical memory has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. In the present study, we investigated the associations between specific features of event centrality (EC), as measured using the Centrality of Event Scale, and specific symptoms of PTSD. We computed a cross ‐sectional graphical lasso network of PTSD symptoms and specific features of EC in a sample of trauma‐exposed individuals (n = 451), many of whom met the clinical threshold for a PTSD diagnosis. The graphical lasso revealed intrusive memories, negative trauma ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Melissa. G. Guineau, Payton. J. Jones, Benjamin. W. Bellet, Richard. J. McNally Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Social Anhedonia is Associated with Low Social Network Diversity in Trauma ‐Exposed Adults
AbstractSocial anhedonia has been proposed to contribute to social isolation in several psychiatric disorders, but it has not been examined in relation to deficits in social connection that also characterize posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A growing body of evidence emphasizes the health importance of structural features of social networks, including their size and complexity. The current study examined the association between social anhedonia and social network features in a sample of trauma ‐exposed participants with and without PTSD as well as in non–trauma‐exposed controls. Participants (N = 101;n = 37 ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Elizabeth A. Olson, Diego A. Pizzagalli, Isabelle M. Rosso Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Temporal Stability of Self ‐Reported Trauma Exposure on the Life Events Checklist for DSM‐5
AbstractThe Life Events Checklist forDSM ‐5 (LEC ‐5) is a comprehensive screening instrument used to detect exposure to a range of potentially traumatic events. Despite its widespread use, research assessing the psychometric properties of scores on the LEC‐5—and trauma exposure more broadly—is scarce. Using a large sample of undergraduate students (N = 1,013), we sought to evaluate the reliability of trauma exposure reporting on the LEC ‐5 across 8‐ (N = 379) and 12 ‐week (N = 343) intervals. Reliability estimates were examined for trauma exposure type (e.g., experiencing, witnessing), traumatic eve...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cameron P. Pugach, Faith O. Nomamiukor, Natalie G. Gay, Blair E. Wisco Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Why Participate in Peer Review?
AbstractThe scholarly publishing enterprise is currently undergoing a “crisis,” likely exacerbated by the global pandemic, in which peer reviewers are increasingly less available to perform reviews at the same time the flow of submitted manuscripts has not subsided. This editorial considers possible reasons why scholars might decline to participate in the peer rev iew process, including the lack of compensation for this time‐consuming and effort‐laden service activity; questions about the fairness, validity, and efficacy of peer review; a commonly experienced dearth of training in peer review skills; and th...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Patricia K. Kerig Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

The Emerging Literature on Exposure ‐Based Writing Therapies for Subthreshold and Clinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Response to Thompson‐Hollands et al.’s (2020) Commentary on Dawson et al. (2020)
AbstractThompson ‐Hollands et al.’s (2020) commentary on our systematic review of exposure‐based writing therapies for subthreshold and clinical posttraumatic stress symptoms (Dawson et al., 2020) emphasizes important questions about the impact of heterogeneity in drawing inferences from evidence reviews. In this reply, we discuss (a) our rationale for undertaking a systematic review that was broad rather than narrow in scope and (b) provide clarifications on how heterogeneity was considered in the meta‐analyses that were conducted. We also strongly agree with Thompson‐Hollands et al.’s r...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachelle L. Dawson, Alison L. Calear, Sonia M. McCallum, Sarah McKenna, Reginald D. V. Nixon, Richard O'Kearney Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Seeking to Understand the Conditions Under Which Exposure ‐Based Writing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is an Effective Approach: A Commentary on Dawson et al. (2020)
AbstractExposure ‐based writing interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown promise when compared with waitlist conditions, placebo writing control conditions, and evidence‐based, trauma‐focused treatments. Recently, Dawson et al. (2020) conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis to examine existing published randomized controlled trials investigating exposure‐based writing interventions. The findings were encouraging; however, the studies included in the meta‐analysis had a high degree of methodological heterogeneity. Our own work examining exposure‐based writing as a n interv...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Johanna Thompson ‐Hollands, Denise M. Sloan, Brian P. Marx Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Exposure ‐Based Writing Therapies for Subthreshold and Clinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
AbstractWe undertook a systematic review to assess the efficacy of exposure ‐based writing therapies (WTs) for trauma‐exposed adults with subthreshold or clinical levels of posttraumatic stress disorder. Four databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Wiley Online, PILOTS) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exposure‐based WTs. A total of 13 RCTs that reported on results from 17 WT versus control comparisons were included. The primary outcomes were posttraumatic stress symptom severity at posttreatment and/or clinical response. An overall unclear or high risk of bias was identified in 84.6% of studies. In com...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachelle L. Dawson, Alison L. Calear, Sonia M. McCallum, Sarah McKenna, Reginald D. V. Nixon, Richard O'Kearney Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Effects of Polyvictimization on Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in an LGBTQ Sample
AbstractLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) individuals are at elevated risk for violent victimization and often experience increased health disparities compared to their non ‐LGBTQ counterparts. The present study examined associations between polyvictimization and mental and physical health in an LGBTQ sample. Participants included 385 LGBTQ individuals involved in a larger health‐needs assessment of LGBTQ individuals living in the southeastern United States. The sa mple primarily identified as gay/lesbian (63.4%), cisgender (78.7%), and White (66.5%), and the mean participant age was 34...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Francesca Kassing, Tracy Casanova, James A. Griffin, Elizabeth Wood, Lara M. Stepleman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pupillary Response to Affective Voices: Physiological Responsivity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to dysfunctional emotional processing, thus motivating the search for physiological indices that can elucidate this process. Toward this aim, we compared pupillary response patterns in response to angry and fearful auditory stimuli among 99 adults, some with PTSD (n = 14), some trauma ‐exposed without PTSD (TE;n = 53), and some with no history of trauma exposure (CON;n = 32). We hypothesized that individuals with PTSD would show more pupillary response to angry and fearful auditory stimuli compared to those in the TE and CON groups. Among participants who had experi...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mikael Rubin, Michael J. Telch Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Narrative Reconstruction as an Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Delayed Intervention Quasi ‐Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractAlthough empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exist, many patients fail to complete therapy, are nonresponsive, or remain symptomatic following treatment. This paper presents the results of a delayed intervention quasi ‐randomized controlled study that evaluated the efficacy of narrative reconstruction as an integrative intervention for PTSD. During narrative reconstruction, the patient and therapist reconstruct an organized, coherent, and detailed written narrative of the patient's traumatic experience. Additio nally, narrative reconstruction focuses on arriving at the subjec...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mordechai Gofman, Yogev Kivity, Eran Bar ‐Kalifa, Zohar Vidan, Ilanit Hasson Ohayon, Rivka Tuval‐Mashiach, Tuvia Peri Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Compounding Stress: Childhood Adversity as a Risk Factor for Adulthood Trauma Exposure in the Health and Retirement Study
AbstractChildhood adversity (CA) and adulthood traumatic experiences (ATEs) are common and unequally distributed in the general population. Early stressors may beget later stressors and alter life ‐course trajectories of stressor exposure. Gender differences exist regarding the risk of specific stressors. However, few studies have examined the associations between specific types of CA and ATEs. Using a large‐scale sample of older adults, we aimed to (a) determine if specific or cumulative CA increased the risk for specific or cumulative ATEs and (b) examine whether these associations were moderated by gender. In a samp...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: David B ürgin, Cyril Boonmann, Klaus Schmeck, Marc Schmid, Paige Tripp, Kristen Nishimi, Aoife O'Donovan Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Ending Self ‐Stigma for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (ESS‐P) Program: Results of a Pilot Randomized Trial
AbstractExperiences of and concerns about encountering stigma are common among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One common and serious consequence is self ‐stigma, which is when an individual comes to believe that common negative stereotypes and assumptions about PTSD are true of oneself. The current study was a pilot randomized trial that evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Ending Self‐Stigma for PTSD (ESS‐ P) program, a nine‐session group intervention that aims to assist veterans with PTSD learn tools and strategies to address stigma and self‐stigma. Vete...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Amy L. Drapalski, Jennifer Aakre, Clayton H. Brown, Erin Romero, Alicia Lucksted Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review
The objective of the present review is to provide an overview of existing research that has reported on the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ischemic heart disease. Specific focus is given to the incidence of PTSD following myocardial infarction (MI). A systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta ‐Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was performed by searching four bibliographic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. A total of 39 articles were included in this literature review. The results of these studies suggest tha...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Murielle Jacquet ‐Smailovic, Cyril Tarquinio, François Alla, Ilona Denis, Amanda Kirche, Camille Tarquinio, Marie‐Jo Brennstuhl Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Social –Emotional Profiles of PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis
AbstractThe debate around the construct validity of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) has begun to examine whether CPTSD diverges from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when it co ‐occurs with the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present study (a) examined the construct validity of CPTSD through a latent class analysis of a non–treatment‐seeking sample of young trauma‐exposed adults and (b) characterized each class in terms of trauma characteris tics, social emotions (e.g., shame, guilt, blame), and interpersonal functioning. A total of 23 dichotomized survey items were cho...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tanya C. Saraiya, Skye Fitzpatrick, Kathryn Zumberg ‐Smith, Teresa López‐Castro, Sudie E. Back, Denise A. Hien Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters in Service Members Predict New ‐Onset Depression Among Military Spouses
AbstractMilitary operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought increased attention to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among service members and, more recently, its impact on spouses. Existing research has demonstrated that PTSD among service members is associated with depression among military spouses. In the current study, we extended these findings by using data from service member –spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study for which the service member had evidence of PTSD (n = 563). Prospective analyses identified the association between PTSD symptom clusters reported by the service member...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kristen H. Walter, Cynthia A. LeardMann, Carlos E. Carballo, Hope Seib McMaster, Carrie J. Donoho, Valerie A. Stander Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

PTSD Coach Online –Arabic: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial to Examine Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effectiveness
AbstractThe Egyptian Revolution of 2011 resulted in high ‐level exposure to sociopolitical violence, placing a large burden on the mental health care system that cannot be effectively met given the small number of available providers in Egypt. We conducted a nonblinded, randomized controlled pilot trial of an online, self‐directed tool for managing po sttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of the PTSD Coach Online–Arabic. Trauma‐exposed Egyptian adults with clinically significant PTSS (N = 87; intervention group:n = 41) compl...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Laura Miller ‐Graff, Kate Ellis, Nadine Hosny Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of Hazardous Drinking Among Active Duty Military With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does Cognitive Processing Therapy Format Matter?
This study was a secondary data analysis of clinical trial data collected from 268 active duty U.S. military service members seeking cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at Fort Hood, Texas, related to combat operations following September 11, 2001. Our primary aim was to evaluate changes in PTSD symptom severity and alcohol misuse as a function of baseline hazardous drinking and treatment format (i.e., group or individual). At baseline and posttreatment, PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale –Interview Version and PTSD Checklist forDSM ‐5. Hazardous drinking was cate...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Casey L. Straud, Katherine A. Dondanville, Willie J. Hale, Jennifer S. Wachen, Jim Mintz, Brett T. Litz, John D. Roache, Jeffrey S. Yarvis, Stacey Young ‐McCaughan, Alan L. Peterson, Patricia A. Resick, for the STRONG STAR Consortium Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Elucidating the Impact of Childhood, Adulthood, and Cumulative Lifetime Trauma Exposure on Psychiatric Symptoms in Early Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
AbstractCumulative lifetime trauma has a profound impact on the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, few studies have determined participants ’ most distressing (i.e., “worst”) life event in childhood or adulthood or examined whether this event contributes to poorer clinical outcomes. The present study aimed to (a) determine the associations between the worst life event and demographic/clinical variables and (b) examine the associat ions between the worst life event and psychiatric symptoms (i.e., positive, negative, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). Participants (N = 150) were outpa...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jianlin Liu, Rathi Mahendran, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Examination of the Factor Structure and Correlates of the Perceived Military Healthcare Stressors Scale
AbstractThe current study evaluated the factor structure, reliability estimates, correlates, and predictive utility of the Perceived Military Healthcare Stressor Scale (PMHSS) in a sample of active duty military medical personnel (N = 1,131) deployed to Joint Base Balad in Iraq. The sample was composed of an approximately even split of male (51.2%) and female (48.8%) participants who ranged in age from 18 to 60 years. The PMHSS is a 21 ‐item measure that was designed to assess the impact of specific medical stressors that military healthcare providers may encounter while deployed. An exploratory factor analysis of the PM...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Willie J. Hale, Brian A. Moore, Casey L. Straud, Monty T. Baker, Alan L. Peterson Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Families in the Shadow of Traumatic Experiences: Negative World Assumptions and Family Relationships
AbstractWorld assumptions (WAs) are cognitive schemas concerning an individual's views of themselves, the world, and others. Although it is well established that WAs are negatively distorted by trauma exposure and strongly associated with posttraumatic psychopathology, the potential impact of WAs on close interpersonal relationships remains largely uninvestigated. The current study explored the implications of veterans ’ and their spouses’ WAs on their marital and parental relationships. Male Israeli veterans (N = 213) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War and their wives were assessed for WAs, marital adjustment, and p...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rahel Bachem, Yafit Levin, Jacob Y. Stein, Zahava Solomon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Depression and Anxiety During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic in an Urban, Low‐Income Public University Sample
AbstractMental health disparities in the aftermath of national disasters and the protective role of socioeconomic status are both well documented. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among underresourced public university students during the COVID ‐19 pandemic in New York City. Between April 8, 2020, and May 2, 2020, adult students (N = 1,821) across the CUNY system completed an online survey examining COVID ‐19–related stressors and mental health and sociodemographic factors. Using multivariable logistical regression to assess the association between COVID‐19–related stressors a...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sasha Rudenstine, Kat McNeal, Talia Schulder, Catherine K. Ettman, Michelle Hernandez, Kseniia Gvozdieva, Sandro Galea Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Service Dogs for Veterans and Military Members With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Replication With the PTSD Checklist for DSM ‐5
AbstractPsychiatric service dogs are an emerging complementary intervention for veterans and military members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent cross ‐sectional studies have documented significant, clinically relevant effects regarding service dogs and PTSD symptom severity. However, these studies were conducted using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) for the fourth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The present study aimed to replicate and advance these findings using the latest version of the PCL for the fifth edition of theDSM (PCL ‐5). Participants included 186 militar...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Clare L. Jensen, Kerri E. Rodriguez, Marguerite E. O'Haire Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Modified Prolonged Exposure to Prevent the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients Hospitalized With Traumatic Injuries
AbstractIndividuals who require hospitalization after traumatic injuries are at increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few early behavioral interventions have been effective at preventing PTSD within this population. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of modified prolonged exposure therapy (mPE) to prevent PTSD and depression symptoms among patients hospitalized after aDSM ‐5 single ‐incident trauma. Hospitalized patients were eligible if they screened positive for PTSD risk. Participants (N = 74) were randomly assigned in a parallel ‐grou...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sadie E. Larsen, Joshua C. Hunt, Tim Geier, Katelyn Heyrman, Nicholas Schumann, Amber Brandolino, Sydney Timmer ‐Murillo, Carisa Bergner, Christine Larson, Terri A. deRoon‐Cassini Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

An Interaction Model of Environmental and Psychological Factors Influencing Refugee Mental Health
AbstractIn this paper, we draw on empirical research and theoretical models of refugee and posttrauma mental health to propose the “Psychological Interaction with Environment (PIE) Matrix Model” of refugee mental health. This model focuses on the mental health of adult refugees and proposes that psychological factors and the external environment interact to influence mental health outcomes and functioning for individuals wi th refugee backgrounds. Environmental factors include adversity faced before, during, and after the migration journey, including adversity faced in a resettlement or postdisplacement environ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Shraddha Kashyap, David Keegan, Belinda J Liddell, Ted Thomson, Angela Nickerson Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE: ADVANCES IN TRAUMA THEORY Source Type: research

The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance in a Sample of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Wildfires
AbstractNatural disasters are potentially traumatic events due to their disruptive nature and high impact on social and physical environments, particularly for children and adolescents. The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES ‐13) in a sample of Portuguese children and adolescents exposed to a specific type of natural disaster (i.e., wildfire). The sample was recruited at six school units of the Central region of Portugal following wildfires in the summer of 2017 and included children and adolescents without a clinical diagnosis of a psychopath...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Joana Pereira, Paula Vagos, Ana Fonseca, Helena Moreira, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Daniel Rijo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Anger Dimensions and Mental Health Following a Disaster: Distribution and Implications After a Major Bushfire
AbstractAnger is an important dimension of affect and a prominent feature of posttraumatic mental health, but it is commonly overlooked in postdisaster settings. We aimed to examine the distribution and implications of significant anger problems in the aftermath of a natural disaster, via analyses of Beyond Bushfires survey data from 736 residents of rural communities 5 years after the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in Victoria, Australia. Assessments included the five ‐item Dimensions of Anger Reaction (DAR‐5) scale along with measures of PTSD, depression, and significant mental illness, and indicators of life satisfac...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sean Cowlishaw, Olivia Metcalf, Tracey Varker, Caleb Stone, Robyn Molyneaux, Lisa Gibbs, Karen Block, Louise Harms, Colin MacDougall, H. Colin Gallagher, Richard Bryant, Ellie Lawrence ‐Wood, Connie Kellett, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Change in Event Centrality and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms During Intensive Treatment
AbstractEvent centrality, defined as the extent to which a traumatic event becomes a core component of a person's identity (Berntsen& Rubin, 2006), is both a correlate and predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, over and above event severity. These findings suggest that decreasing the perceived centrality of a traumatic event to one's identity might result in decreases in PTSD symptom severity. To date, few studies have examined how centrality is affected by PTSD treatment. The present study tested the hypotheses that change in centrality would be associated with both change in PTSD symptom severity...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Peter P. Grau, Sadie E. Larsen, Steven L. Lancaster, Mauricio Garnier ‐Villarreal, Chad T. Wetterneck Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are Associated with Exaggerated Neural Response to Surprising Errors
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by exaggerated salience of previously innocuous cues and associated with hyperactivity of salience ‐related brain regions. Recently, computational models have been deployed to operationalize salience more precisely regarding surprise‐driven learning, leading to findings that such learning is altered in anxiety‐related disorders. In the present study, a sample of 20 combat veterans completed a probabilistic learning task during fMRI scanning. We applied a computational model to generate a trial‐by‐trial surprise signal (i.e., unsigned prediction error o...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jonathon R. Howlett, Jessica Bomyea, Katia M. Harl é, Alan N. Simmons Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

2020 Annual Acknowledgment of Reviewers
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ANNUAL REVIEWER ACKNOWLEDGMENT Source Type: research