Collective Trauma and Mental Health Hospitalization Rates Among Children in New York State, 1999 –2013: Age, Period, and Cohort Effects
This study examined age–period–cohort effects in children and youth mental health hospitalizations in NYS from 1999–2013. Age effects followed a linear trend from age 5 years,B = −2.76, 95% CI [−3.48, −2.03)] up to age 15 years,B = 1.62, 95% CI [1.52, 1.73]. The largest period effects were noted in 2004,B = 0.36, 95% CI [0.28, 0.45], and in 2013,B = 0.31, 95% CI [0.15, 0.47], approximately 3 years after 9/11 and the Great Recession, respectively. The largest birth cohort effect was noted for children born in 1992 –1995 (range: 0.29 for children born in 1992–0.27 for children ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sze Yan Liu, Sungwoo Lim Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Journal of Traumatic Stress, Volume 32, Issue 6, Page 813-816, December 2019. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Section on Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD): The Evolution of a Disorder
AbstractThe inclusion of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in the 11th revision of theInternational Classification of Diseases is an important development in the field of psychotraumatology. Complex PTSD was developed as a response to a clinical need to describe difficulties commonly associated with exposure to traumatic stressors that are predominantly of an interpersonal nature. With this special section, we bring attention to this common condition following exposure to traumatic stressors that only recently has been designated an official diagnosis. In this introduction, we review the history of CPTSD as a n...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Thanos Karatzias, Alytia A. Levendosky Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Commentary on the Special Section on Complex PTSD: Still Going Strong After All These Years
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is inherently complex, yet a growing evidence base indicates that a complex variant (CPTSD) can be distinguished from classic PTSD based on evidence of clinically significant affect, interpersonal, and self/identity dysregulation. This Commentary to theJournal of Traumatic Stress special section on CPTSD reviews the results of four new studies that empirically tested the structure, traumatic stressor antecedents, and construct validity of CPTSD in relation to PTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Based on these and prior empirical findings, a reconceptualization of PTS...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Julian D. Ford Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Gun Violence Exposure and Posttraumatic Symptoms Among Children and Youth
AbstractAlthough statistics on youth homicide and injury from gun violence are available, little research has focused on how gun violence overlaps with other victimizations or on the psychological impact of gun violence on children. Pilot survey data were collected on the experiences of 630 U.S. children (age range: 2 –17 years) from Boston, Philadelphia, and rural areas of eastern Tennessee. Youth aged 10–17 years completed a self‐report survey on a wide range of gun violence exposures, and parents of younger children (aged 2–9 years) completed the survey as a proxy for that child. Direct gun violence ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Heather A. Turner, Kimberly J. Mitchell, Lisa M. Jones, Sherry Hamby, Roy Wade, Cheryl L. Beseler Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Alternative Models of DSM ‐5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Portuguese Adolescents Exposed to Trauma and Childhood Adversity
AbstractThe factor structure ofDSM ‐5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated, with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven ‐factor hybrid model. However, few studies examining PTSD symptom structure have assessed the implications of these proposed models on diagnostic criteria and PTSD prevalence. In the present study, we examined seven alternativeDSM ‐5 PTSD models within a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale –Self‐Report forDSM ‐5 (CPSS ‐5). Additionally, we generated prevalence rates for each of the seven models by using a symptom‐...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Patr ícia Correia‐Santos, Diogo Morgado, Ângela C. Maia, Alytia Levendosky, Inês Jongenelen, Ricardo J. Pinto Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Evolution of a Disorder
AbstractThe inclusion of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in the 11th revision of theInternational Classification of Diseases is an important development in the field of psychotraumatology. Complex PTSD was developed as a response to a clinical need to describe difficulties commonly associated with exposure to traumatic stressors that are predominantly of an interpersonal nature. With this special section, we bring attention to this common condition following exposure to traumatic stressors that only recently has been designated an official diagnosis. In this introduction, we review the history of CPTSD as a n...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Thanos Karatzias, Alytia A. Levendosky Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Severity and Insomnia ‐Related Sleep Disturbances: Longitudinal Associations in a Large, Gender‐Balanced Cohort of Combat‐Exposed Veterans
AbstractFew studies have investigated the range and severity of insomnia ‐related sleep complaints among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the temporal association between insomnia and PTSD severity has yet to be examined. To examine these associations, a large, gender‐balanced cohort of veterans (N = 1,649) of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts participated in longitudinal assessments of PTSD and insomnia ‐related symptoms over a period of 2.5 years following enrollment (range: 2–4 years). Data were obtained from multiple sources, including interviews, self‐report assessments, and elect...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Raymond C. Rosen, Bryanna Cikesh, Shona Fang, Felicia L. Trachtenberg, Karen H. Seal, Ashley M. Magnavita, Michelle J. Bovin, Jonathan D. Green, Donald L. Bliwise, Brian P. Marx, Terence M. Keane Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Coping Strategies and Psychological Symptoms Among Children on St. Thomas in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Irma and Maria
This study examined the psychological functioning of 108 children and adolescents (69.7% Black, Non ‐Hispanic; 56.5% female;M age = 11.59 years,SD = 2.43) in Grades 3 –12 as measured 3 months after experiencing Hurricanes Irma and Maria on the island of St. Thomas. Participants completed electronic questionnaires about their demographic characteristics, hurricane exposure (i.e., perceived life‐threat, life‐threatening events, loss/disruption after hurricane s), coping strategies utilized, and their psychological functioning (i.e., PTS, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms). A principal component analysis o...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Laura D. Pittman, Nicolette L. Cutright, Lauren McNeela, Samantha Awada, Jacqueline M. Pabis, Kristina Kochanova, Elizabeth Shelleby Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Still Going Strong After All These Years
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is inherently complex, yet a growing evidence base indicates that a complex variant (CPTSD) can be distinguished from classic PTSD based on evidence of clinically significant affect, interpersonal, and self/identity dysregulation. This Commentary to theJournal of Traumatic Stress special section on CPTSD reviews the results of four new studies that empirically tested the structure, traumatic stressor antecedents, and construct validity of CPTSD in relation to PTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Based on these and prior empirical findings, a reconceptualization of PTS...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Julian D. Ford Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

ICD ‐11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the United States: A Population‐Based Study
AbstractThe primary aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the current prevalence rates ofInternational Classification of Diseases (11th rev.) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) among the adult population of the United States and to identify characteristics and correlates associated with each disorder. A total of 7.2% of the sample met criteria for either PTSD or CPTSD, and the prevalence rates were 3.4% for PTSD and 3.8% for CPTSD. Women were more likely than men to meet criteria for both PTSD and CPTSD. Cumulative adulthood trauma was associated with both PTSD and CPTSD; however, cum...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maryl ène Cloitre, Philip Hyland, Jonathan I. Bisson, Chris R. Brewin, Neil P. Roberts, Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Polytraumatization, Mental Health, and Delinquency Among Adolescent Gang Members
AbstractAdolescent gang members are at high risk for polytraumatization (i.e., experiencing two or more types of trauma), which may contribute to behavioral problems, such as delinquency or drug distribution, and mental health symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The present study examined the associations between polytraumatization and these behavioral and mental health outcomes. We hypothesized that increased polytraumatization would lead to increased (b) mental health symptoms, (b) delinquency, and (c) drug distribution. Participants included 441 adolescent gang members (57.8% male; age...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Liesl A. Nydegger, Katherine Quinn, Jennifer L. Walsh, Maria L. Pacella ‐LaBarbara, Julia Dickson‐Gomez Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Associations Between Physical and Psychological Symptoms and Traumatic Military Deployment Exposures
AbstractCurrent paradigms regarding the effects of traumatic exposures on military personnel do not consider physical symptoms unrelated to injury or illness as independent outcomes of trauma exposure, characteristically dealing with these symptoms as comorbidities of psychological disorders. Our objective was to ascertain the proportions of deployed military personnel who experienced predominantly physical symptoms, predominantly psychological symptoms, and comorbidity of the two and to examine the association between traumatic deployment exposures (TDEs) and these symptomatic profiles. Data were taken from a cross ‐sec...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kristin Graham, Amelia Searle, Miranda Van Hooff, Ellie Lawrence ‐Wood, Alexander McFarlane Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Neurocomputational Changes in Inhibitory Control Associated With Prolonged Exposure Therapy
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with inhibitory control dysfunction that extends beyond difficulties inhibiting trauma ‐related intrusions. Inhibitory learning has been proposed as a potential mechanism of change underlying the effectiveness of extinction‐based therapies such as prolonged exposure (PE), a first‐line treatment for PTSD. To identify neurocognitive markers of change in inhibitory learning associa ted with PE, we applied a Bayesian learning model to the analysis of neuroimaging data collected during an inhibitory control task, both before and after PE treatment. Veterans (N = 2...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Katia M. Harl é, Andrea D. Spadoni, Sonya B. Norman, Alan N. Simmons Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Examining the Discriminant Validity of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms: Results From a United Kingdom Population Sample
AbstractComplex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) was added to the diagnostic nomenclature in the 11th revision of theInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD ‐11). Although considerable evidence exists supporting the construct validity of CPTSD, the distinguishability of CPTSD symptoms from those of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been questioned. The present study examined the discriminant validity of CPTSD and BPD symptoms among a trauma ‐exposed population sample from the United Kingdom (N = 546). Participants completed self ‐report measures of CPTSD and BPD symptoms, and their latent structure...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Philip Hyland, Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Maryl ène Cloitre Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Coping Motives Mediate the Association Between Childhood Maltreatment and Alcohol Problems
AbstractChildhood maltreatment is associated with increased risk of alcohol misuse. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and coping motives have both been identified, separately, as mediators of the relation between childhood maltreatment and alcohol misuse but have yet to be examined as serial mediators in a high ‐risk population. A total of 564 adolescents (53.7% female;M age = 15.9 years,SD = 1.1) in the care of child welfare services completed validated measures of childhood trauma, PTSS, drinking motives, and alcohol misuse across the first two waves (baseline and 6 ‐month follow‐up) of the Maltreatment and Adol...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tristan Park, Kara Thompson, Christine Wekerle, Mohammed Al ‐Hamdani, Savanah Smith, Amanda Hudson, Abby Goldstein, Sherry H. Stewart Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Changes in Coping and Negative Cognitions as Mechanisms of Change in Online Treatment for Rape ‐Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
We examined trauma‐related cognitions and coping as treatment m echanisms among 46 women who completed a randomized clinical trial of a CBT‐based, telepsychology‐delivered interactive program for rape survivors. The results indicated that both the interactive program,d = 1.5, and the active control condition, a psychoeducational website,d = 1.4, resulted in large reductions in posttest PTSD symptoms. Analysis of residual gain scores showed that reductions in the three types of assessed trauma ‐related cognitions were strongly related to reductions in PTSD symptoms among women assigned to the interactive program,rs ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Heather Littleton, Amie Grills Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Feasibility of Resistance Exercise for Posttraumatic Stress and Anxiety Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
This study aimed to explore the feasibility of a brief high ‐intensity resistance exercise intervention for PTSS and related issues, such as anxiety, sleep, alcohol use, and depression, in non‐treatment–seeking adults who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. The sample included 30 non‐treatment–seeking, urban‐dw elling adults (M age = 29.10 years,SD = 7.38; 73.3% female) who screened positive for PTSD and anxiety and were randomly assigned to either a 3 ‐week resistance exercise intervention or a time‐matched contact control condition. The results suggest the inter...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: James W. Whitworth, Sanaz Nosrat, Nicholas J. SantaBarbara, Joseph T. Ciccolo Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Rivers Centre in Scotland: An Attachment ‐Based Service Model for People With Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractThe Rivers Centre in Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom) operated for nearly 20 years as a traditional specialist trauma service, delivering psychological therapies to an adult population affected by trauma. Embedded in a health and social care system whose characteristics were unhelpful for people with histories of insecure attachment experiences, the Rivers Centre aimed to find a different way of working, and in January 2017, it relaunched with a new model of service. The aim of this paper is to describe the new service model from an organizational perspective in the context of attachment theory. At the heart of...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Claire Fyvie, Paula Easton, Gill Moreton, Jenny McKeever, Thanos Karatzias Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Treating Adults With Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Using a Modular Approach to Treatment: Rationale, Evidence, and Directions for Future Research
AbstractICD ‐11 complex PTSD (CPTSD) is a new condition, and, therefore, there are as yet no clinical trials evaluating interventions for its treatment. In this paper, we provide the rationale for a flexible multimodular approach to the treatment of CPTSD, its feasibility, and some evidence suggesting its potential benefits. The approach highlights flexibility in the selection of empirically supported interventions (or a set of interventions) and the order of delivery based on symptoms that are impairing, severe, and of relevance to the patient. The approach has many potential benefits. It can incorporate the use of inte...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Thanos Karatzias, Marylene Cloitre Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Barriers and Facilitators to Help ‐Seeking for Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) brings with it diagnostic symptoms that can be debilitating and persist for years. Left untreated, PTSD can have far ‐reaching and damaging consequences for the individual, families, communities, and society at large. Although early detection and intervention are recognized as key to the effective treatment of PTSD, many individuals who suffer from PTSD do not seek essential health services. The aim of the prese nt study was to identify the barriers and facilitators to help‐seeking for individuals with PTSD, based on existing literature. A systematic review, modeled on the J...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jennifer R. Smith, Sanni Yaya, Aklile Workneh Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Modeling Patterns of Polyvictimiztion and Their Associations with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Israeli Population
AbstractAlthough evidence is accumulating for the conceptual validity of theICD ‐11 proposal for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD), our understanding of the specificity of trauma ‐related predictors is still evolving. Specifically, studies utilizing advanced statistical methods to model the association between trauma exposure andICD ‐11 proposals of traumatic stress and differences in profiles of trauma exposure are lacking. Additionally, time since trauma and a clear memory of the trauma are yet to be examined as predictors of PTSD and CPTSD. We analyzed trauma exposure as reported by a g...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maria Louison Vang, Menachem Ben ‐Ezra, Mark Shevlin Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Body ‐ and Movement‐Oriented Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
AbstractTo assess the efficacy of body ‐ and movement‐oriented interventions (BMOIs) in traumatized adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of pertinent literature. Four bibliographical databases (PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(R), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Con trolled Trials) were searched using keywords and text words for trials on BMOIs addressing PTSD. The search included articles published between October 2005 and August 2017. Studies were included if participants were adults suffering from PTSD, if BMOIs were the therapeutic strategy under ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Minke M. de Kamp, Mia Scheffers, Janneke Hatzmann, Claudia Emck, Pim Cuijpers, Peter J. Beek Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Typologies of Combat Exposure and Their Effects on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms
AbstractThe present study identified distinct classes of U.S. military service members based on their combat experiences and examined mental health outcomes and longitudinal growth curves of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms associated with each class. Participants were 551 active duty service members who screened positive for PTSD and/or depression based onDSM ‐IV‐TR criteria. All participants completed the Combat Experiences Scale at baseline as well as PTSD and depression measures at baseline and at 3 ‐, 6‐, and 12‐month follow‐ups. A latent class analysis identified four classes o...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Marija Spanovic Kelber, Derek J. Smolenski, Don E. Workman, Maria A. Morgan, Abigail L. Garvey Wilson, Marjorie S. Campbell, Daniel P. Evatt, Bradley E. Belsher Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Profiles in Traumatized Refugees
We examined PTSD and CPTSD symptom profiles (co ‐occurring PTSD and disturbances in self‐organization [DSO] symptoms) and their premigration, postmigration, and demographic predictors, using latent class analysis (LCA), in a cohort of 112 refugees resettled in Australia. The LCA identified a four‐factor model as the best fit to the data, co mprising classes categorized as: (a) CPTSD, exhibiting high levels of PTSD and DSO symptoms (29.5%); (b) PTSD only (23.5%); (c) high affective dysregulation (AD) symptoms (31.9%); and (d) low PTSD and DSO symptoms (15.1%). Membership in the CPTSD and PTSD classes was specifically ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Belinda J. Liddell, Angela Nickerson, Kim L. Felmingham, Gin S. Malhi, Jessica Cheung, Miriam Den, Mirjana Askovic, Mariano Coello, Jorge Aroche, Richard A. Bryant Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

An Empirical Crosswalk for the PTSD Checklist: Translating DSM ‐IV to DSM‐5 Using a Veteran Sample
AbstractThe fifth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM ‐5) introduced numerous revisions to the fourth edition's (DSM ‐IV) criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posing a challenge to clinicians and researchers who wish to assess PTSD symptoms continuously over time. The aim of this study was to develop a crosswalk between theDSM ‐IV andDSM ‐5 versions of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a widely used self ‐rated measure of PTSD symptom severity. Participants were 1,003 U.S. veterans (58.7% with PTSD) who completed the PCL forDSM ‐IV (the PCL ‐C) andDSM ‐5 (the PCL ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Samantha J. Moshier, Daniel J. Lee, Michelle J. Bovin, Gabrielle Gauthier, Alexandra Zax, Raymond C. Rosen, Terence M. Keane, Brian P. Marx Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Journal of Traumatic Stress, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 647-649, October 2019. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Journal of Traumatic Stress p Value Guidelines
Journal of Traumatic Stress, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 651-652, October 2019. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Philip Hyland, Mark Shevlin, Patricia K. Kerig Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Unresolved –Disorganized Attachment is Associated With Smaller Hippocampus and Increased Functional Connectivity Beyond Psychopathology
AbstractLoss and abuse in children can lead to unresolved –disorganized (UD) attachment. How this condition relates to brain structure and functional connectivity (FC) is unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) correlates of UD attachment in adolescents. Based on previous neuroi maging studies of trauma effects, we hypothesized that the structure of the amygdala and hippocampus and the FC of the latter would be linked to UD attachment. Anatomical and RSFC data were collected from a mixed group of adolescents (N = 74) with symptoms of posttra...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Marie ‐José Hoof, Madelon Riem, Amy Garrett, Nienke Pannekoek, Nic Wee, Marinus IJzendoorn, Robert Vermeiren Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Identifying the Key Risk Factors for Adverse Psychological Outcomes Among Police Officers: A Systematic Literature Review
This article demonstrates that individual, organizational, and operational factors all impact the negative psychological outcomes of police officers to some degree. In particular, the current review suggests that certain negative psychological outcomes are likely a result of a combination of risk factors across the three domains of risk, highlighting the necessity to observe psychological risk of police in a more comprehensive way.ResumenSpanish Abstracts by Asociaci ón Chilena de Estrés Traumático (ACET)Identificando los factores de riesgo claves para las consecuencias psicol ógicas adversas en...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Larissa Sherwood, Siobhan Hegarty, Fr édérique Vallières, Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Tracey Reid Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Low ‐Income Adolescents Experiencing Family–Neighborhood Income Disparities
AbstractCertain neighborhood factors may increase the risk of exposure to trauma, therefore increasing the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Other aspects of neighborhoods can be protective, such as neighborhood ‐based social relationships, which provide social support that buffers the risk of developing PTSD. The strength of these social relationships may not be as dependent on neighborhood conditions as much as they are contingent on socioeconomic similarities between neighborhood residents. Using a nat ionally representative sample of hospital emergency department admissions in the United States (N = 13,66...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jason T. Carbone, Katherine J. Holzer, Michael G. Vaughn Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Using Big Data to Study the Impact of Mass Violence: Opportunities for the Traumatic Stress Field
We describe challenges and benefits of working with Twitter data and briefly review studies that used Twitter data to explore community responses to mass violence. We then demonstrate the use of Twitter data to examine community responses to a specif ic event: the 2015 San Bernardino terrorist attack, in which 14 people were killed and 22 were wounded. In a 6‐week time frame around this attack, we evaluated the time course of community‐level negative emotion. We downloaded 1.16 million tweets, representing 25,894 users from San Bernardino, C A, and a matched control community, Stockton, CA. All tweets were coded in R u...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nickolas M. Jones, Melissa Brymer, Roxane Cohen Silver Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Associations Among Childhood Trauma, Childhood Mental Disorders, and Past ‐Year Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Civilian Men
AbstractTo identify early life factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we investigated the association between childhood trauma and mental disorders withInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD)‐diagnosed past‐year PTSD in employed military and civilian men. Data were derived from the 2010 Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (N = 1,356) and the 2007 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing Study (N = 2,120) and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized structural equation modeling. After controll...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rebecca Syed Sheriff, Miranda Van Hooff, Gin Malhi, Blair Grace, Alexander McFarlane Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Threat Biases: Trauma Type Matters in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
We examined whether attentional threat biases were associated with gender, PTSD diagnosis, and/or trauma type. Participants were 70 civilians and veterans (38 women, 32 men; 41 with PTSD, 29 without PTSD) assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale forDSM ‐IV who completed a facial dot ‐probe attention bias task and self‐report measures of psychiatric symptoms and trauma history. Factorial ANOVA and regression models examined associations between gender, PTSD diagnosis, index trauma type, lifetime traumatic experiences, and attentional threat biases. Results revealed that comp ared to women without PTSD and m...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alexandra H. Cowden Hindash, Callan Lujan, Meghan Howard, Aoife O'Donovan, Anne Richards, Thomas C. Neylan, Sabra S. Inslicht Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Investigating the Association Between Parental Absence and Developmental Trauma Disorder Symptoms
AbstractThe importance of parent ‐child relationships in social and emotional development is well established. The current study examined the vulnerability to developmental trauma disorder (DTD) symptoms for children who were left behind by their parents due to migration. Using samples from China, we investigated the change patte rn of DTD symptoms with respect to scales for affect–physical dysregulation, self‐dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation among left‐behind children in comparison to their peers. The results of a hierarchical linear model analysis indicated that there were no statistically signific...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Yan Zhang, Jingqiu Zhang, Cody Ding Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Resource Loss and Stress Outcomes in a Setting of Chronic Conflict: The Conservation of Resources Theory in the Eastern Congo
AbstractThe purpose of this cross ‐sectional study was to examine conservation of resources (COR) theory in the context of armed conflict in Africa. Specifically, within the setting of ongoing chronic conflict in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), we tested the COR theory prediction that resource loss contributes to various stress outcomes. A randomly selected sample of 312 adults (125 men, 187 women) from villages in North Kivu, DRC completed orally administered measures of resource loss, daily stressors, and four stress outcomes: depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic distress, and genera...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jordan D. Snyder, David Boan, Jamie D. Aten, Edward B. Davis, Leif Van Grinsven, Tao Liu, Everett L. Worthington Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Identifying the Key Risk Factors for Adverse Psychological Outcomes Among Police Officers A Systematic Literature Review
This article demonstrates that individual, organizational, and operational factors all impact the negative psychological outcomes of police officers to some degree. In particular, the current review suggests that certain negative psychological outcomes are likely a result of a combination of risk factors across the three domains of risk, highlighting the necessity to observe psychological risk of police in a more comprehensive way. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Larissa Sherwood, Siobhan Hegarty, Fr édérique Vallières, Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Tracey Reid Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Examining Associations Between Hurricane Sandy Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder by Community of Residence
This study emphasizes the differential impact of hurricane exposure on subsequent PTSD symptoms in three communities affected by Hurricane Sandy. Future preparedness and recovery efforts must understand community correlates of mental health concerns to promote resilience in vulnerable communities. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rebecca M. Schwartz, Rehana Rasul, Lisa M. Gargano, Wil Lieberman ‐Cribbin, Robert M. Brackbill, Emanuela Taioli Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Changes in Trauma ‐Related Emotions Following Treatment With Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Childhood Abuse
AbstractDialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (DBT ‐PTSD) is a trauma‐focused therapy shown to reduce core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusions, hyperarousal, and avoidance. Preliminary data indicate effects on elevated trauma‐related emotions (e.g., guilt and shame) and possibly radical acceptance of the traumatic event. However, it is unclear i f improvements in these variables are significant after controlling for changes in core PTSD symptoms and to what extent nonclinical levels are obtained. In the current study, 42 individuals who met criteria for PTSD after childhood abuse and were parti...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - September 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nora G örg, Jan R. Böhnke, Kathlen Priebe, Sophie Rausch, Stefanie Wekenmann, Petra Ludäscher, Martin Bohus, Nikolaus Kleindienst Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Depression Suppresses Treatment Response for Traumatic Loss –Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active Duty Military Personnel
This study examined the association between having traumatic loss–related PTSD and treatment response to cognitive processing therapy in active duty military personnel. Participants included 213 activ e duty service members recruited across two randomized clinical trials. Results showed that service members with primary traumatic loss–related PTSD (n = 44) recovered less from depressive symptoms than those who reported different primary traumatic events (n = 169),B = −4.40. Tests of mediation found that less depression recovery suppressed recovery from PTSD symptoms in individuals with traumatic loss&ndas...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vanessa M. Jacoby, Willie Hale, Kirsten Dillon, Katherine A. Dondanville, Jennifer Schuster Wachen, Jeffrey S. Yarvis, Brett T. Litz, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young ‐McCaughan, Alan L. Peterson, Patricia A. Resick, for the STRONG STAR Consortium Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Validity of Attention Bias Variability Indices for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Research: Evidence From Patient Data
AbstractAlthough initial findings indicated that threat ‐related attention bias variability (ABV), an index designed to capture dynamic shifts in threat‐related attention over time, was positively correlated with the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, a recent study relying on simulated data has raised questions regarding the validity and empirical utility of ABV. Specifically, the simulations suggested that core features of reaction time data distinct from threat‐related attention bias, such as the reaction time standard deviation and mean, could explicate the reported elevated ABV among samp...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Yaron Alon, Reut Naim, Daniel S. Pine, Paul D. Bliese, Yair Bar ‐Haim Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Depression Suppresses Treatment Response for Traumatic Loss –Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active Duty Military Personnel
This study examined the association between having traumatic loss–related PTSD and treatment response to cognitive processing therapy in active duty military personnel. Participants included 213 activ e duty service members recruited across two randomized clinical trials. Results showed that service members with primary traumatic loss–related PTSD (n = 44) recovered less from depressive symptoms than those who reported different primary traumatic events (n = 169),B = −4.40. Tests of mediation found that less depression recovery suppressed recovery from PTSD symptoms in individuals with traumatic loss&ndas...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vanessa M. Jacoby, Willie Hale, Kirsten Dillon, Katherine A. Dondanville, Jennifer Schuster Wachen, Jeffrey S. Yarvis, Brett T. Litz, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young ‐McCaughan, Alan L. Peterson, Patricia A. Resick, for the STRONG STAR Consortium Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Validity of Attention Bias Variability Indices for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Research: Evidence From Patient Data
AbstractAlthough initial findings indicated that threat ‐related attention bias variability (ABV), an index designed to capture dynamic shifts in threat‐related attention over time, was positively correlated with the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, a recent study relying on simulated data has raised questions regarding the validity and empirical utility of ABV. Specifically, the simulations suggested that core features of reaction time data distinct from threat‐related attention bias, such as the reaction time standard deviation and mean, could explicate the reported elevated ABV among samp...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Yaron Alon, Reut Naim, Daniel S. Pine, Paul D. Bliese, Yair Bar ‐Haim Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Psychometrics of a Brief Trauma Symptom Screen for Youth in Residential Care
This study tested the psychometric properties of the Brief Trauma Symptom Screen for Youth (BTSSY), which could be used during intake into res idential care. Participants included 572 youth, ages 10–18 years (M = 14.28 years,SD = 2.31), of whom 58.9% were boys, 78.7% were Caucasian, 51.7% were youth receiving services in residential care, 15.6% were youth with clinical needs, and 32.7% were typically developing youth from the local community. Participants completed the BTSSY; other questionnaires of psychopathology, childhood maltreatment, and symptomology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and diagnostic inter...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Patrick M. Tyler, W. Alex Mason, Mary B. Chmelka, Irina Patwardan, Matthew Dobbertin, Kayla Pope, Niraj Shah, Heba Abdel ‐Rahim, Kimberly Johnson, R. James Blair Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Five ‐Year Impacts of Family Stressors and Combat Threat on the Mental Health of Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans
AbstractIt has been well established that warfare ‐related stress puts service members at risk for a range of mental health problems after they return from deployment. Less is known about service members’ experience of family stressors during deployment. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate whether family stressors would contribute uniqu e variance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms above and beyond combat threat during deployment and (b) examine whether family stressors would amplify the negative effects of combat threat on postmilitary mental health 5 years postdischarge. Study...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wesley Sanders, Brian N. Smith, Annie B. Fox, Dawne Vogt Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Dynamic Network Analysis of Negative Emotions and DSM ‐5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters During Conflict
AbstractInvestigating dynamic associations between specific negative emotions and PTSD symptom clusters may provide novel insights into the ways in which PTSD symptoms interact with, emerge from, or are reinforced by negative emotions. The present study estimated the associations among negative emotions and the fourDSM ‐5 PTSD symptom clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], and arousal) in a sample of Israeli civilians (n = 96) during the Israel –Gaza War of July–August 2014. Data were collected using experience sampling methodology, with participants queried via s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Talya Greene, Marc Gelkopf, Eiko I. Fried, Donald J. Robinaugh, Liron Lapid Pickman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cumulative Trauma Exposure, Emotion Regulation, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Incarcerated Women
AbstractIncarcerated women report high rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotion regulation has been identified as a potential mechanism that contributes to the association between trauma exposure and PTSD severity. The present study examined associations among cumulative trauma exposure, emotion regulation difficulties, and current (30 ‐day) PTSD in 152 randomly selected women in prison. Utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM), results indicated cumulative trauma was significantly associated with emotion regulation difficulties, β = .31,SE = .13,p  = .005; and PTSD symptom...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Emily M. Konecky, Shannon M. Lynch Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Five ‐Year Impacts of Family Stressors and Combat Threat on the Mental Health of Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans
AbstractIt has been well established that warfare ‐related stress puts service members at risk for a range of mental health problems after they return from deployment. Less is known about service members’ experience of family stressors during deployment. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate whether family stressors would contribute uniqu e variance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms above and beyond combat threat during deployment and (b) examine whether family stressors would amplify the negative effects of combat threat on postmilitary mental health 5 years postdischarge. Study...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wesley Sanders, Brian N. Smith, Annie B. Fox, Dawne Vogt Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Dynamic Network Analysis of Negative Emotions and DSM ‐5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters During Conflict
AbstractInvestigating dynamic associations between specific negative emotions and PTSD symptom clusters may provide novel insights into the ways in which PTSD symptoms interact with, emerge from, or are reinforced by negative emotions. The present study estimated the associations among negative emotions and the fourDSM ‐5 PTSD symptom clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], and arousal) in a sample of Israeli civilians (n = 96) during the Israel –Gaza War of July–August 2014. Data were collected using experience sampling methodology, with participants queried via s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Talya Greene, Marc Gelkopf, Eiko I. Fried, Donald J. Robinaugh, Liron Lapid Pickman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research