A Pilot Trial of Universal School ‐Based Mental Health Screening in El Salvador: Traumatic Stress in an Underresourced School Environment
AbstractSalvadoran youth have an elevated risk of trauma exposure and related mental health problems. However, investigations of childhood trauma exposure and mental health sequelae in El Salvador are limited. The present study aimed to (a) explore the prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression and (b) evaluate the associations between specific trauma types and emotional functioning among Salvadoran youth. A total of 1,296 youth aged 8 –21 years from seven public schools completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress sy...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Regan W. Stewart, Bianca T. Villalobos, Aubrey R. Dueweke, Juventino Hernandez Rodriguez, Andel V. Nicasio, Michelle Alto, Rosaura Orengo ‐Aguayo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of COVID ‐19 on Psychotherapy Participation Among Individuals With Enrolled in Treatment Research
AbstractThe onset of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of daily life and required a rapid and unprecedented shift in psychotherapy delivery from in-person to telemental health. In the present study, we explored the impact of the pandemic on individuals ’ ability to participate in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy and the association between the impact of COVID-19 impact on health and financial well-being and psychotherapy participation. Participants (N = 161, 63.2% male,Mage = 42.7 years) were United States military veterans (n = 108), active duty military personnel (n = 12), and civilians...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Carmen P. McLean, Sudie E. Back, Christy Capone, Leslie Morland, Sonya B. Norman, Sheila A. M. Rauch, Paula P. Schnurr, Ellen Teng, Ron Acierno Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Shame as a Mediator in the Association Between Emotion Dysregulation and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reductions Among Combat Veterans in a Residential Treatment Program
AbstractEmotion dysregulation (ED) can be defined as one's inability to effectively respond to and manage internal experiences and the expression of emotion. ED has been linked to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with recent research suggesting that reductions in ED may predict improved treatment outcomes among both civilian and veteran populations. However, few studies have examined how changes in ED may predict treatment outcomes among veterans with PTSD and whether certain core features of PTSD, such as shame, may act as potential mediators in the association between ED and PTSD s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alexander Puhalla, Aidan Flynn, Amanda Vaught Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Impact of COVID ‐19 on Psychotherapy Participation Among Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Enrolled in Treatment Research
AbstractThe onset of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of daily life and required a rapid and unprecedented shift in psychotherapy delivery from in-person to telemental health. In the present study, we explored the impact of the pandemic on individuals ’ ability to participate in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy and the association between the impact of COVID-19 impact on health and financial well-being and psychotherapy participation. Participants (N = 161, 63.2% male,Mage = 42.7 years) were United States military veterans (n = 108), active duty military personnel (n = 12), and civilians...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Carmen P. McLean, Sudie E. Back, Christy Capone, Leslie Morland, Sonya B. Norman, Sheila A. M. Rauch, Paula P. Schnurr, Ellen Teng, Ron Acierno Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Coping Motives are Independently Associated with Cannabis Craving Elicited by Trauma Cues
AbstractCannabis use is common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although its use can ultimately worsen PTSD outcomes. Cannabis-use coping motives may help explain the PTSD –cannabis relationship. Frequent pairing of trauma cues with substance use to cope with negative affect can lead to conditioned substance craving. For the present cue-reactivity study, we examined if PTSD symptoms were associated with cannabis craving elicited by a personalized trauma cue and expl ored whether coping motives mediated this hypothesized relationship; enhancement motives were included as a comparison mediat...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kyra N. Farrelly, Pablo Romero ‐Sanchiz, Tiberiu Mahu, Sean P. Barrett, Pamela Collins, Daniel Rasic, Sherry H. Stewart Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Parental Posttraumatic Stress and School Performance in Refugee Children
AbstractRefugee children in the Nordic countries have been reported to perform poorly in school and carry a high burden of familial posttraumatic stress. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress on the school performance of refugee children. We used national register data on school grades at age 15 –16 along with demographic and migration indicators during 2011–2017 in a population of 18,831 children in refugee families in Stockholm County, Sweden. Parental posttraumatic stress was identified in regional data from three levels of care, including a tertiary ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lisa Berg, Monica Brendler ‐Lindquist, Edith Montgomery, Ellenor Mittendorfer‐Rutz, Anders Hjern Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Childhood Adversity and the Association Between Stress Sensitivity and Problematic Alcohol Use in Adults
We examined the unique and interactive effects of ELA and U-threat reactivity on problem drinking and depressive and anxiety symptom severity. Participants (N = 131) completed a well-validated threat-of-shock task, and startle eyeblink potentiation was recorded to index aversive responding. Individuals also completed self-report measures of alcohol use, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Results demonstrated a positive association between ELA and higher levels of problematic alcohol use at high levels of U-threat reactivity, β = .75,t = 3.93,p
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: O. Trent Hall, K. Luan Phan, Stephanie Gorka Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Vulnerability to COVID ‐19–Related Disability: The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms on Psychosocial Impairment During the Pandemic
AbstractAs a result of the COVID –19 pandemic, many individuals have experienced disruptions in social, occupational, and daily life activities. Individuals with mental health difficulties, particularly those with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), may be especially vulnerable to increased impairment as a result of CO VID–19. Additionally, demographic factors, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity, may impact individual difficulties related to the pandemic. The current study examined the concurrent and prospective associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, broader anxiety ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Danielle M. Morabito, Carter E. Bedford, Savannah Woller, Norman B. Schmidt Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Role of Parents ’ Self‐Perceptions in the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Aspects of Parenting
AbstractParents ’ posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) have been shown to be negatively associated with aspects of parenting, yet the mechanisms that link PTSS to parenting remain unclear. Because PTSS include negative alterations in cognitions, trauma-exposed parents may have skewed perceptions of themselves as parents. However, no studies have examined whether there is an indirect effect of PTSS on parenting through parents’ self-perceptions. Path analysis was used to determine (a) whetherDSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters are related to parenting indices (i.e., support, satisfaction,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Julia C. Sager, Rachel Wamser ‐Nanney Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

An Examination of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder –Related Symptoms Among a Sample of Latinx Sexual‐ and Gender‐Minority Immigrants
AbstractLatinx sexual- and gender- minority (SGM) immigrants experience stress across multiple axes of identity, which can lead to negative health consequences. Using an intersectional –cultural theory of stress, the current study sampled 194 Latinx SGM immigrants to examine the association between intersectional discrimination (i.e., race- and sexual orientation–based), acculturative stress, symptoms related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and somatic distress. We us ed moderated hierarchical linear regression analysis to determine whether social support moderated the associations among intersectional...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fernando Estrada, Alison Cerezo, Amaranta Ramirez Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of Virtual Reality Exposure on Stress Level and Sense of Competence in Ambulance Workers
AbstractVirtual reality (VR) exposure is used in clinical psychology to treat anxiety disorders. It is also used to enhance resilience in soldiers by allowing them to confront virtual combat environments to help fortify them against the negative consequences of trauma exposure. Most VR studies have focused on military and emergency medical staff; however, thus far, none have investigated VR in ambulance workers (AWs), who are confronted with traumatic situations daily. The current study aimed to assess the impact of a single VR exposure session on self-perceived competence and stress level in a sample of AWs. Participants ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sourour Chaabane, Anne ‐Marie Etienne, Michaël Schyns, Aurélie Wagener Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Prevalence of Potentially Morally Injurious Events in Operationally Deployed Canadian Armed Forces Members
AbstractAs moral injury is a still-emerging concept within the area of military mental health, prevalence estimates for moral injury and its precursor, potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), remain unknown for many of the world's militaries. The present study sought to estimate the prevalence of PMIEs in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), using data collected from CAF personnel deployed to Afghanistan, via logistic regressions controlling for relevant sociodemographic, military, and deployment characteristics. Analyses revealed that over 65% of CAF members reported exposure to at least one event that would be consider...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kevin T. Hansen, Charles G. Nelson, Kenneth Kirkwood Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Intergenerational Transmission of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Australian Vietnam Veterans ’ Daughters and Sons: The Effect of Family Emotional Climate While Growing Up
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans increases the risk of PTSD in their offspring, a concept known as “intergenerational transmission;” however, the mechanism by which this transmission may occur is, as yet, undetermined. The present study included a nonclinical sample of 197 Australian Army veterans of the Vietnam War who were interviewed 17 years before in-person interviews of their adult daug hters (n = 163) and sons (n = 120) were conducted. Veterans ’ PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD. Approximately 17 years later, offspring ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brian I. O'Toole Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Peritraumatic Distress and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic: The Contributions of Psychosocial Factors and Pandemic‐Related Stressors
AbstractThe present study aimed to identify the contributions of sociodemographic factors, psychological hardiness, and pandemic-related stressors to the development of peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examined the mediating contribution of peritraumatic distress with respect to the associations between PTSS and (a) individual characteristics and (b) pandemic-related stressors. A total of 1,238 participants (82.1% women, 17.9% men) aged 18 –75 years were included in the study. Participants completed the Dispositional Resilience Scale, Pe...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vesna Anti čević, Andreja Bubić, Dolores Britvić Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Traumatic Experiences and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms After the Rwandan Genocide Against the Tutsi
AbstractThe effects of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi are widespread and long-lasting, but little is known about how posttraumatic consequences differ regarding gender. In the present study, we estimated the associations between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in a Rwandan community sample and examined whether the associations differed by gender. The sample comprised 498 adults (75.2% women) living in Rwanda's Huye District in 2011. We used a validated self-report checklist to assess the eight most frequent traumatic experiences during the Genocide. The PTSD Checklist –Civilian v...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jonathan M. Platt, Joanna Pozen, Joseph Ntaganira, Vincent Sezibera, Richard Neugebauer Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Sleep Quality Improvements After MDMA ‐Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractSleep disturbances (SDs) are among the most distressing and commonly reported symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite increased attention on sleep in clinical PTSD research, SDs remain difficult to treat. In Phase 2 trials, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) –assisted psychotherapy has been shown to greatly improve PTSD symptoms. We hypothesized that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy would improve self-reported sleep quality (SQ) in individuals with PTSD and be associated with declining PTSD symptoms. Participants in four studies (n = 63) were randomized to receive 2 –3 sessions of act...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Linnae Ponte, Lisa Jerome, Scott Hamilton, Michael C. Mithoefer, Berra B. Yazar ‐Klosinski, Eric Vermetten, Allison A. Feduccia Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of Hostility on Quality of Life, Functioning, and Suicidal Ideation Among Male Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractVeterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience high levels of hostility. Although studies have found that PTSD is associated with poorer quality of life (QoL), increased functional impairment, lower levels of social support, and increased suicidal ideation, it is unclear if hostility impacts these domains in veterans with PTSD above and beyond the impact from PTSD and depressive symptoms. The present study aimed to examine whether hostility is related to several indices of poorer QoL and functioning after controlling for demographic characteristics, PTSD symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Parti...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stephanie Y. Wells, Carolyn L. Brennan, Elizabeth E. Van Voorhees, Jean C. Beckham, Patrick S. Calhoun, Carolina P. Clancy, Michael A. Hertzberg, Kirsten H. Dillon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Conversion Crosswalk for the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index: Translating DSM ‐IV to DSM‐5
AbstractThe use of patient-reported measures in assessing mental health symptoms is common in both the research and clinical fields. With regard to assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms, there are specific versions of measures designed for child and adolescent populations in accordance with the fourth and fifth editions of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV andDSM-5, respectively). Different clinical thresholds, numbers of items, and score ranges may present obstacles for clinicians and researchers attempting to compare self-report ratings across different versions of a measure. The current ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cheuk Hei Cheng, Susanne S. Lee, Sun ‐Kyung Lee, Chris Bray, Tanner Zimmerman, Abigail H. Gewirtz Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Maternal Support and Attrition from Child Trauma ‐Focused Therapy
The objective of the current study was to investigate the associations between children's symptoms, relationship to the perpetrator, and maternal support in relation to premature termination from TFT among 186 sexually abused children (Mage = 9.24 years,SD = 3.72, 67.3% female). Two operational definitions of attrition were used: (a) clinician-rated dropout (i.e., clinician's ratings of whether the child completed treatment) and (b) whether the child received an adequate treatment dose treatment (i.e., ≥12 sessions). Maternal marital status was the only factor associated with clinician-rated treatment dropout,OR = 2.35,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachel Wamser ‐Nanney Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Investigation of Therapist Effects on Patient Engagement in Evidence ‐Based Psychotherapies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Veterans Health Administration
AbstractThe present study examined whether certain Veterans Health Administration (VHA) therapists have more success than others in keeping patients engaged in evidence-based psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our objective was to use multilevel modeling to quantify the variability between therapists in two indicators of patient engagement: early dropout (i.e.,
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nina A. Sayer, Shannon Wiltsey ‐Stirman, Craig S. Rosen, Nancy C. Bernardy, Michele R. Spoont, Shannon M. Kehle‐Forbes, Afsoon Eftekhari, Kathleen M. Chard, David B. Nelson Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Stress Disorders and the Risk of Nonfatal Suicide Attempts in the Danish Population
AbstractAccurate documentation of the associations between stress disorders and suicide attempts provides important information about a high-risk population and target group for preventative interventions. In this case-cohort study, cases were all individuals born or residing in Denmark who made a nonfatal suicide attempt during 1995 –2015 (n = 22,974). The comparison subcohort included a 5% random sample of the Danish population on January 1, 1995 (n = 265,183). Stress disorder diagnoses and suicide attempts were identified usingICD-10 codes from national medical registries. The presence of any stress disorder subst...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Amy E. Street, Tammy Jiang, Erzs ébet Horváth‐Puhó, Anthony J. Rosellini, Timothy L. Lash, Henrik T. Sørensen, Jaimie L. Gradus Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Developmental Trauma Disorder: A Legacy of Attachment Trauma in Victimized Children
AbstractDevelopmental trauma disorder (DTD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have both shared and unique traumatic antecedents. The present study was an independent replication, with the DTD Structured Interview and the Traumatic Events Screening Instrument administered to 271 children in mental health treatment in six U.S. sites. On an unadjusted basis, DTD (27.3% prevalence,N = 74) and PTSD (40.2% prevalence,N = 109) both were associated with traumatic physical assault or abuse, family violence, emotional abuse, caregiver separation or impairment, and polyvictimization. After controlling for PT...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel Kolk, Julian D. Ford Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Predictors of Clinician ‐Reported Self‐Efficacy in Treating Trauma‐Exposed Youth
We examined predictors of clinician self-efficacy in working with trauma-exposed youth in a sample of practicing mental health clinici ans (N = 258,M age = 34.4 years, 85.0% female). Clinicians were recruited and surveyed as part of a larger study examining how clients ’ exposure to potentially traumatic events influences clinician decision-making. Results of regression models indicated that training in any trauma treatment model, being trained via a variety of formats (e.g., in-person training, online, supervision), and training in a variety of treatment models were all associated with higher perceived self-efficacy...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Emily M. Becker ‐Haimes, Katherine Wislocki, Stephen DiDonato, Amanda Jensen‐Doss Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Salivary Cortisol and Alpha ‐Amylase in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Their Potential Role in the Evaluation of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Outcomes
We examined the role of salivary cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA) in PTSD and TF-CBT outcomes in German Armed Forces service members (N = 100). Participants categorized as PTSD patients (n = 39), previously deployed healthy controls (n = 33), and nondeployed healthy controls (n = 28) provided diurnal profiles of sCort and sAA; PTSD patients provided samples before, immediately after, and 3 months after an internet-based TF-CBT intervention. No group differences emerged regarding total daily sCort and sAA output or daily slopes,ps = .224 –.897,fs= 0.05 –0.24. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a signifi...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sarah Schumacher, Sinha Engel, Helen Niemeyer, Annika K üster, Sebastian Burchert, Nadine Skoluda, Heinrich Rau, Urs M. Nater, Gerd‐Dieter Willmund, Christine Knaevelsrud Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Interpersonal Problems in Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractTraumatic experiences have been differentiated as interpersonal (i.e., the direct result of actions by other people) or noninterpersonal (i.e., other life-threatening events, such as severe accidents). Interpersonal trauma exposure generally has been shown to be associated with more severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than noninterpersonal trauma exposure. Interpersonal problems also tend to be associated with trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms, but it is unclear whether a mediating association exists between trauma type, interpersonal problems, and PTSD symptoms. A clinical sample of 4,275 adolesce...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kathryn A. Hughesdon, Julian D. Ford, Ernestine C. Briggs, Julia S. Seng, Alison L. Miller, Sarah A. Stoddard Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Comparison of Dimensional and Categorical Approaches to Characterizing the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Future Suicide Attempts
AbstractThe present study compared the utility of categorical (i.e., diagnostic status) and dimensional (i.e., symptom severity) approaches to measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in predicting future suicide attempts among participants in a nationwide, longitudinal study of U.S. military veterans who were deployed in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (9/11) and were enrolled in Veterans Health Administration services (N = 1,649). Following an initial assessment of PTSD symptoms, we assessed for suicide attempts at two subsequent time points (M = 28.74 mo...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Daniel J. Lee, Jaclyn C. Kearns, Ian H. Stanley, Elizabeth G. Spitzer, Bonnie Woodward, Terence M. Keane, Brian P. Marx Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depression: Comparing Commonly Used Clinical Protocols
AbstractTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). Yet, identifying the most effective stimulation parameters remains an active area of research. We recently reported on the use of 5 Hz TMS to reduce PTSD and MDD symptoms. A recently developed form of TMS, intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), appears noninferior for treating MDD. Because iTBS can be delivered in a fraction of the time, it provides significant logistical advantages; however, evaluations of whether iTBS provides comparable PTSD and MDD...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Noah S. Philip, Ryan A. Doherty, Christiana Faucher, Emily Aiken, Mascha ‘t Wout‐Frank Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Examining the Interaction Between Potentially Morally Injurious Events and Religiosity in Relation to Alcohol Misuse Among Military Veterans
AbstractGiven the disproportionate rate of alcohol misuse among veterans and related outcomes as compared to the general population, the examination of predictors of alcohol misuse in this population is imperative. Potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), defined as severe transgressions of a moral code, have been positively associated with alcohol misuse. Exposure to PMIEs may challenge one's religious beliefs, which may, in turn, influence the strength of the association between PMIEs and alcohol misuse among military veterans. The goal of the current study was to examine the potential moderating role of religiosity...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Emmanuel D. Thomas, Nicole H. Weiss, Shannon R. Forkus, Ateka A. Contractor Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Profiles of Maltreatment in the Child Welfare System: Predicting Mental Health Outcomes and Examining Age as a Moderator
AbstractThis longitudinal study explored the unique profiles of maltreatment among youth in the child welfare system and examined their relation to mental health outcomes over time. We additionally examined the moderating role of age. Participants included 316 youth in the foster care system (age range: 6 –13 years). Data were collected through the Department of Children and Family Services upon youths’ entry into foster care, then quarterly for the duration of care. A latent profile analysis identified five profiles of maltreatment, categorized as primary neglect (PN), neglect and physical abuse (PA), complex ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brynn M. Huguenel, Scott C. Leon, Lauren A. Hindt, Nathan Lutz, Jennifer Osborne Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Auditory N2 Correlates of Treatment Response in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractEmotional processing and cognitive control are implicated as being dysfunctional in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and targeted in cognitive processing therapy (CPT), a trauma-focused treatment for PTSD. The N2 event-related potential has been interpreted in the context of emotional processing and cognitive control. In this analysis of secondary outcome measures from a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the latency and amplitude changes of the N2 in responses to task-relevant target tones and task-irrelevant distractor sounds (e.g., a trauma-related gunshot and a trauma-unrelated lion's roar) and th...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gail D. Tillman, Michael A. Motes, Christina M. Bass, Elizabeth Ellen Morris, Penelope Jones, F. Andrew Kozel, John Hart, Michael A. Kraut Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Corrigendum
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

The Use of a Brief Family Intervention to Reduce Dropout Among Veterans in Individual Trauma ‐Focused Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractDropout from trauma ‐focused treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a daunting challenge for the field, particularly among military and veteran samples. Family involvement may help to increase the effectiveness of PTSD treatment while also improving retention. We tested a two‐session brief fa mily intervention (BFI) protocol delivered as an adjunct to individual trauma‐focused treatment among a sample of 20 veteran–family member dyads (N = 40). Willingness to participate in the family ‐inclusive protocol was high, with over 85% of veterans and family members who were screened ag...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Johanna Thompson ‐Hollands, Daniel J. Lee, Denise M. Sloan Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Changes in Brain Volume Associated with Trauma ‐Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Among Youth with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
This study investigated group differences and longitudinal changes in brain volume before and after trauma ‐focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF‐CBT) in 20 unmedicated youth with maltreatment‐related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 20 non–trauma‐exposed healthy control (HC) participants. We collected MRI scans of brain anatomy before and after 5 months of TF‐CBT or the same time interval for the HC group. FreeSurfer software was used to segment brain images into 95 cortical and subcortical volumes, which were submitted to optimal scaling regression with lasso variable selection. The resulting m...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Amy S. Garrett, Leen Abazid, Judith A. Cohen, Anita Kooij, Victor Carrion, Wei Zhang, Booil Jo, Crystal Franklin, Joseph Blader, Sanno Zack, Allan L. Reiss, W. Stewart Agras Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Network Analysis of the Associations Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth Among Disaster ‐Exposed Chinese Young Adults
AbstractPosttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) have been shown to coexist following exposure to a traumatic event, but consensus about what accounts for this association is lacking. Network analysis is a novel analytic method that can explain this linkage. In a sample of 1,809 Chinese college students (66.1% female, age range: 16 –35 years) who were directly exposed to a typhoon, we investigated the network structure of PTSS and PTG, along with bridge symptoms and elements, to elucidate how distress and growth coexist. The seven strongest edges found in the model included two between elem...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Guangzhe Yuan, Crystal L. Park, Samuel R. Birkeland, Paul S. Y. Yip, Brian J. Hall Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Indirect Associations Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Other Psychiatric Symptoms, Alcohol Use, and Well ‐being via Psychological Flexibility Among Police Officers
AbstractPolice officers experience a high number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) often associated with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). In addition, PTSS are related to co ‐occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression), alcohol misuse, and low perceived well‐being. Yet, behavioral processes that may account for the associations between PTSS and unfavorable outcomes remain unspecified. Psychological flexibility, or one's response to private experiences (e.g., PTE‐related memories) with an open, aware, and active approach, may be one such process. The present study aimed to evaluate ps...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lucas D. Baker, Joel C. Stroman, Emily A. Kalantar, Rachel C. Bock, Christopher R. Berghoff Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cognitive Processing Therapy for Substance ‐Involved Sexual Assault: Does an Account Help or Hinder Recovery?
AbstractSexual assault (SA) often occurs in the context of substances, which can impair the trauma memory and contribute to negative cognitions like self ‐blame. Although these factors may affect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment, outcomes for substance‐involved SA have not been evaluated or compared with other types of SA. As such, we conducted a secondary analysis of a dismantling trial for cognitive processing therapy (CPT), focus ing on 58 women with an index trauma of SA that occurred since age 14. Women who experienced a substance‐involved SA (n = 21) were compared with those who experienced a non ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - April 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Anna E. Jaffe, Debra Kaysen, Brian N. Smith, Tara Galovski, Patricia A. Resick Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Effect of Therapeutic Alliance on Dropout in Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractA substantial number of individuals who undergo cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) drop out before receiving a full course of treatment. Therapeutic alliance, defined as the working relationship between the therapist and client, is a dynamic process within therapy that may change over time. Research suggests that therapeutic alliance is associated with dropout in various treatments. However, no studies have yet examined the association between therapeutic alliance and dropout in CPT, and few studies have examined therapeutic alliance longitudinally over the course of treatme...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Iris Sijercic, Rachel E. Liebman, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Candice M. Monson Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Effects of Microaggressions on Depression in Young Adults of Color: Investigating the Impact of Traumatic Event Exposures and Trauma Reactions
AbstractMicroaggressions are a common way that individuals experience racism in the United States.  The current study examined the extent to which microaggressions contribute to mental health difficulties, namely trauma reactions and depression, after controlling for other traumatic event exposures. We sought to address gaps in the literature by quantitatively assessing the associations among microaggressions, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression symptoms. Participants were 140 young adults of color (68.8% female) who were recruited online. Linear regression analyses evidenced that microaggress...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Evan E. Auguste, Keith R. Cruise, Maria C. Jimenez Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress in Professionals and Volunteers Working With Forcibly Displaced People: A Systematic Review and Two Meta ‐Analyses
AbstractResearch suggests that professionals and volunteers who work with forcibly displaced people (FDP) experience burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of working with such a highly traumatized population. In the present systematic review and meta ‐analyses, we report the pooled prevalence rates of burnout and STS in individuals working both professionally and voluntarily with FDP. The CINAHL Complete, E‐Journals, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, OpenDissertations, PsycARTICLES, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published historica lly to September 2019. Studies (N = 15) were included and a...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fritha Roberts, Bonnie Teague, Jennifer Lee, Imogen Rushworth Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Syrian Arabic Version of the Impact of Event Scale –Revised in the Context of the Syrian Refugee Crisis
AbstractThe Impact of Event Scale –Revised (IES‐R) is a widely used self‐report questionnaire used to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the IES‐R has been translated and validated in multiple languages, no previous version has employed the Arabic dialect commonly spoken in Syria. The present w ork aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a Syrian Arabic version of the IES‐R. Syrian citizens (N = 288) living in refugee camps in Turkey were administered the Syrian Arabic IES ‐R as part of a humanitarian aid project focused on providing psychological assistance. The data w...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Michele Grassi, Sandra Pellizzoni, Marta Vuch, Gian Matteo Apuzzo, Tiziano Agostini, Mauro Murgia Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Impact of Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Substance Problems on Graduation Among Female Offenders in a Prescription Drug Court Program
AbstractTrauma exposure and comorbid substance use are highly prevalent among female drug court participants. Despite the pervasiveness of the issue, few studies have investigated the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and nonmedical prescription drug use among this specific population. The present study examined the impact of posttraumatic stress, social support, and nonmedical prescription drug use on graduation outcomes among female participants in a specialized drug court program (N = 210). Participants either received motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive behavioral therapy (MET ‐CBT;N = 210) or bot...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cristina N. Abarno, Ardhys De Leon, Amanda G. Sharp, Kathleen Moore, Roger Boothroyd Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Correspondence Between Retrospective and Momentary Self ‐Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Evidence for Peak and End Effects in Veterans
AbstractValidated retrospective self ‐report symptom rating scales are recommended for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening and treatment. However, such reports may be affected by a respondent's most intense (“peak”) or most recent (“end”) symptoms. The present study evaluated the correspondence between PTSD symptom s assessed using a standard past‐month retrospective rating scale and recorded by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over the same period and tested hypotheses that retrospective scores would be predicted by peak and end‐period momentary symptoms. Male U.S. veterans (N...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Suzanne E. Decker, Marc I. Rosen, Ned L. Cooney, Paula P. Schnurr, Anne C. Black Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Disentangling the Symptom ‐Level Nuances in Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Problematic Alcohol Use in Northern Irish Military Veterans: A Network Analysis
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use are highly prevalent among military veteran populations. Several theories have been proposed to account for the comorbidity between PTSD and problematic alcohol use, but research examining the symptom ‐level associations between the two is limited. The current study used network analysis to examine the associations between PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Data were collected through a cross‐sectional survey of veterans of the United Kingdom Armed Forces living in Northern Ireland. The sample comprised 511 (91.2% male) veterans with a history of trauma exposu...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Emily McGlinchey, Jana Ross, Dominic Murphy, Gillian W. Shorter, Cherie Armour Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation as Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans
AbstractPreliminary studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Transcendental Meditation (TM) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study extended previous research with a pilot trial of TM as a treatment for PTSD via a single ‐blinded, randomized controlled design. veterans with PTSD (N = 40) were assigned to a TM intervention or treatment ‐as‐usual (TAU) control group. Participants in the TM group engaged in 16 sessions over 12 weeks, primarily in a 60‐min group format. Change in PTSD symptoms, measured via the Clinician‐Administered PTSD Scale forDSM ‐5 (CAPS ‐5) was the primary out...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mayer Bellehsen, Valentina Stoycheva, Barry H. Cohen, Sanford Nidich Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Treatment Outcomes for Adolescents Versus Adults Receiving Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder During Community Training
AbstractCognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a gold ‐standard treatment for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, adolescents may also benefit from CPT, particularly when existing evidence‐based treatments for adolescents are unavailable or not a good fit. In this program evaluation study, a modular version of CPT was deliver ed by community‐based therapists‐in‐training to 32 adolescents (age range: 14–17 years) and 174 adults recruited at their sites (overall sample: 81.1% female, 59.7% White, 31.6% Black, 21.6% Hispanic, 2.9% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 1.9% Asian, and 9.7% other...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stefanie T. LoSavio, Robert A. Murphy, Patricia A. Resick Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Integration of Well ‐Being Therapy and Positive Psychotherapy: A Response to Fava and Guidi's (2021) Commentary on Radstaak et al. (2020)
AbstractThe results of our study on the effects of well ‐being therapy (WBT) compared with a treatment‐as‐usual (TAU) control condition among individuals with residual symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were recently published in theJournal of Traumatic Stress (Radstaak et  al., 2020). In a subsequent commentary, Fava and Guidi (2020) raised several conceptual and methodological issues that they asserted potentially limited the interpretation of the results. In this response, we aim to clarify these issues, thus contributing to the optimal interpretation of the findi ngs. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mirjam Radstaak, Laura H üning, Ernst T Bohlmeijer Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Racial Discrimination is Associated with Acute Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Predicts Future Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in Trauma ‐Exposed Black Adults in the United States
AbstractIn the United States, Black residents exposed to a traumatic event are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experiencing more severe symptoms compared to their non ‐Hispanic White counterparts. Although previous work has suggested a link between racial discrimination and PTSD symptoms, no studies have assessed this association in a sample of traumatic injury survivors. The current study investigated whether (a) past racial discrimination was associated with acute posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and (b) discrimination prospectively contributed to the prediction of future...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Claire M. Bird, E. Kate Webb, Andrew T. Schramm, Lucas Torres, Christine Larson, Terri A. deRoon ‐Cassini Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Associations Among Increases in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Neurocognitive Performance, and Long ‐Term Functional Outcomes in U.S. Iraq War Veterans
This study of Iraq War veterans examined the associations between increases in PTSS and long‐term functional outcomes, including the potential contributions of neurocognitive decrements. Service members and veterans (N = 594) completed self ‐report measures of functioning and PTSS severity before Iraq War deployment and again after their return (M = 9.3 years postdeployment). Some participants (n = 278) also completed neurocognitive testing at both times. Multiple regression analyses with the full sample —adjusted for TBI, demographic characteristics, military variables, and predeployment PTSS and functioning&mda...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - March 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Colleen E. Jackson, Maria M. Ciarleglio, Mihaela Aslan, Brian P. Marx, John Ko, John Concato, Susan P. Proctor, Jennifer J. Vasterling Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research