Vision Statement from the new Editor in Chief
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 23, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Denise M. Sloan Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for the treatment and early intervention of trauma among first responders: A systematic review
AbstractFirst responders are exposed to repetitive work-related trauma and, thus, are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy intervention designed to treat symptoms of posttraumatic stress. We conducted a systematic review to examine the viability of EMDR among first responders. The primary aim of this review was to identify studies that have trialed EMDR among first responders and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing trauma-related symptoms; a secondary aim was to identify whether EMDR has been used as an early intervention for ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Heather Morris, Kostas Hatzikiriakidis, Melissa Savaglio, Jenny Dwyer, Catrin Lewis, Robyn Miller, Helen Skouteris Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Early life stress and autonomic response to acute mental stress in individuals with coronary heart disease
We examined whether ELS was associated with autonomic function and stress reactivity among individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD). We included patients with stable CHD from two parallel studies, the Mental Stress Ischemia Prognosis Study (MIPS) and the Myocardial Infarction and Mental Stress Study 2 (MIMS2), and assessed ELS using the Early Trauma Inventory –Self-Report–Short Form. Participants underwent a laboratory-based mental stress task while undergoing ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. We used multivariate linear regression models to estimate the associations between ELS and heart rate va...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 16, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ye Ji Kim, Oleksiy M. Levantsevych, Lisa Elon, Ten é T. Lewis, Shakira F. Suglia, J. Douglas Bremner, Arshed A. Quyyumi, Bradley Pearce, Paolo Raggi, Viola Vaccarino, Amit J. Shah Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A prospective examination of health care costs associated with posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic status and symptom severity among veterans
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased health care costs; however, most studies exploring this association use PTSD diagnostic data in administrative records, which can contain inaccurate diagnostic information and be confounded by the quantity of service use. We used a diagnostic interview to determine PTSD diagnostic status and examined associations between PTSD symptom severity and health care costs and utilization, extracted from Veteran Health Administration (VHA) administrative databases. Using a nationwide longitudinal sample of U.S. veterans with and without PTSD (N = 1,377) enrol...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 15, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kelly L. Harper, Samantha Moshier, Stephanie Ellickson ‐Larew, Martin S. Andersen, Blair E. Wisco, Colin T. Mahoney, Terence M. Keane, Brian P. Marx Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war survivors: Insights from cross ‐lagged panel network analyses
AbstractMany war survivors suffer from chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Unraveling the complexities of PTSD symptoms over time is crucial for understanding this condition. Going beyond a common pathogenic pathway perspective, we applied the network approach to psychopathology to analyze longitudinal data from war survivors with PTSD in five Balkan countries approximately 8 years after war in the region and a follow-up assessment 1 year later (N = 698). PTSD diagnosis was established using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Sca...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pascal Schlechter, Jens H. Hellmann, Richard J. McNally, Nexhmedin Morina Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Associations among traumatic experiences, threat exposure, and mental health in Pakistani journalists
AbstractPakistan is considered to be relatively unsafe for journalists; however, little is known about how working in situations that involve a high risk of trauma exposure and personal threat impacts journalists ’ mental health. The present study aimed to examine the associations among reporting on topics that carry a high risk of trauma exposure; work-related personal threat exposure; and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of Pakistani journalist s. Participants completed online assessments to report the extent of their exposure to trauma and threat in the ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 9, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Suzanna M. Koster, Hans M. Koot, Jamil A. Malik, Marit Sijbrandij Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Parenting ‐related trauma exposure among parents of children with intellectual and developmental disorders: Development and validation of the Parenting Trauma Checklist
AbstractParents of children with intellectual and developmental disorders (IDDs) often encounter parenting-related traumatic events. Trauma exposure is a risk factor for mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known regarding the types of traumatic events that parents commonly experience and how to best assess parenting-related trauma exposure. To address this gap, we developed the Parenting Trauma Checklist (PTC) and tested its psychometric properties. The PTC was created based on an extensive literature review and consultation with stakeholders, which led to the creation of a 17-...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 6, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ting Xiong, Patrick J. McGrath, Igor Yakovenko, Donna Thomson, Elisa Kaltenbach Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Imaginal exposure processing during Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders using Prolonged Exposure (COPE) therapy: Examination of linguistic markers of cohesiveness
AbstractConcurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE) is an integrated, evidence-based treatment that results in significant reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) severity. Emotional processing theory suggests that successful prolonged exposure –based treatments should result in more cohesive trauma narratives due to better integration and organization of trauma memory into cognitive conceptualizations of fear. Therefore, we hypothesized that language used by patients would become more cohesive over time and increased language co...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 3, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Erin M. Gandelman, Steven A. Miller, Sudie E. Back Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Traumatic stress symptoms predict restraint incidents in children and adolescents in psychiatric residential treatment
AbstractThe early identification of youth at risk for restraint incidents is an important next step to reducing the likelihood of such incidents. Yet, the extant research has not comprehensively investigated the idiographic factors that contribute to the restraint of youth in psychiatric residential treatment facilities (PRTFs). The current study investigated client-level predictors of restraint incidents, with specific emphasis on youth client trauma history and traumatic stress symptoms as assessed at admission. Participants were children and adolescents (N = 150; 55.3% female, 66.7% White, 33.3% Black or birac...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 3, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wilson J. Brown, Anthony J. Nedelman, William G. Phillips, Jaclynn S. Stankus, Laura E. Amoscato, Eric Schwartz Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: A comparison of two modeling approaches
AbstractSeveral studies have analyzed longitudinal data on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) from individuals who were proximal to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (9/11) in an attempt to identify different trajectories of mental health in the years following mass trauma. The results of these studies have been heterogeneous, with researchers who used latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) tending to identify four trajectories and those who used group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) identifying five to seven trajectories. Given that no study has applied both GBTM and LGMM to their data, it remains unknown which ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 3, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kayla A. Huber, Patricia A. Frazier, Howard E. Alper, Robert R. Brackbill Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Change in posttraumatic stress disorder –related thoughts during treatment: Do thoughts drive change when pills are involved?
AbstractPosttraumatic negative thoughts about one's self and the world are related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and change in cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT), but little is known about this association when CBT is delivered with medication. The current study presents a planned comparison of changes in negative posttraumatic thoughts during (a) prolonged exposure (PE) plus pill placebo (PE+PLB), (b) sertraline plus enhanced medication management (SERT+EMM), and (c) PE plus sertraline (PE+SERT) as part of a randomized clinical trial in a sample of 176 veterans. Lagged regression modeling reve...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sheila A.M. Rauch, H. Myra Kim, Margaret R. Venners, Katherine E. Porter, Sonya B. Norman, Naomi M. Simon, Barbara O. Rothbaum, Peter W. Tuerk, Ronald E. Acierno, Eric Bui, Corey Powell, Erin R. Smith, Elizabeth Goetter, Lauren B. McSweeney Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Depressive symptoms among recent Latinx immigrants in South Florida: The role of premigration trauma and stress, postimmigration stress, and gender
We examined the combined effect of premigration stress and trauma and postimmigration stress on postimmigration depressive symptoms; we also explored the moderating effect of gender. Hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses were conducted on a cross-sectional sample of 540 young adult RLIs (age range: 18 –34 years, 50.2% men) in South Florida. Higher levels of postimmigration stress, β = .37,p  
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vicky Vazquez, Patria Rojas, Miguel Ángel Cano, Mario De La Rosa, Eduardo Romano, Mariana Sánchez Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Research utility of a CAPS ‐IV and CAPS‐5 hybrid interview: Posttraumatic stress symptom and diagnostic concordance in recent‐era U.S. veterans
AbstractThe Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) is used to measure posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its use, particularly in settings involving longitudinal assessment, has been complicated by changes in the diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e.,DSM-IV andDSM-5, respectively). The current sample included trauma-exposed U.S. veterans who were deployed in support of military operations following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (N = 371) and were enrolle...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Colleen E. Jackson, Alyssa Currao, Jennifer R. Fonda, Alexandra Kenna, William P. Milberg, Regina E. McGlinchey, Catherine B. Fortier Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Addressing co ‐occurring suicidal thoughts and behaviors and posttraumatic stress disorder in evidence‐based psychotherapies for adults: A systematic review
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-established risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Historically, guidelines for treating PTSD have recommended against the use of trauma-focused therapies for patients who are at high risk for suicide, likely due to concerns about potential suicide-related iatrogenesis, specifically the “triggering” of suicidal behaviors. This systematic review examined evidence of the impact of treatments specifically designed to treat PTSD or suicide on both PTSD- and suicide-related outcomes. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyse...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: David C. Rozek, Shelby N. Baker, Kelsi F. Rugo, Victoria L. Steigerwald, Lauren M. Sippel, Ryan Holliday, Erika M. Roberge, Philip Held, Natalie Mota, Noelle B. Smith Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A randomized clinical trial of prolonged exposure and applied relaxation for the treatment of Latinos with posttraumatic stress disorder
AbstractRobust evidence supports the use of prolonged exposure therapy (PE) as a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, Latinos have not benefitted equally from advancements in the treatment of PTSD and continue to face barriers to receiving care. There is consensus that it is necessary to support the expansion of high-quality culturally and linguistically appropriate treatment to address disparities experienced by racial and ethnic minorities in behavioral health care. The current study was a randomized controlled trial comparing a culturally adapted PE intervention with applied relaxation...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - January 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mildred Vera, Adriana Ob én, Deborah Juarbe, Norberto Hernández, Rafael Kichic, Elizabeth A. Hembree Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a U.S. Veterans Affairs PTSD clinic
AbstractCognitive behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a 15-session conjoint treatment for PTSD designed to improve PTSD symptoms and enhance intimate relationship functioning. Numerous studies of CBCT for PTSD document improvements in patient PTSD and comorbid symptoms, partner mental health, and relationship adjustment. However, little is known about its effectiveness in real-world clinical settings. Using an intention-to-treat sample of couples who participated in CBCT for PTSD in an outpatient U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD clinic (N = 113), trajectories of session-by-session ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nicole D. Pukay ‐Martin, Steffany J. Fredman, Colleen E. Martin, Yunying Le, Alison Haney, Connor Sullivan, Candice M. Monson, Kathleen M. Chard Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Posttraumatic Stress and Suicide
This article introduces this special issue of theJournal of Traumatic Stress devoted to new research investigating the associations among trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior. Given the high rates of suicide seen in the aftermath of trauma exposure around the globe, it is important that researchers and clinicians strive to better understand the underlying processes and mechanisms that account for this association and that potentially could be harnessed in intervention and prevention efforts. This opening article introduces the content and themes of the present collection of man...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Patricia K. Kerig Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Commentary on the Special Issue on Posttraumatic Stress and Suicide: Recognizing that simple things save lives
This article offers commentary on the special issue of theJournal of Traumatic Stress dedicated to posttraumatic stress and suicide, with a specific focus on practical recommendations that can be integrated into day-to-day clinical practice. Given the complexity of the myriad associations among posttraumatic stress symptoms, the nature of trauma, and suicidality demonstrated in the articles in this issue, it is important for practitioners to utilize evidence-based approaches to clinical practice in order to be effective. The articles in this special issue offer findings that do just that, providing a foundation rich in pra...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: M. David Rudd Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Fluid vulnerability theory as a framework for understanding the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide: A narrative review
AbstractSuicide is a persistent issue in the United States and across the globe. A large body of published research shows that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation, suicidal behaviors, and death by suicide. However, the existing literature examining why that association might pertain is widely dispersed across disciplines (e.g., psychology, nursing) and lacks an integrative theoretical framework, making it difficult to conceptualize the current state of science in this area. Therefore, the primary aims of this narrative review were to (a) provide a comprehensive and interdisciplinary...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kelsi F. Rugo ‐Cook, Patricia K. Kerig, Sheila E. Crowell, Craig J. Bryan Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms on quality of life in adolescents after general traumatic injury
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms have been associated with poorer health-related quality of life in adolescents after general traumatic injuries; few studies have examined the broader construct of postinjury quality of life (QOL). We evaluated the impact of traumatic injury on adolescent QOL and examined factors that potentially contribute to poorer outcomes, using the Youth Quality of Life Instrument –Research Version as the outcome measure. Data were collected within 30 days postinjury and 2, 5, and 12 months postinjury. Mixed-model regression (MMR) was used for the main analyses...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Susanne P. Martin ‐Herz, Robert J. McMahon, Stefanie Malzyner, Nikki Chiang, Douglas F. Zatzick Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Premorbid traumatic stress and veteran responses to the COVID ‐19 pandemic
We examined the impact of preexisting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and depression on biopsychosocial responses to the pandemic, including psychiatric symptoms, COVID-19 exposure, and housing/financial stability, among 101 U.S. military veterans enrolled in a longitudinal study of PTSD, a population of particular interest given veterans ’ trauma histories and defense-readiness training. Participants (83.2% male, 79.2% White,Mage = 59.28 years) completed prepandemic, clinician-administered psychiatric diagnostic interviews and a phone-based assessment between May and Septe...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - December 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dana Fein ‐Schaffer, Sage E. Hawn, Anthony J. Annunziata, Karen Ryabchenko, Mark W. Miller, Erika J. Wolf Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Associations between residual hyperarousal and insomnia symptoms in veterans following a 2 ‐week intensive outpatient program for posttraumatic stress disorder
AbstractMany returning military service members and veterans who were deployed following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (9/11) suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia. Although intensive treatment programs for PTSD have shown promise in the treatment of PTSD symptoms, recent research has demonstrated that sleep disturbance shows little improvement following intensive trauma-focused treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in self-reported insomnia symptoms among veterans and service members following participation in a 2-week intensive program for PTSD. We further aim...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kaloyan S. Tanev, Elyse A. Lynch, Allyson M. Blackburn, Douglas Terry, Elizabeth M. Goetter, Edward C. Wright, Carina Gupta, Cory E. Stasko, Tom Spencer Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Racial discrimination and other adverse childhood experiences as risk factors for internalizing mental health concerns among Black youth
AbstractAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been consistently linked to a reduction in healthy psychological adjustment among youth. Emergent evidence suggests that there are culturally specific ACEs, such as racial discrimination, that are particularly harmful to the mental health of Black youth. However, the psychological impact of racial discrimination on the mental health of Black youth relative to other ACEs remains underexplored. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the extent to which racial discrimination was associated with other ACEs and elucidating the unique associations between childr...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Donte L. Bernard, Quinton Smith, Paul Lanier Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of patient characteristics on posttraumatic stress disorder treatment retention among veterans: A systematic review
AbstractTo identify baseline patient characteristics (i.e., demographic and psychological factors, military background) associated with better posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment retention among veterans, we conducted a systematic review. After an electronic database search for studies of PTSD treatment in veterans, two reviewers independently screened the literature for eligibility, abstracted study-level information, and assessed risk of bias. As most studies used multivariate models to assess multiple potential predictors of retention simultaneously, the results were described narratively. The GRADE approach,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Margaret A. Maglione, Christine Chen, Meghan Franco, Mahlet Gizaw, Nima Shahidinia, Sangita Baxi, Susanne Hempel Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Secondary individual outcomes following multicouple group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: An uncontrolled pilot study with military dyads
AbstractCognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has demonstrated efficacy for improving PTSD and comorbid symptoms and relationship adjustment. To enhance treatment efficiency and scalability, we developed a 2-day, abbreviated, intensive, multicouple group version of CBCT for PTSD (AIM-CBCT for PTSD). Prior work demonstrated that AIM-CBCT for PTSD wasassociated with reductions in PTSD and comorbid symptoms in a sample of 24 post-9/11 active duty military or veteran couples who received the treatment in a retreat format over a single weekend. The current study investigated secon...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alexandra Macdonald, Steffany J. Fredman, Daniel J. Taylor, Kristi E. Pruiksma, Tabatha H. Blount, Brittany N. Hall ‐Clark, Brooke A. Fina, Katherine A. Dondanville, Jim Mintz, Brett T. Litz, Stacey Young‐McCaughan, Yunying Le, August I. C Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Investigating the associations between childhood trauma and cardiovascular health in midlife
We examined the links between different forms of childhood trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, cumulative trauma) and cardiovascular health and explored potential mediators. Cross-sectional data from 1,251 participants in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States ’ II Biomarker Project were analyzed. Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between childhood trauma and cardiovascular health (i.e., American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 [LS7] score). Depressive symptoms and sleep quality were explored as potential mediators, and explor atory analyses examined whether these associa...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Billy A. Caceres, Laura E. Britton, Yamnia I. Cortes, Nour Makarem, Shakira F. Suglia Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cognitive behavioral treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events: A meta ‐analysis examining variables moderating treatment outcomes
AbstractDue to the negative impact of trauma exposure, effective treatments are necessary to prevent and improve negative trauma-related outcomes. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an efficacious treatment for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Despite the various meta-analyses that have examined trauma treatments, there is a paucity of research on the moderating variables that may impact treatment outcomes. This meta-analytic CBT study addressed those limitations by examining the moderating effects of treatment components on outcomes. A search identified 94 CBT studies with 97 relevant ef...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Justina Yohannan, John S. Carlson, Martin A. Volker Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship functioning: Examining gender differences in treatment ‐seeking veteran couples
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are robustly associated with intimate relationship dysfunction among veterans, but most existing research has focused on male veterans and their female partners. Links between PTSD and relationship functioning may differ between female-veteran couples and male-veteran couples. The current study used actor –partner interdependence models (APIMs) to test the associations between PTSD symptoms (i.e., veteran self-report or significant others’ collateral-report) and each partner's reports of six domains of relationship functioning, as well as whether these links...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kayla Knopp, Elizabeth R. Wrape, Rachel McInnis, Chandra E. Khalifian, Katerine Rashkovsky, Shirley M. Glynn, Leslie A. Morland Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Grief as a predictor of long ‐term risk for suicidal ideation and attempts of parentally bereaved children and adolescents
AbstractAlthough children who experience the death of a parent have a heightened risk of suicidality, the long-term associations between grief and suicidality among bereaved youth have yet to be examined. Research is needed to test the specific aspects of grief associated with suicidality, after controlling for other risk factors, in this population. Grief and covariates, including age, gender, parental cause of death, time since parental death, depression, anxiety, internalizing problems, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and child treatment involvement, were assessed at baseline, 6-year, and 15-year follow-ups in a sample o...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Irwin Sandler, Jenn Yun ‐Tien, Na Zhang, Sharlene Wolchik, Kara Thieleman Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A cascade model of complex posttraumatic stress disorder centered on childhood trauma and maltreatment, attachment, and socio ‐interpersonal factors
AbstractThe present study proposes and tests a cascade model of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) focusing on childhood trauma and maltreatment, attachment, and socio-interpersonal factors. Multigroup path analysis was used to examine data from 126 individuals formerly affected by compulsory social measures and placements (CSMP) in their childhood and/or adolescence (i.e., risk group [RG];M age = 70.8 years) and an age-matched control group (CG;n = 125;M age = 70.6 years). The final model confirmed the cascade structure, with stronger associations emerging in the RG. Childhood trauma and maltreatment were assoc...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Andreas Maercker, Florence Bernays, Shauna L. Rohner, Myriam V. Thoma Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Natural recovery from posttraumatic stress in injured military service members: A commentary on Soumoff et  al. (2021)
AbstractSoumoff et  al. (2021) reported on a sample of 2,217 injured military service members and found that somatic symptom severity was more predictive of the development of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than injury severity. PTSD has been described as one of the invisible wounds of war, su ggesting that many military service members with PTSD may suffer in silence because some symptoms—such as psychological and somatic symptoms—are often not observable by others. In contrast, friends, family, fellow service members, and health care providers often ask military service members wi...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alan L. Peterson Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Sensitivity and specificity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM ‐5 in a Canadian psychiatric outpatient sample
AbstractThe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist forDSM-5 (PCL-5) is a widely used, self-report measure that is employed to assess PTSD symptom severity and determine the presence of probable PTSD in various trauma-exposed populations. The PCL-5 is often administered in clinical settings as a screening tool for PTSD, with a suggested cutoff score of 33 indicating a probable PTSD diagnosis. Recent research indicates that a higher cutoff may be required in psychiatric samples. In the present study, we aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the PCL-5 in a Canadian outpatient psychiatric sample and est...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jenna E. Boyd, Duncan H. Cameron, Philippe Shnaider, Randi E. McCabe, Karen Rowa Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hospitalization for physical injury may contribute to recovery of invisible war wounds: Response to Peterson's (2021) commentary on Soumoff et  al. (2021)
AbstractPeterson's (2021) commentary on our recently published manuscript (Soumoff et  al., 2021) suggests that our findings are an example of visible, physical injuries of war facilitating communication with others, which, in turn, fosters recovery from invisible war wounds. We agree that in the proper context, the retelling of one's traumatic story can be important for recovery fr om and, perhaps, even the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants in our study cohort differed from most others who experienced combat trauma in that while they were hospitalized...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alyssa A. Soumoff, Mercedes Y. Driscoll, Sharon Kim, David M. Benedek, Kwang H. Choi Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Temporal dynamics of symptom change among veterans receiving an integrated treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders
AbstractThe present study examined temporal patterns of symptom change during treatment for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs). We hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would predict subsequent-session substance use and that this association would be particularly strong among patients who received an integrated treatment versus SUD-only treatment. Participants were 81 United States military veterans with current PTSD and an SUD who were enrolled in a 12-week, randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an integrated treatment called Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Christal L. Badour, Julianne C. Flanagan, Nicholas P. Allan, Amanda K. Gilmore, Daniel F. Gros, Therese Killeen, Kristina J. Korte, Delisa G. Brown, Kateryna Kolnogorova, Sudie E. Back Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Resolving the paradox of posttraumatic growth and event centrality in trauma survivors
AbstractWhen a traumatic experience is central to an individual's identity and worldview, it can result in either severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived posttraumatic growth (PTG), or, paradoxically, both. To resolve this apparent paradox, we used network analytic methods to estimate the relations among components of event centrality (EC), PTSD symptoms, and PTG in 1,136 undergraduates who had experienced trauma. Participants completed surveys on their experiences with traumatic events as well as the degree to which they experienced PTSD symptoms, components of EC, and components of PTG. We perform...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Margot H. Steinberg, Benjamin W. Bellet, Richard J. McNally, Adriel Boals Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The effect of perceived life stress on posttraumatic stress disorder treatment outcome
AbstractLife stress following trauma exposure is a consistent predictor of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is a dearth of research on the effect of life stress on PTSD treatment outcomes. The current study examined the effects of pretreatment levels of perceived life stress on treatment outcome in a sample of 200 individuals with PTSD who were randomized to receive either prolonged exposure (PE) therapy or sertraline as part of a clinical trial. Life stress over the year prior to treatment significantly interacted with treatment type to predict higher residual PTSD symptom severity, ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mark S. Burton, Elizabeth H. Marks, Michele A. Bedard ‐Gilligan, Norah C. Feeny, Lori A. Zoellner Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Maternal support and caregiver –child symptom concordance among sexually abused children
AbstractCaregivers and children often diverge in their reports of children's trauma-related symptoms, and this discordance has been linked with children's behavioral difficulties and poorer treatment outcomes. Knowledge regarding what factors may be related to discordance is limited, and maternal support in relation to trauma-related symptom agreement has yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between discordance and both maternal emotional support and blame/doubt in caregivers ’ and children's reports of trauma-related symptoms in sexually abused children. Participants w...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachel Wamser ‐Nanney, Claudia L. Campbell Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Abstract thinking as a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in student paramedics
This study builds on previous work suggesting that abstract processing mode and abstract rumination are risk factors for PTSD. Abstract thinking in response to stress represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that could be targeted by a resilience-focused intervention for individuals likely to encounter traumatic events. (Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Aimee McKinnon, Hj ördis Lorenz, Paul Salkovskis, Jennifer Wild Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Identity ‐based hate and violence as trauma: Current research, clinical implications, and advocacy in a globally connected world
AbstractHate-based violence is increasingly recognized as an urgent social justice and human rights issue that is pervasive across geographical and socioeconomic boundaries. There is a growing body of research that demonstrates the traumatic impact of hate-based violence on the victim's mental and physical health. This review focuses on examining scientific knowledge and prevalence data on identity-based hate and violence exposure. A framework for conceptualizing hate-based violence as a traumatic event or series of traumatic events is offered as a means to understand research findings and intervention approaches. The impo...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maureen Allwood, Bita Ghafoori, Carolina Salgado, Ortal Slobodin, Johanna Kreither, Lynn C. Waelde, Paulina Larrondo, Nadia Ramos Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The impact and experience of debriefing for clinical staff following traumatic events in clinical settings: A systematic review
AbstractHealth care professionals are more frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events than individuals in other professions. Repeated trauma exposure can significantly impact both physical and mental health. In clinical settings, the term “debriefing” refers to a group meeting during which clinical events and decision-making are reviewed and discussed to improve clinical practice. The present review investigated the use of debriefing for clinical staff in clinical settings following exposure to direct and vicarious trauma. We exa mined whether the use of posttrauma debriefing impacts symptoms of distres...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zoe Scott, Sara O'Curry, Kiki Mastroyannopoulou Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Commentary on the special issue on disproportionate exposure to trauma: Trauma, stress, and adversities and health disparities among disenfranchised groups globally during the COVID pandemic
AbstractThe papers in thisJournal of Traumatic Stress special issue on disproportionate adversity cover the gamut of discrimination traumas and stressors, including microaggressions, a more insidious forms of discrimination, and their often-devastating and wide-ranging mental health sequelae, in disproportionately affected disenfranchised groups. Discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation commonly confers cumulative and chronic effects. In the field of traumatic stress studies, several types of identity-linked traumatic events have been identified and empirically investigated as posttraumatic s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Soraya Seedat Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Commentary on the special issue on disproportionate exposure to trauma: Disrupting single stories, broadening the aperture, and embracing the trauma socioexposome in research with minoritized individuals
AbstractThe theory-driven studies in this special issue of theJournal of Traumatic Stress illustrate the opportunities and inherent methodological complexities that arise in traumatic stress studies when scholars consider the unique social –ecological contexts and exposure histories of minoritized individuals. Moreover, the included articles challenge the field's paradigmatic preoccupation with maladaptive individual trauma responses and invite researchers to shift their attention to the role played by a range of environmental adver sities. This commentary is organized around three key recommendations regarding what ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wizdom Powell Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue: Disproportionate trauma, stress, and adversities as a pathway to health disparities among disenfranchised groups globally
AbstractGlobally, individuals and communities that are marginalized based on their identities are at heightened risk for exposure to traumatic stress and socioeconomic hardship. Marginalization and disproportionate risk for many types of adversities correspond with disparities in physical health, mental health, and overall well-being. Together, the 12 empirical studies, one systematic review, and commentary in this special issue of theJournal of Traumatic Stress highlight the impact of discrimination and disproportionate adversity among groups marginalized based on race, ethnicity, nativity, caste, gender identity, sexual ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maureen A. Allwood, Julian D. Ford, Alytia Levendosky Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Parenting in matched pairs of women of color experiencing intimate partner violence and living with and without HIV
This study explored the associations between depression and parenting among women of color with low income levels who were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV. Participants were 60 Black, multiracial, and Hispanic/Latina mothers (Mage = 36.66,SD = 6.99) in the midsouth region of the United States. Mothers were recruited from community organizations and reported their experiences with IPV, HIV, depression, potentially traumatic events (PTE), parenting practices, and child maladaptive functioning. Participants living with HIV and experiencing recent IPV (i.e., cases) were matched on age, race, ethnicity, and e...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Idia B. Thurston, Kathryn H. Howell, Caroline C. Kaufman, Jessica E. Mandell, Kristina M. Decker Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The impact of the COVID ‐19 pandemic on treatment‐seeking veterans in the united kingdom with preexisting mental health difficulties: A longitudinal study
AbstractIndividuals with preexisting psychological difficulties are at risk of further deterioration of their mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. This longitudinal study, conducted during the period between two national lockdowns, aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on veterans in the United Kingdom with preexisting mental health difficulties. Treatment-seeking veterans with preexisting mental health difficulties (N  =  95) were surveyed in two waves. Wave 1 was conducted at the end of the first lockdown (June 2020–July 2020), and Wave 2 took place during the second lockdown...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Laura Josephine Hendrikx, Charlotte Williamson, Julia Baumann, Dominic Murphy Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Affective variability and childhood abuse increase the risk for nonsuicidal self ‐injury following psychiatric hospitalization
AbstractChildhood abuse is associated with myriad negative behavioral health outcomes, including nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Models aimed at understanding the mechanism whereby childhood abuse may exert negative effects frequently highlight alterations or dysregulations in experienced affect, particularly during times of stress. The period immediately following discharge from psychiatric hospitalization represents a time of risk for individuals experiencing NSSI. We aimed to investigate the extent to which childhood abuse predicts affective variability and examine whether affective variability predicts who will experie...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Leslie Brick, Nicole Nugent, Michael Armey Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Narrating life in the military: Links between veterans ’ narrative processing of service experiences and their posttraumatic stress symptoms and well‐being
AbstractMilitary veterans frequently experience traumatic, highly stressful events; thus, it is especially important for them to find positive ways of making meaning from these experiences. The present study used the methods of narrative personality psychology to investigate the associations between veterans ’ narrative processing of highly stressful and significant events from their military service and postdischarge functioning, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). United States military veterans (N = 154;M age  = 64.28 years, 86.4% men, 57.8% deployed) completed an online survey in w...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Peter C. Tappenden, Rebecca L. Shiner, Fanyi Mo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A systematic review of socioecological factors, community violence exposure, and disparities for Latinx youth
AbstractCommunity violence exposure poses a public health risk exacerbated by immigration-related stressors and environmental factors, including systemic racism and interpersonal discrimination, socioeconomic disparities, and anti-immigrant laws and policies, that disproportionately impact Latinx-immigrant and systematically minoritized youth. Using the ecological –transactional model of community violence as a conceptual framework, this systematic review was conducted to examine research on exposure to community violence, risk and protective factors, and associated health and mental health sequelae among Latinx yout...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Diana E. Santacrose, Maryam Kia ‐Keating, Daniella Lucio Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research