A systematic review of socioecological factors, community violence exposure, and disparities for Latinx youth
AbstractCommunity violence exposure poses a public health risk exacerbated by immigration-related stressors and environmental factors, including systemic racism and interpersonal discrimination, socioeconomic disparities, and anti-immigrant laws and policies, that disproportionately impact Latinx-immigrant and systematically minoritized youth. Using the ecological –transactional model of community violence as a conceptual framework, this systematic review was conducted to examine research on exposure to community violence, risk and protective factors, and associated health and mental health sequelae among Latinx yout...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Diana E. Santacrose, Maryam Kia ‐Keating, Daniella Lucio Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Armed conflict, HIV, and syndemic risk markers of mental distress, alcohol misuse, and intimate partner violence among couples in Uganda
AbstractNortheastern Uganda has suffered from protracted armed conflict and HIV/AIDS and has some of the highest rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) globally. Little is known about how exposure to conflict and HIV influence individuals ’ syndemic risk markers or those of their partners. We conducted a population-based study using multistage sampling across three districts in Northeastern Uganda. We randomly surveyed 605 women aged 13–49 years and estimated syndemic problems for currently partnered women (N = 561) who reported for their male partners. Syndemic problems were lower in the low-conflict distric...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jennifer J. Mootz, Cale N. Basaraba, Thomas Corbeil, Karen Johnson, Kefentse P. Kubanga, Milton L. Wainberg, Kaveh Khoshnood Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Disrupting single stories, broadening the aperture, and embracing the trauma socioexposome in research with minoritized individuals: A commentary
AbstractThe theory-driven studies in this special issue of theJournal of Traumatic Stress illustrate the opportunities and inherent methodological complexities that arise in traumatic stress studies when scholars consider the unique social –ecological contexts and exposure histories of minoritized individuals. Moreover, the included articles challenge the field's paradigmatic preoccupation with maladaptive individual trauma responses and invite researchers to shift their attention to the role played by a range of environmental adver sities. This commentary is organized around three key recommendations regarding what ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wizdom Powell Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Material hardship is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low ‐income Black women
AbstractThe link between socioeconomic status and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is well established. Given that Black women are disproportionately burdened by both poverty and PTSD symptoms, research focusing on these constructs among this population is needed. The current study assessed the association between material hardship (i.e., difficulty meeting basic needs) and PTSD symptoms among 227 low-income Black women in the United States. We explored several potential explanations for the association between poverty and PTSD symptoms (e.g., individuals living in poverty may experience higher levels of traum...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Samantha C. Holmes, Laura Callinan, Vanessa C. Facemire, Monnica T. Williams, Maria M. Ciarleglio, Megan V. Smith Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Intergenerational maltreatment in parent –child dyads from Burundi, Africa: Associations among parental depression and connectedness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggression in children
AbstractStudies investigating the associations between histories of childhood maltreatment (CM) in parent –child dyads have primarily involved samples from high-income countries; however, CM rates are higher in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to examine the (a) association between maltreatment in parents and maltreatment of their children through risk (i.e., parent depression ) and protective (i.e., parent–child connectedness) factors and (b) associations between CM in children with aggression through posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and peer/sibling victimization. Participants wer...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ruby Charak, J.T.V.M. De Jong, Lidewyde H. Berckmoes, Herman Ndayisaba, Ria Reis Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The multifaceted nature of the response to adversity in an Italian sample of refugee community leaders
AbstractThe end of the last decade saw record numbers of refugee arrivals to Italy, straining the existing reception and integration systems. Although significant research attention has focused on the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation in refugee populations, there are increasing calls to study the interactions between distress, resilience, and positive outcomes of adversity. To fully understand the complexity of the refugee experience, these voices must be heard in dialogue. Studies must be framed within a more nuanced view of refugees, characterizing them not exclusively...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: James Michael Perry, Camilla Modesti, Caterina Nicolais, Alessandra Talamo, Giampaolo Nicolais Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Disproportionate Adversity: Disproportionate trauma, stress, and adversities as a pathway to health disparities among disenfranchised groups globally
AbstractGlobally, individuals and communities that are marginalized based on their identities are at heightened risk for exposure to traumatic stress and socioeconomic hardship. Marginalization and disproportionate risk for many types of adversities correspond with disparities in physical health, mental health, and overall well-being. Together, the 12 empirical studies, one systematic review, and commentary in this special issue of theJournal of Traumatic Stress highlight the impact of discrimination and disproportionate adversity among groups marginalized based on race, ethnicity, nativity, caste, gender identity, sexual ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maureen A. Allwood, Julian D. Ford, Alytia Levendosky Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The end of the trial: Perspectives on cognitive processing therapy from community ‐based providers in the Democratic Republic of Congo
AbstractDespite calls forincreased mental health programming in low-resource and humanitarian contexts and effectiveness trials of psychotherapy in these settings, little research exists on the extent to which providers and recipients continue to practice skills learned during trials of these programs. To understand if and how providers continued to use mental health intervention skills without ongoing institutional support following the completion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we analyzed data from semistructured interviews with six of seven providers who participated in an RCT of cognitive processing therapy (C...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Daniel P. Lakin, Sarah M. Murray, Molly E. Lasater, Debra Kaysen, Amani Mataboro, Jeannie Annan, Paul Bolton, Judith K. Bass Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Racial, ethnic, and neighborhood income disparities in childhood posttraumatic stress and grief: Exploring indirect effects through trauma exposure and bereavement
We examined mediation models to investigate whether polyvictimization, the loss of multiple loved ones, and exposure to violent death were potential mechanisms through which race/ethnicity and NID would predict trauma and grief outcomes in youth. Participants (N = 429) included Black (19.9%), Latinx (36.0%), and White (27.3%) children and adolescents who were assessed through a routine baseline assessment at a trauma and grief outpatient clinic. Black youth reported significantly elevated posttraumatic stress and maladaptive grief symptoms through higher polyvictimization and violent death exposure relative to White youth,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Robyn D. Douglas, Lauren M. Alvis, Evan E. Rooney, Danielle R. Busby, Julie B. Kaplow Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Commentary on the special issue on disproportionate adversity: Trauma, stress, and adversities and health disparities among disenfranchised groups globally during the COVID pandemic
AbstractThe papers in thisJournal of Traumatic Stress special issue on disproportionate adversity cover the gamut of discrimination traumas and stressors, including microaggressions, a more insidious forms of discrimination, and their often-devastating and wide-ranging mental health sequelae, in disproportionately affected disenfranchised groups. Discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation commonly confers cumulative and chronic effects. In the field of traumatic stress studies, several types of identity-linked traumatic events have been identified and empirically investigated as posttraumatic s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Soraya Seedat Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Age differences in allostatic load among veterans: The importance of combat exposure
AbstractThe current study examinedage differences in allostatic load among nonveterans, noncombat veterans, and combat veterans. Participants included 280 individuals from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey, including 164 veterans (n  =  48 combat veterans;n  =  116 noncombat veterans) and 116 nonveterans. Age differences in allostatic load were similar among nonveterans and noncombat veterans,B = 0.002,SE = .011,p = .878, with older adults showing higher levels of allostatic load than their comparatively younger counterparts. Among combat veterans,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jennifer R. Piazza, Scott D. Landes, Robert S. Stawski Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Parenting in matched pairs of women of color experiencing intimate partner violence living with and without HIV
This study explored the associations between depression and parenting among women of color with low income levels who were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV. Participants were 60 Black, multiracial, and Hispanic/Latina mothers (Mage = 36.66,SD = 6.99) in the midsouth region of the United States. Mothers were recruited from community organizations and reported their experiences with IPV, HIV, depression, potentially traumatic events (PTE), parenting practices, and child maladaptive functioning. Participants living with HIV and experiencing recent IPV (i.e., cases) were matched on age, race, ethnicity, and e...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Idia B. Thurston, Kathryn H. Howell, Caroline C. Kaufman, Jessica E. Mandell, Kristina M. Decker Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Using a Continuous Traumatic Stress Framework to Examine Ongoing Adversity Among Indian Women from Slums: A Mixed ‐Methods Exploration
AbstractGender-based violence (GBV) is pervasive among Indian women. Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological outcome of GBV, it might not accurately capture the experiences of Indian women from slums, who face continued stressors (i.e., ongoing adversity). Continuous traumatic stress (CTS) is a framework used to characterize experiences of ongoing adversity. This mixed-method study investigated the applicability of the CTS framework for characterizing ongoing adversity and the psychological impacts of ongoing adversity among GBV-exposed Indian women from slums. Indian women from slums (N = 100) com...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sriramya Potluri, Anushka R. Patel Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Retraction statement: The Impact of Treatment Description Format on Patient Preferences for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment
AbstractHarik, J. M., Grubbs, K. M. and Hamblen, J. L. (2020). The impact of treatment description format on patient preferences for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 33(4), 455 –464.The above article, published online on June 9, 2020, in the Wiley Online Library (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jts.22528) and in Volume 33, Issue 4, pages 455 –464, has been retracted by agreement among the authors; the Journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Patricia K. Kerig; and Wiley Periodicals, LLC.The authors asked to retract this manuscript because, subsequent to publication, they disc...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: RETRACTION Source Type: research

Dissociation as a Transdiagnostic Indicator of Self ‐Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts: A Focus on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder
AbstractDissociative symptoms and suicidality are transdiagnostic features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). The primary objective of this study was to examine associations between dissociation (i.e., depersonalization and derealization) and suicidality (i.e., self-harm and suicide attempts) among individuals with PTSD and BPD. We analyzed data from the 2012 –2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III;N = 36,309). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule forDSM-5 was used to assess lifetime PTSD and B...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jordana L. Sommer, Caitlin Blaney, Natalie Mota, Elena Bilevicius, Brooke Beatie, Kayla Kilborn, Unice Chang, Jitender Sareen, Ren ée El‐Gabalawy Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Trauma Characteristics Moderate the Relation Between Estradiol and Trauma ‐Related Symptoms
AbstractWomen are more likely to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, and fluctuations in gonadal hormones might contribute to this vulnerability. Low-estradiol states are associated with aversive affective experiences, including trauma-related symptoms. However, the impact of trauma characteristics on the relation between estradiol and trauma-related symptoms is unknown. We used a clinical interview and 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) that spanned low- and high-estradiol menstrual cycle phases to test trauma type, chronicity, and timing as moderators of the association between estradiol and ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jenna K. Rieder, Olena Kleshchova, Mariann R. Weierich Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization by Multiple Partners Over a Period of 8 Years
AbstractIntimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive social issue with broad physical and mental health implications. Although 35% –56% of women report IPV victimization with more than one violent partner, few studies have identified factors that increase the risk of experiencing IPV across multiple partners (i.e., IPV reengagement). In the current study, multilevel modeling was used to examine the roles of trauma exposure, m ental health, and sociodemographic factors in the risk for reengagement in a sample of women (N = 120) with IPV victimization. Participants were drawn from a randomized control trial of an int...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sara F. Stein, Maria M. Galano, Andrew C. Grogan ‐Kaylor, Hannah M. Clark, Julie M. Ribaudo, Sandra A. Graham‐Bermann Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control Moderates the Intervention Effects of a Preventive Parenting Program on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Male Service Members
AbstractMilitary servicemembers face substantial challenges due to war-related trauma exposure, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals with deficits in inhibitory control (IC) may have an increased risk of developing PTSD due to a reduced ability to regulate their cognitive responses to and disengage from trauma-related stimuli. After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) is a mindfulness-infused parenting program for military families that has also been found to have crossover effects on parental mental health. The present study examined whether fathers ’ IC at baseline affected their res...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jingchen Zhang, Gretchen J. R. Buchanan, Amy R. Monn, Abigail H. Gewirtz Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Distinguishing Among Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Borderline Personality Disorder in a Community Sample of Women
AbstractThe diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) was included in theICD-11 in 2018. Debates are still ongoing in the scientific community regarding the conceptual distinction between CPTSD symptoms and those of comorbid PTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present study aimed to determine whether (a) patterns of symptoms reported by women in a community sample would reveal a CPTSD profile distinct from PTSD and BPD profiles and (b) the resulting profiles could be compared on measures of cumulative childhood trauma exposure, dissociation, and life satisfaction. Women who reported at leas...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ga ëlle Cyr, Natacha Godbout, Marylene Cloitre, Claude Bélanger Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Potentially Traumatic Events and the Association Between Gender Minority Stress and Suicide Risk in a Gender ‐Diverse Sample
AbstractTransgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals are at an elevated risk of trauma exposure and other negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present study examined the interaction between minority stressors, reported potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and suicide risk (i.e., ideation and behavior) in a TGD sample. A convenience sample of 155 self-identified TGD individuals completed questionnaires assessing distal (e.g., gender-related discrimination) and proximal (e.g., internalized transphobia) gender identity –related stressors, lifetime PTE history, and suicide risk. The results of a mediatio...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chelsea M. Cogan, James A. Scholl, Jenny Y. Lee, Joanne L. Davis Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Somatic Symptom Severity, Not Injury Severity, Predicts Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder in Wounded Service Members
AbstractAlthough previous studies have reported an association between patient-reported somatic symptom severity and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) in injured military service members (SMs), conclusions from other studies regarding the association between clinician-determined injury severity and PTSD or MDD remain unclear. The present study investigated whether somatic symptoms or injury severity predict the development of probable PTSD or MDD in wounded SMs medically evacuated from combat areas. Data including SM demographic characteristics, clinician-determined ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alyssa A. Soumoff, Neil G. Clark, Elizabeth A. Spinks, Patricia A. Kemezis, Sorana Raiciulescu, Mercedes Y. Driscoll, Sharon Y. Kim, David M. Benedek, Kwang H. Choi Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in Three Generations of Czech and Slovak Holocaust Survivors
AbstractThe psychological consequences of trauma related to the Holocaust have been primarily studied in samples derived from Israel, North America, and Western Europe. Few studies have examined postcommunist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The present study focused on three generations living in the Czech Republic and Slovakia after World War II (WWII): Holocaust survivors (71 –95 years of age), their children (30–73 years of age), and their grandchildren (15–48 years of age). We compared scores on measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS; the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist&ndash...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Marek Preiss, Dita Šamánková, Jiří Štipl, Monika Fňašková, Markéta Nečasová, Petr Bob, Radek Heissler, Alice Prokopová, Tereza Heřmánková, Veronika Juričková, Edel Sanders, Eva Wagenknechtová, Ivan Rektor Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Latent Patterns of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Depression, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Adolescents During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic
AbstractResearchhas shown that posttraumatic reactions can co-occur in trauma-exposed individuals. Many studies have assessed the co-occurring patterns of two types of reactions, but few have assessed the patterns of multiple reactions. To build on existing knowledge, the present study examined co-occurring patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N = 683) were adolescents selected from an area in China severely affected by COVID-19 who completed the PTSD Checklist, a measure of depression, a ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - August 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rui Zhen, Xiao Zhou Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Pilot Trial of Universal School ‐Based Mental Health Screening in El Salvador: Traumatic Stress in an Underresourced School Environment
AbstractSalvadoran youth have an elevated risk of trauma exposure and related mental health problems. However, investigations of childhood trauma exposure and mental health sequelae in El Salvador are limited. The present study aimed to (a) explore the prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression and (b) evaluate the associations between specific trauma types and emotional functioning among Salvadoran youth. A total of 1,296 youth aged 8 –21 years from seven public schools completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress sy...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Regan W. Stewart, Bianca T. Villalobos, Aubrey R. Dueweke, Juventino Hernandez Rodriguez, Andel V. Nicasio, Michelle Alto, Rosaura Orengo ‐Aguayo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of COVID ‐19 on Psychotherapy Participation Among Individuals With Enrolled in Treatment Research
AbstractThe onset of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of daily life and required a rapid and unprecedented shift in psychotherapy delivery from in-person to telemental health. In the present study, we explored the impact of the pandemic on individuals ’ ability to participate in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy and the association between the impact of COVID-19 impact on health and financial well-being and psychotherapy participation. Participants (N = 161, 63.2% male,Mage = 42.7 years) were United States military veterans (n = 108), active duty military personnel (n = 12), and civilians...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Carmen P. McLean, Sudie E. Back, Christy Capone, Leslie Morland, Sonya B. Norman, Sheila A. M. Rauch, Paula P. Schnurr, Ellen Teng, Ron Acierno Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Shame as a Mediator in the Association Between Emotion Dysregulation and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reductions Among Combat Veterans in a Residential Treatment Program
AbstractEmotion dysregulation (ED) can be defined as one's inability to effectively respond to and manage internal experiences and the expression of emotion. ED has been linked to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with recent research suggesting that reductions in ED may predict improved treatment outcomes among both civilian and veteran populations. However, few studies have examined how changes in ED may predict treatment outcomes among veterans with PTSD and whether certain core features of PTSD, such as shame, may act as potential mediators in the association between ED and PTSD s...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alexander Puhalla, Aidan Flynn, Amanda Vaught Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

The Impact of COVID ‐19 on Psychotherapy Participation Among Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Enrolled in Treatment Research
AbstractThe onset of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of daily life and required a rapid and unprecedented shift in psychotherapy delivery from in-person to telemental health. In the present study, we explored the impact of the pandemic on individuals ’ ability to participate in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy and the association between the impact of COVID-19 impact on health and financial well-being and psychotherapy participation. Participants (N = 161, 63.2% male,Mage = 42.7 years) were United States military veterans (n = 108), active duty military personnel (n = 12), and civilians...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Carmen P. McLean, Sudie E. Back, Christy Capone, Leslie Morland, Sonya B. Norman, Sheila A. M. Rauch, Paula P. Schnurr, Ellen Teng, Ron Acierno Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Coping Motives are Independently Associated with Cannabis Craving Elicited by Trauma Cues
AbstractCannabis use is common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although its use can ultimately worsen PTSD outcomes. Cannabis-use coping motives may help explain the PTSD –cannabis relationship. Frequent pairing of trauma cues with substance use to cope with negative affect can lead to conditioned substance craving. For the present cue-reactivity study, we examined if PTSD symptoms were associated with cannabis craving elicited by a personalized trauma cue and expl ored whether coping motives mediated this hypothesized relationship; enhancement motives were included as a comparison mediat...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kyra N. Farrelly, Pablo Romero ‐Sanchiz, Tiberiu Mahu, Sean P. Barrett, Pamela Collins, Daniel Rasic, Sherry H. Stewart Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Parental Posttraumatic Stress and School Performance in Refugee Children
AbstractRefugee children in the Nordic countries have been reported to perform poorly in school and carry a high burden of familial posttraumatic stress. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress on the school performance of refugee children. We used national register data on school grades at age 15 –16 along with demographic and migration indicators during 2011–2017 in a population of 18,831 children in refugee families in Stockholm County, Sweden. Parental posttraumatic stress was identified in regional data from three levels of care, including a tertiary ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lisa Berg, Monica Brendler ‐Lindquist, Edith Montgomery, Ellenor Mittendorfer‐Rutz, Anders Hjern Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Childhood Adversity and the Association Between Stress Sensitivity and Problematic Alcohol Use in Adults
We examined the unique and interactive effects of ELA and U-threat reactivity on problem drinking and depressive and anxiety symptom severity. Participants (N = 131) completed a well-validated threat-of-shock task, and startle eyeblink potentiation was recorded to index aversive responding. Individuals also completed self-report measures of alcohol use, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Results demonstrated a positive association between ELA and higher levels of problematic alcohol use at high levels of U-threat reactivity, β = .75,t = 3.93,p
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: O. Trent Hall, K. Luan Phan, Stephanie Gorka Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Vulnerability to COVID ‐19–Related Disability: The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms on Psychosocial Impairment During the Pandemic
AbstractAs a result of the COVID –19 pandemic, many individuals have experienced disruptions in social, occupational, and daily life activities. Individuals with mental health difficulties, particularly those with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), may be especially vulnerable to increased impairment as a result of CO VID–19. Additionally, demographic factors, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity, may impact individual difficulties related to the pandemic. The current study examined the concurrent and prospective associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, broader anxiety ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Danielle M. Morabito, Carter E. Bedford, Savannah Woller, Norman B. Schmidt Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Role of Parents ’ Self‐Perceptions in the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Aspects of Parenting
AbstractParents ’ posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) have been shown to be negatively associated with aspects of parenting, yet the mechanisms that link PTSS to parenting remain unclear. Because PTSS include negative alterations in cognitions, trauma-exposed parents may have skewed perceptions of themselves as parents. However, no studies have examined whether there is an indirect effect of PTSS on parenting through parents’ self-perceptions. Path analysis was used to determine (a) whetherDSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters are related to parenting indices (i.e., support, satisfaction,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Julia C. Sager, Rachel Wamser ‐Nanney Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

An Examination of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder –Related Symptoms Among a Sample of Latinx Sexual‐ and Gender‐Minority Immigrants
AbstractLatinx sexual- and gender- minority (SGM) immigrants experience stress across multiple axes of identity, which can lead to negative health consequences. Using an intersectional –cultural theory of stress, the current study sampled 194 Latinx SGM immigrants to examine the association between intersectional discrimination (i.e., race- and sexual orientation–based), acculturative stress, symptoms related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and somatic distress. We us ed moderated hierarchical linear regression analysis to determine whether social support moderated the associations among intersectional...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fernando Estrada, Alison Cerezo, Amaranta Ramirez Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of Virtual Reality Exposure on Stress Level and Sense of Competence in Ambulance Workers
AbstractVirtual reality (VR) exposure is used in clinical psychology to treat anxiety disorders. It is also used to enhance resilience in soldiers by allowing them to confront virtual combat environments to help fortify them against the negative consequences of trauma exposure. Most VR studies have focused on military and emergency medical staff; however, thus far, none have investigated VR in ambulance workers (AWs), who are confronted with traumatic situations daily. The current study aimed to assess the impact of a single VR exposure session on self-perceived competence and stress level in a sample of AWs. Participants ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - July 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sourour Chaabane, Anne ‐Marie Etienne, Michaël Schyns, Aurélie Wagener Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Prevalence of Potentially Morally Injurious Events in Operationally Deployed Canadian Armed Forces Members
AbstractAs moral injury is a still-emerging concept within the area of military mental health, prevalence estimates for moral injury and its precursor, potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), remain unknown for many of the world's militaries. The present study sought to estimate the prevalence of PMIEs in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), using data collected from CAF personnel deployed to Afghanistan, via logistic regressions controlling for relevant sociodemographic, military, and deployment characteristics. Analyses revealed that over 65% of CAF members reported exposure to at least one event that would be consider...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kevin T. Hansen, Charles G. Nelson, Kenneth Kirkwood Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress)
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Intergenerational Transmission of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Australian Vietnam Veterans ’ Daughters and Sons: The Effect of Family Emotional Climate While Growing Up
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans increases the risk of PTSD in their offspring, a concept known as “intergenerational transmission;” however, the mechanism by which this transmission may occur is, as yet, undetermined. The present study included a nonclinical sample of 197 Australian Army veterans of the Vietnam War who were interviewed 17 years before in-person interviews of their adult daug hters (n = 163) and sons (n = 120) were conducted. Veterans ’ PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD. Approximately 17 years later, offspring ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brian I. O'Toole Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Peritraumatic Distress and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms During the COVID ‐19 Pandemic: The Contributions of Psychosocial Factors and Pandemic‐Related Stressors
AbstractThe present study aimed to identify the contributions of sociodemographic factors, psychological hardiness, and pandemic-related stressors to the development of peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examined the mediating contribution of peritraumatic distress with respect to the associations between PTSS and (a) individual characteristics and (b) pandemic-related stressors. A total of 1,238 participants (82.1% women, 17.9% men) aged 18 –75 years were included in the study. Participants completed the Dispositional Resilience Scale, Pe...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vesna Anti čević, Andreja Bubić, Dolores Britvić Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Traumatic Experiences and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms After the Rwandan Genocide Against the Tutsi
AbstractThe effects of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi are widespread and long-lasting, but little is known about how posttraumatic consequences differ regarding gender. In the present study, we estimated the associations between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in a Rwandan community sample and examined whether the associations differed by gender. The sample comprised 498 adults (75.2% women) living in Rwanda's Huye District in 2011. We used a validated self-report checklist to assess the eight most frequent traumatic experiences during the Genocide. The PTSD Checklist –Civilian v...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jonathan M. Platt, Joanna Pozen, Joseph Ntaganira, Vincent Sezibera, Richard Neugebauer Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Sleep Quality Improvements After MDMA ‐Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractSleep disturbances (SDs) are among the most distressing and commonly reported symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite increased attention on sleep in clinical PTSD research, SDs remain difficult to treat. In Phase 2 trials, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) –assisted psychotherapy has been shown to greatly improve PTSD symptoms. We hypothesized that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy would improve self-reported sleep quality (SQ) in individuals with PTSD and be associated with declining PTSD symptoms. Participants in four studies (n = 63) were randomized to receive 2 –3 sessions of act...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Linnae Ponte, Lisa Jerome, Scott Hamilton, Michael C. Mithoefer, Berra B. Yazar ‐Klosinski, Eric Vermetten, Allison A. Feduccia Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Impact of Hostility on Quality of Life, Functioning, and Suicidal Ideation Among Male Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractVeterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience high levels of hostility. Although studies have found that PTSD is associated with poorer quality of life (QoL), increased functional impairment, lower levels of social support, and increased suicidal ideation, it is unclear if hostility impacts these domains in veterans with PTSD above and beyond the impact from PTSD and depressive symptoms. The present study aimed to examine whether hostility is related to several indices of poorer QoL and functioning after controlling for demographic characteristics, PTSD symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Parti...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stephanie Y. Wells, Carolyn L. Brennan, Elizabeth E. Van Voorhees, Jean C. Beckham, Patrick S. Calhoun, Carolina P. Clancy, Michael A. Hertzberg, Kirsten H. Dillon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Conversion Crosswalk for the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index: Translating DSM ‐IV to DSM‐5
AbstractThe use of patient-reported measures in assessing mental health symptoms is common in both the research and clinical fields. With regard to assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms, there are specific versions of measures designed for child and adolescent populations in accordance with the fourth and fifth editions of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV andDSM-5, respectively). Different clinical thresholds, numbers of items, and score ranges may present obstacles for clinicians and researchers attempting to compare self-report ratings across different versions of a measure. The current ...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cheuk Hei Cheng, Susanne S. Lee, Sun ‐Kyung Lee, Chris Bray, Tanner Zimmerman, Abigail H. Gewirtz Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Maternal Support and Attrition from Child Trauma ‐Focused Therapy
The objective of the current study was to investigate the associations between children's symptoms, relationship to the perpetrator, and maternal support in relation to premature termination from TFT among 186 sexually abused children (Mage = 9.24 years,SD = 3.72, 67.3% female). Two operational definitions of attrition were used: (a) clinician-rated dropout (i.e., clinician's ratings of whether the child completed treatment) and (b) whether the child received an adequate treatment dose treatment (i.e., ≥12 sessions). Maternal marital status was the only factor associated with clinician-rated treatment dropout,OR = 2.35,...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - June 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rachel Wamser ‐Nanney Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Investigation of Therapist Effects on Patient Engagement in Evidence ‐Based Psychotherapies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Veterans Health Administration
AbstractThe present study examined whether certain Veterans Health Administration (VHA) therapists have more success than others in keeping patients engaged in evidence-based psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our objective was to use multilevel modeling to quantify the variability between therapists in two indicators of patient engagement: early dropout (i.e.,
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nina A. Sayer, Shannon Wiltsey ‐Stirman, Craig S. Rosen, Nancy C. Bernardy, Michele R. Spoont, Shannon M. Kehle‐Forbes, Afsoon Eftekhari, Kathleen M. Chard, David B. Nelson Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Stress Disorders and the Risk of Nonfatal Suicide Attempts in the Danish Population
AbstractAccurate documentation of the associations between stress disorders and suicide attempts provides important information about a high-risk population and target group for preventative interventions. In this case-cohort study, cases were all individuals born or residing in Denmark who made a nonfatal suicide attempt during 1995 –2015 (n = 22,974). The comparison subcohort included a 5% random sample of the Danish population on January 1, 1995 (n = 265,183). Stress disorder diagnoses and suicide attempts were identified usingICD-10 codes from national medical registries. The presence of any stress disorder subst...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Amy E. Street, Tammy Jiang, Erzs ébet Horváth‐Puhó, Anthony J. Rosellini, Timothy L. Lash, Henrik T. Sørensen, Jaimie L. Gradus Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Developmental Trauma Disorder: A Legacy of Attachment Trauma in Victimized Children
AbstractDevelopmental trauma disorder (DTD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have both shared and unique traumatic antecedents. The present study was an independent replication, with the DTD Structured Interview and the Traumatic Events Screening Instrument administered to 271 children in mental health treatment in six U.S. sites. On an unadjusted basis, DTD (27.3% prevalence,N = 74) and PTSD (40.2% prevalence,N = 109) both were associated with traumatic physical assault or abuse, family violence, emotional abuse, caregiver separation or impairment, and polyvictimization. After controlling for PT...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel Kolk, Julian D. Ford Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Predictors of Clinician ‐Reported Self‐Efficacy in Treating Trauma‐Exposed Youth
We examined predictors of clinician self-efficacy in working with trauma-exposed youth in a sample of practicing mental health clinici ans (N = 258,M age = 34.4 years, 85.0% female). Clinicians were recruited and surveyed as part of a larger study examining how clients ’ exposure to potentially traumatic events influences clinician decision-making. Results of regression models indicated that training in any trauma treatment model, being trained via a variety of formats (e.g., in-person training, online, supervision), and training in a variety of treatment models were all associated with higher perceived self-efficacy...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Emily M. Becker ‐Haimes, Katherine Wislocki, Stephen DiDonato, Amanda Jensen‐Doss Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Salivary Cortisol and Alpha ‐Amylase in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Their Potential Role in the Evaluation of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Outcomes
We examined the role of salivary cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA) in PTSD and TF-CBT outcomes in German Armed Forces service members (N = 100). Participants categorized as PTSD patients (n = 39), previously deployed healthy controls (n = 33), and nondeployed healthy controls (n = 28) provided diurnal profiles of sCort and sAA; PTSD patients provided samples before, immediately after, and 3 months after an internet-based TF-CBT intervention. No group differences emerged regarding total daily sCort and sAA output or daily slopes,ps = .224 –.897,fs= 0.05 –0.24. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a signifi...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sarah Schumacher, Sinha Engel, Helen Niemeyer, Annika K üster, Sebastian Burchert, Nadine Skoluda, Heinrich Rau, Urs M. Nater, Gerd‐Dieter Willmund, Christine Knaevelsrud Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Interpersonal Problems in Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractTraumatic experiences have been differentiated as interpersonal (i.e., the direct result of actions by other people) or noninterpersonal (i.e., other life-threatening events, such as severe accidents). Interpersonal trauma exposure generally has been shown to be associated with more severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than noninterpersonal trauma exposure. Interpersonal problems also tend to be associated with trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms, but it is unclear whether a mediating association exists between trauma type, interpersonal problems, and PTSD symptoms. A clinical sample of 4,275 adolesce...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - May 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kathryn A. Hughesdon, Julian D. Ford, Ernestine C. Briggs, Julia S. Seng, Alison L. Miller, Sarah A. Stoddard Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research