Process evaluation of a pilot study to test the feasibility of an incentive scheme to increase active travel to school
ConclusionsFindings support the feasibility and acceptability of an incentive scheme to increase ATS. Additional feasibility work should be carried out prior to a definitive evaluation trial, taking into account the findings and recommendations of this study. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - October 11, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

More than time and money - Influences on mobility of low-income women in the Villa 20 in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Conclusions:it shows that their mobility patterns are mainly determined by restrictions. The relevance of factors and their effect differ for each woman, mainly depending on her motility. Even though time and costs have found to be very common and decisive determinants of travel choices, they are by far not equally relevant to the women and are in some cases outweighed by other issues, such as insecurity or orientation problems.Discussion:The article concludes by outlining recommendations for the adoption of an integrated approach that focuses on both infrastructure and mobility management, including methods and stakeholde...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - October 10, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Understanding how low-income communities gain access to healthcare services: A qualitative study in São Paulo, Brazil
ConclusionsWithin policy setting agendas in Brazil, “objective” assessments of people's ability to access healthcare tend to over-emphasise the spatial separation between patients' home locations and the physical location of healthcare services, most notably in terms of travel time or distance. Tackling health inequalities requires planners to design integrated transport and health policies taking into consideration the adequacy and quality of both transport and healthcare services. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - October 8, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Urban travel patterns and safety among school children around Accra, Ghana
ConclusionThe paper draws attention to traffic collisions and fatalities among basic school pupils in and around Accra. Particularly, the paper resonates the worsening trip-to-school behaviours of basic school pupils in African cities. Cities on the continent still provide unsafe, expensive and inefficient transport services. The paper calls for a re-examination of urban mobility and safety among school pupils; as an urgent urban transport policy issue in Africa cities. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - October 8, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Do advanced stop lines for motorcycles improve road safety?
ConclusionASL are not effective in improving road safety. In some circumstances, they increase the risk of traffic injury. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - October 5, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Effects of 20 mph interventions on a range of public health outcomes: A meta-narrative evidence synthesis
ConclusionThis review suggests 20 mph ‘zones’ are effective in reducing collisions and casualties. However, it provides insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the effect of 20 mph ‘zones’ on pollution, inequalities or liveability. For 20 mph ‘limits’ more rigorous evaluations are required in order to draw robust conclusions. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - October 4, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Research Agenda for Shaping the Future of Smart Mobility
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & HealthAuthor(s): Hussein Dia (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 28, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

What moves us: Subjective and objective predictors of active transportation
ConclusionsActive transportation is associated with built environment characteristics and perceived environmental factors, but the specific predictors and strength of associations vary by context. Results suggest perceived bicycle friendliness may be important in urban areas and access to trails for walking and biking may provide important opportunities to promote active transportation in more suburban or rural areas. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 27, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Characteristics of tail pipe (Nitric oxide) and resuspended dust emissions from urban roads – A case study in Delhi city
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & HealthAuthor(s): V. Dheeraj Alshetty, Sudheer Kumar Kuppili, S.M. Shiva Nagendra, Gitakrishnan Ramadurai, Virendra Sethi, Rakesh Kumar, Niraj Sharma, Anil Namdeo, Margaret Bell, Paul Goodman, Tim Chatterton, Jo Barnes, Laura De Vito, James LonghurstAbstractIntroductionPersonal exposure to elevated vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust emissions at urban roadside leads to carcinogenic health effects, respiratory illness and nervous system disorders. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the exhaust and non-exhaust emissions emi...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

5th International Conference on Transport and Health: ICTH 2019-Melbourne
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & HealthAuthor(s): (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

The relations between walkable neighbourhoods and active participation in daily activities of people with disabilities
ConclusionThese urban characteristics are important for enabling engagement in active travel for out-of-home activities. Results may shed light on urban planning for vulnerable populations and on their considerations in choosing a neighborhood for residence. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Is motorcycle use associated with unhealthy lifestyles? Findings from Taiwan
ConclusionsMotorcycle use is a potential behavioral risk factor for active mode of transportation. Future lifestyle interventions and transportation-related policies may consider reducing motorcycle use time as a possible strategy for health promotion. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 24, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Impacts of study design on sample size, participation bias, and outcome measurement: A case study from bicycling research
ConclusionsIn our case study we found that measuring bicycling once, resulted in a larger sample with better representation of sociodemographic groups, but different estimates of long-term bicycling behaviour. Passive detection of bicycling through mobile apps could be a solution to the identified issues. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Does walking and bicycling more mean exercising less? Evidence from the U.S. and the Netherlands
ConclusionsOur findings imply significant health benefits could flow from engaging in active travel. Since the relationship between physical activity and positive health outcomes is well-established, we can presume that people who engage in active travel are likely to enjoy health benefits that they would not otherwise experience. Future research should attempt to quantify these benefits. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Walking for transportation and built environment in Sao Paulo city, Brazil
ConclusionsThe mix of destinations within 500 m and some types of destinations within 1,000 m are important to promote walking trips in adults living in a megalopolis like Sao Paulo. These results can foster discussion of healthy cities in Latin American countries.ResumoObjetivoDescrever o perfil de adultos que caminham como transporte na cidade de São Paulo e verificar as variáveis de ambiente construído que estão associadas com caminhada como forma de transporte.Material e MétodosEste foi um estudo transversal que utilizou dados do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paul...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Evaluating methods for measuring daily walking to public transport: Balancing accuracy and data availability
ConclusionsThe methodology presented in this study provides researchers and professionals in other cities without access to detailed origin-destination survey data with a guide to use open data to accurately estimate total walking distances accumulated in a daily commute by public transport. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Theoretical modeling of spatial accessibility in the management of stroke in the Rhône department (France) and comparison with measured data
ConclusionTheoretical models were highly correlated and the correlation with the measured data was mostly correct. The few minutes difference between theoretical models and measured data could be explained by traffic hazards and organizational vagaries that always tend to disrupt modeling results. Using measured data was found to be very useful to perform theorical model and to develop a robust model of stroke transportation. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 18, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Maturing urban cycling: Comparing barriers and motivators to bicycle of cyclists and non-cyclists in Lisbon, Portugal
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 15Author(s): Rosa Félix, Filipe Moura, Kelly J. CliftonAbstractCities with low cycling maturity (LCM) are cities with a small cycling modal share and little cycling infrastructure. Despite the increasing public interest in cycling as travel mode, LCM cities are still prevalent in the western world, and few research has been developed on which are the barriers and what lead people to bicycle in this type of cities, that still are changing. This research explores the motivators and deterrents to bicycle in Lisbon (Portugal), a city with a...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 18, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Active commuting to and from school among 106,605 adolescents in 27 Asia-Pacific countries
ConclusionsAcross the Asia-Pacific region, two out of five adolescents engaged in ASC with large variability between the countries as well as by age and sex. Future research should examine multiple factors that influence cross-country variations in adolescents’ ASC, which can inform country-specific interventions and policies to promote ASC in the Asia-Pacific region. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 14, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Association between the built environment and active transportation among U.S. adolescents
ConclusionsMore mixed land use, greater connected streets as well as higher walkability and density of residence, parks and recreational facilities were associated with active transportation; suggesting city planning officials may consider creating more walkable and liveable communities to promote daily transportation-related PA. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 13, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Beyond the Resource Drain Theory: Salary satisfaction as a mediator between commuting time and subjective well-being
ConclusionPolicymakers need to consider not only the direct effects but also the indirect effects between commuting time and subjective well-being. The negative impact of commuting time on subjective well-being may be alleviated by improving the commuter's salary satisfaction. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 11, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Publisher’s Note - Introducing article numbering to Journal of Transport & Health
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & HealthAuthor(s): (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 11, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Modelling the impact of fused grid network design on mode choice behaviour
ConclusionsIn conclusion, this study demonstrated the effectiveness of the FG principles in reducing auto use and increasing non-motorized modes use for home-to-work trips. In addition, the study revealed that infrastructure investments related to providing more accessibility for non-motorized users might have more impact on decreasing auto use compared to restricting vehicular network connectivity. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 7, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Frailty phenotype and self-reported crashes and driving space: Baseline AAA LongROAD
ConclusionsThe frailty phenotype is associated with motor vehicle crashes, but not reduced driving space. Our findings suggest that future research should be focused on the identification of pre-frail older adult drivers to improve the health and quality of life of older adult drivers. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 7, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Commute patterns and depression: Evidence from eleven Latin American cities
ConclusionsOur findings provide preliminary evidence that better access to mass transit systems and less congestion may be linked to better mental health among urban residents.ResumenIntroducciónAunque se espera que el comportamiento de viajeros afecte su salud personal, pocas investigaciones han estudiado el efecto de estos comportamientos sobre la salud mental. En este estudio examinamos asociaciones entre patrones de viaje y salud mental en individuos de 11 ciudades de América Latina.MétodosUtilizamos una encuesta del Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina (CAF) del 2016, para medir la presenc...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 5, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Health effects from bicycle commuting to work: Insights from participants of the German company-bicycle leasing program
ConclusionsThe findings indicate that the use of company leasing bicycles relates positively with physical and mental wellbeing. Compatibility is a significant determinant of active commuting, suggesting that company executives should endorse the perception that they share important values, lifestyles, and needs with employees. Changes in active commuting, however, did not increase health, most likely due to the short time scale under consideration. The findings help policy makers identify individual- and organization-level factors that relate to active commuting and health. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 1, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

A new urban greenway in Vancouver, British Columbia: Adolescents’ perspectives, experiences and vision for the future
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 15Author(s): Joanie Sims-Gould, Douglas L. Race, Nazifaa Vasaya, Heather A. McKay (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 1, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

The potential implications of autonomous vehicles for active transport
ConclusionsOverall, the results suggest that AVs could substantially reduce participation in active transport, with corresponding disbenefits for individuals and society. Policies need to be implemented immediately to promote the use of active transport and minimize the migration from active transport to AVs. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 1, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Cycling, driving, and injuries
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Journal of Transport & HealthAuthor(s): Jennifer S. Mindell (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - September 1, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Obesity as a moderator of the relationship between neighborhood environment and objective measures of physical activity in chilean adults
ConclusionsThere was no significant association between perceived neighborhood environment and PA in people with obesity.ResumenIntroducciónEl objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre la percepción del entorno de residencia y medidas objetivas de actividad física (AF) de acuerdo al estado nutricional en población adulta.MétodosEstudio de corte transversal realizado en 161 participantes representativos del estudio CESCAS de Temuco-Chile. La percepción del entorno de residencia fue determinada usando el Modulo Ambiental del IPAQ. La actividad física fue...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 30, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Distances walked to and from local destinations: Age-related variations and implications for determining buffer sizes
ConclusionsOur findings support buffer sizes around 600–1200 m for studies examining environmental correlates of walking for utilitarian purposes. For recreational walking to get to natural features, larger buffer sizes ranging from 1200 to over 2000 m may be suitable. We did not find consistent evidence supporting the use of different buffer sizes for different age groups. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 30, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Suburban neighborhood environments and depression: A case study of Guangzhou, China
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 15Author(s): Tianyao Zhang, Rebecca Lai Har Chiu, Hung Chak Ho (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 30, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Gender, transport and health studies open new horizons for planning
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Lake Sagaris (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 27, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Towards a cycling-friendly city: An updated review of the associations between built environment and cycling behaviors (2007–2017)
ConclusionsThis review has demonstrated that street connectivity and the presence of cycling paths and facilities are the two most significant built environment factors that may promote cycling behaviors. With the emergence of advanced measurement methods for both the built environment and cycling behaviors, further studies may overcome current research limitations and provide robust evidence to support urban planning and public-health practice. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Prevalence and patterns of active commuting according to socio-demographic factors in the Chilean population
The objective of this study was to investigate levels of self-reported active commuting by socio-demographics factors in Chile.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in 5,157 participants (women: 59.3%, age range 15–101 years) from the Chilean National Health Survey (CNHS) 2009–2010. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ v2) was utilised to measure frequency and time spent in active commuting (walking or cycling). In addition, age, sex, education, place of residence, income and occupation were used as socio-demographics factors of interest.Results31.9% [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 29.7; 34...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

A dose–response effect between built environment characteristics and transport walking for youths
ConclusionWe add new empirical evidence on the significant and non-linear relationship between urban density and transport walking. Although increasing urban density in already densely developed cities may not be an effective intervention strategy to increase transport walking in youths, such strategy may still be effective in other less dense areas. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

A justification for pedestrian countdown signals at signalized intersections: The safety impact on senior motorists
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Richard Atta Boateng, Valerian Kwigizile, John S. Miller, Jun-Seok OhAbstractIntroductionPedestrian countdown signals (PCSs) are specifically designed to improve pedestrian safety at intersections. However, the cost of retrofitting an existing intersection with a PCS, or the cost of including a PCS in a new intersection, may discourage PCS use at locations with a low pedestrian demand. Surprisingly, however, these devices appear to have positive safety benefits for a demographic group that is poised to increase by 20 percent nati...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 23, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Perceived and objective measures of neighborhood environment: Association with active commuting to school by socioeconomic status in Brazilian adolescents
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Arieli Fernandes Dias, Anelise Reis Gaya, Andreia Nogueira Pizarro, Caroline Brand, Thiago Monteiro Mendes, Jorge Mota, Maria Paula Santos, Adroaldo Cezar Araujo GayaRESUMOIntroduçãoO deslocamento para a escola é influenciado por fatores ambientais que são específicos de cada país. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre deslocamento ativo de/para escola (DAE) com medidas percebidas e objetivas dos fatores ambientais do bairro, assim como avaliar a i...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Temporal changes in active commuting from 2007 to 2017 among adults living in the Capital Region of Denmark
ConclusionActive commuting has become more prevalent among adults living in the Capital Region of Denmark, but temporal changes from 2007 to 2017 differed between sociodemographic groups. Findings may help inform future planning and policymaking to secure targeted interventions for continuous promotion of active commuting across all sociodemographic groups. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 11, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Long-term effects of traffic exposures on mortality in a Chinese cohort
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Thuan-Quoc Thach, Hilda Tsang, Poh-chin Lai, Ruby Siu-yin Lee, Paulina Pui-yun WongAbstractA large proportion of the population living in close proximity to roads are continuously exposed to vehicle traffic and vulnerable to its ill effect in everyday life. However, only a limited number of epidemiological studies have examined effects of long-term road vehicle traffic exposures on mortality. We investigated long-term associations between road vehicle traffic exposures measured by vehicle-kilometres travelled (VKT) and mortality ...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 9, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Health impacts of active commuters’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Stockholm, Sweden
ConclusionThe results indicated that active commuting in Stockholm is associated with significant exposure to traffic-related air pollution and that this increases the risk of premature death. It is recommended that future studies consider longer time periods to assess active commuters’ personal exposure with higher precision. Policy implications include greater separation between active commuters and motor traffic, and promotion of behavioral changes in favor of emissions free vehicles and active modes of transport. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 8, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Beyond the bus stop: Where transit users walk
ConclusionsTransit days were associated with greater durations of total walking and non-transit related walking within and beyond the home and work neighborhoods. Accordingly, research, design, and policy strategies focused on transit use and pedestrian activity should consider locations outside the home and work neighborhoods, in addition to locations within them. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 3, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

The journey to learn: Perspectives on active school travel from exemplar schools in New Zealand
ConclusionThis qualitative inquiry complements other quantitative research by providing narrative around the complex socio-ecological interactions underpinning active school travel. Findings suggest that a thorough understanding of school values and priorities, and community culture are needed to design a context-specific mix of interventions to increase active school travel. Several other implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 3, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Assessment of trucking bans in urban areas as a strategy to reduce air pollution
ConclusionsIn terms of environment, a political strategy that at first hand appears to be a good decision, could not be one in the long term. For this reason, it is necessary to have technical support and prevent undesired effects to the city. In the Medellin Metropolitan Area with the truck ban policy, not significant change was found in the amount of pollutant (PM2.5). Nevertheless, with the restriction, the emissions are concentrated, and this is an undesired effect, especially for human health. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 3, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Women's perceived risk of sexual harassment in a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system: The case of Barranquilla, Colombia
ConclusionSexual harassment could potentially influence use of the BRT. The findings of this research can be used to develop countermeasures and increase public transport ridership. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - August 1, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Differences in life space area between older non-cyclists, conventional cyclists and e-bikers
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Paul Schepers, Benedicte Deforche, Bas de GeusAbstractPurposeConventional and electric bicycles (e-bikes) offer a non-polluting and physically-active alternative to cars to support older adults’ access to different life spaces. We aimed to provide an initial exploration of the relationship between cycling status (non-cyclist, conventional cyclist or e-biker) and life space area. Additionally, we examined whether this was moderated by sex, functional health and car driving.MethodsCross-sectional survey ...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - July 31, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

An examination of active travel trends before and after college graduation
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Melissa Bopp, Oliver W.A. Wilson, Michele Duffey, Zack PapaliaAbstractBackgroundActive travel (AT); walking and biking for transportation; has many health, environmental and economic benefits, yet rates of participation remain low in the US. During college years AT participation is typically higher than in older adulthood, but it is unknown how this behavior tracks into later life stages. Therefore this study examined AT participation before and after graduation from college. Methods: A volunteer sample of college students partic...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - July 31, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Dose-response association of workplace facilities and policies with commuter bicycling among adults
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 14Author(s): Anna K. Porter, Harold W. Kohl, Deborah Salvo (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - July 31, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Injury severity in police collision reports correlates poorly with requirement for hospital admission.
This study linked driver records with hospital records to investigate the correlation of injury data in police collision reports with need for hospital admission.MethodsWe studied hospital admissions and traffic collisions involving British Columbia residents between 2005 and 2015. Probabilistic linkage between driver licence and personal health number was successful for 95.5% of drivers. We first compared population level statistics on number of serious injuries following a motor vehicle crash according to police reports with the number hospital admissions for road trauma recorded in hospital records. Second, we determine...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - July 31, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research