Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery and Unilateral Pulmonary Vein Atresia
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Reducing Routine Chest Radiographs in the Intensive Care Unit
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Research Letters Source Type: research

Incidence of Pulmonary Embolism in Sickle Cell Anemia Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography in the Emergency Department
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Research Letters Source Type: research

Intracavitary Coronary Artery: An Unusual Coronary Anomaly
Conclusions: Although rare, our study suggests that ICCA may be more common than previously described. Its presence is important to communicate to clinicians prior to invasive cardiac procedures to prevent potentially catastrophic outcomes. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Original Article Source Type: research

Smoke: How to Differentiate Flow-related Artifacts From Pathology on Thoracic Computed Tomographic Angiography
Nonuniform contrast opacification of vasculature is frequently encountered on thoracic computed tomographic angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to discuss the appearance of, and factors underlying mixing artifacts, which we term “smoke.” We provide an approach to distinguish it from pathology including pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, and thrombus. Smoke results from a combination of technical factors, abnormal physiology, or inflow of unopacified blood. Smoke produces ill-defined filling defects that may be confidently diagnosed in many cases if these fundamentals are applied. (Source: Jo...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Pictorial Essays Source Type: research

The Azygos Vein From A to Z
Congenital and acquired abnormalities of the azygos vein can affect its size and position. Alteration of contrast material flow dynamics of the azygos vein on computed tomography can be an indication of superior vena cava obstruction. Recognition and accurate characterization of abnormalities of the azygos vein on imaging studies is critical to facilitate prompt diagnosis and direct workup when necessary. The main purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the radiologic features of various congenital and acquired abnormalities affecting the azygos venous system. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Pictorial Essays Source Type: research

Imaging Spectrum of Double-Outlet Right Ventricle on Multislice Computed Tomography
Double-outlet right ventricle is a complex congenital heart disease that encompasses various common and rare subtypes. Surgical management of these patients needs to be individualized owing to extremely variable morphology and hemodynamics. Imaging plays a crucial role in determination and characterization of outflow tract morphology. The assessment of ventricular septal defect routability with identification of associated anomalies has therapeutic implications in these patients. Multislice computed tomography with advanced 3-dimensional postprocessing techniques and dose-reduction strategies is invaluable in defining the ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content: Pictorial Essays Source Type: research

Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Does Reduction of Left Ventricular Mass Improve Functional Myocardial Parameters? A Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pilot Study
Objectives: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in resistant hypertensive patients is associated with a reduced intramyocardial perfusion. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic tone. We aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of RDN on functional myocardial parameters and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in patients with resistant hypertension. Methods: A total of 15 resistant hypertensive patients (11 male individuals, mean age 62±13 y) were included. Adenosine stress-induced cMRI was perform...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pulmonary Hypertension Parameters Assessment by Electrocardiographically Gated Computed Tomography: Normal Limits by Age, Sex, and Body Surface Area in a Chinese Population
Conclusions: Using ECG-gated cardiac CT, we determined the normal reference values of PH parameters for non-PH adult Chinese patients, and these values were variably influenced by age, sex, BSA, and BMI. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Perinodular Vascularity Distinguishes Benign Intrapulmonary Lymph Nodes From Lung Cancer on Computed Tomography
Purpose: A common diagnostic dilemma in the assessment of small pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) is in distinguishing benign intrapulmonary lymph nodes (IPLNs) from small primary pulmonary malignancies. Several CT features have been described of IPLNs, including attachment to a pleural surface. We had observed that IPLNs were often connected to a pulmonary vein and sought to evaluate the utility of this sign in discriminating IPLNs from lung adenocarcinomas. The frequency of other previously described CT signs of IPLNs was also compared with lung adenocarcinomas. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

3-Dimensional Quantification of Composite Pleural Plaque Volume in Patients Exposed to Asbestos Using High-resolution Computed Tomography: A Validation Study
Conclusions: 3D semiautomatic quantification of PPV is feasible and reproducible using CT in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. PPV measurement may be useful to correlate with other asbestos-related disease outcomes and prognosis. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Interstitial Lung Disease Using Lung Ultrasound Surface Wave Elastography: A Novel Technique With Clinicoradiologic Correlates
Purpose: Optimal strategies to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) are unknown. ILD is frequently subpleural in distribution and affects lung elasticity. Lung ultrasound surface wave elastography (LUSWE) is a noninvasive method of quantifying superficial lung tissue elastic properties. In LUWSE a handheld device applied at the intercostal space vibrates the chest at a set frequency, and the lung surface wave velocity is measured by an ultrasound probe 5 mm away in the same intercostal space. We explored LUWSE’s ability to detect ILD and correlated LUSWE velocity with physiological, quantitative, and...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Imaging Evaluation of Lung Transplantation Patients: A Time and Etiology-based Approach to High-resolution Computed Tomography Interpretation
Lung transplantation is an established therapeutic option for patients with irreversible end-stage pulmonary disease limiting life expectancy and quality of life. Common indications for lung transplantation include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Complications of lung transplantation can be broadly divided etiologically into surgical, infectious, immunologic, or neoplastic. Moreover, specific complications often occur within a certain time interval following surgery, which can be broadly classified as...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Postmortem Computed Tomography and Computed Tomography Angiography: Cardiothoracic Imaging Applications in Forensic Medicine
This article reviews the PMCT and PMCTA techniques in terms of their indications, applications, advantages, and limitations for cardiothoracic applications. Our findings will enhance readers’ understanding of emerging CT techniques in forensic radiology. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Journal of Thoracic Imaging’s Exciting Growth: New Record 2018 Impact Factor and Welcome to the Asian Society of Thoracic Radiology
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - August 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Society of Thoracic Radiology: Abstracts from the 2019 Annual Meeting and Postgraduate Course March 24-27, 2019 The Westin Savannah Harbor, Savannah, Georgia
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Abstracts: PDF Only Source Type: research

Interventional Therapies for Central Airways
Central airway obstruction (CAO) is a dangerous and increasingly common problem. CAO refers to lesions causing narrowing of the trachea or mainstem bronchi and is generally divided into malignant and nonmalignant categories. These 2 entities may be caused by a variety of thoracic and extrathoracic diseases. Imaging is critical during the initial assessment of CAO and may help thoracic physicians focus the differential diagnosis and plan the safest and most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. However, direct visualization via flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is often necessary for diagnostic and treatment pu...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Longitudinal Follow-up of Patients With Tracheobronchomalacia After Undergoing Tracheobronchoplasty: Computed Tomography Findings and Clinical Correlation
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intermediate and long-term changes in expiratory tracheal collapsibility by computed tomography (CT) in patients with tracheobronchomalacia following surgical treatment with tracheobronchoplasty and to correlate CT findings with clinical findings. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2016, 18 patients with tracheobronchomalacia underwent tracheobronchoplasty and were imaged preoperatively and postoperatively at both intermediate and long-term intervals. Imaging included end-inspiratory and dynamic expiratory phase scans. The cross-sectional area of the airway lumen...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Updates on Current Role and Practice of Lung Ablation
Interventional oncology and management of thoracic malignancies with ablative techniques are becoming ever more recognized therapeutic options. With increased understanding, development, and utility of the ablative techniques, the indications are expanding and efficacy improving. Lung cancer was among the first indications for lung ablation and remains most challenging with multiple therapeutic options. For inoperable patients, the current literature demonstrates equivalent survivals between ablation, sublobar resection, and stereotactic body radiation. Oligometastatic disease remains the most common indication for lung ab...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Symposium: Imaging of Innovative and Contemporary Thoracic Interventions: State-of-the-Art Source Type: research

Interventional Therapies for Thoracic Duct Injury and Intractable Chylothorax
Injury to the thoracic duct with resultant chylothorax can cause significant patient morbidity and mortality. Conservative treatment strategies often fail to address the problem. Open surgical and percutaneous approaches are often required to manage patients with refractory chylothorax. This review describes in detail the major role of minimally invasive interventional therapies for thoracic duct (TD) injury. The review emphasizes strategies for identifying the TD on preprocedural imaging and describes various techniques for percutaneous access to the TD. The advantages and disadvantages of several approaches for accessing...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Symposium: Imaging of Innovative and Contemporary Thoracic Interventions: State-of-the-Art Source Type: research

Emerging Interventional Pulmonary Therapies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a condition characterized by progressive airflow limitation caused by airway and parenchymal inflammation. Current medical therapies, including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and anti-inflammatory medications, have been shown to variably improve pulmonary function or quality of life without providing a long-term mortality benefit. Mortality benefits to therapy have been demonstrated in only 2 therapeutic interventions to date: long-term use of daily supplemental oxygen and surgical lung volume reduction (LVRS) for upper-lobe–predominant disease in patients with a low baseli...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Symposium: Imaging of Innovative and Contemporary Thoracic Interventions: State-of-the-Art Source Type: research

Innovative and Contemporary Interventions of Diaphragmatic Disorders
The diaphragm is an inconspicuous fibromuscular septum, and disorders may result in respiratory impairment and morbidity and mortality when untreated. Radiologists need to accurately diagnose diaphragmatic disorders, understand the surgical approaches to diaphragmatic incisions/repairs, and recognize postoperative changes and complications. Diaphragmatic defects violate the boundary between the chest and abdomen, with the risk of herniation and strangulation of abdominal contents. In our surgical practice, patients with diaphragmatic hernias present acutely with incarceration and/or strangulation. Bochdalek hernias are com...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Symposium: Imaging of Innovative and Contemporary Thoracic Interventions: State-of-the-Art Source Type: research

Innovative and Contemporary Interventional Therapies for Esophageal Diseases
Esophageal surgery has become quite specialized, and both dedicated diagnostic and refined surgical techniques are required to deliver state-of-the-art care. The field has evolved to include endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation for early-stage esophageal cancer and minimally invasive esophagectomy with the reconstruction of a gastric conduit for carefully selected patients with esophageal cancer or those with “end-stage” esophagus from benign diseases. Reoperative esophageal surgery after esophagectomy deserves special mention given that these patients, with improved survival, are presenting...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Symposium: Imaging of Innovative and Contemporary Thoracic Interventions: State-of-the-Art Source Type: research

Imaging of Innovative and Contemporary Thoracic Interventions: State-of-the-Art
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - June 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Thoracic Manifestations of Genitourinary Neoplasms and Treatment-related Complications
Genitourinary (GU) malignancies are a diverse group of common and uncommon neoplasms that may be associated with significant mortality. Metastases from GU neoplasms are frequently encountered in the chest, and virtually all thoracic structures can be involved. Although the most common imaging manifestations include hematogenous dissemination manifesting with peripheral predominant bilateral pulmonary nodules and lymphatic metastases manifesting with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, some GU malignancies exhibit unique features. We review the general patterns, pathways, and thoracic imaging features of renal, adrenal, ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Review Articles Source Type: research

Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiovascular Anomalies Associated With Turner Syndrome
Cardiovascular imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease in patients with Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular defects in this population may affect a single component of the cardiovascular system or exist in combination with other anomalies, and, they may present early in life or remain occult into adulthood. Careful screening and surveillance imaging are necessary for the early detection and management of cardiovascular defects, especially in cases wherein early intervention may be necessary to prevent a serious cardiovascular outcome. It is crit...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Review Articles Source Type: research

Computed Tomography Appearance of Uncorrected Congenital Heart Disease in Adults
The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is about 4 to 10 per 1000 live births. While severe forms of CHD are usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood, milder and more survivable CHD may first manifest in the adult or may be discovered incidentally on imaging studies performed for other reasons. It is important to identify CHD in adults to implement appropriate treatment and prevent complications such as progression of pulmonary hypertension and development of heart failure. The goals of this article are to illustrate the appearance on computed tomography of various forms of uncorrected CHD in adults and describe t...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Pictorial Essay Source Type: research

Computed Tomography Imaging for Novel Therapies of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Novel therapeutic options in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require delicate patient selection and thus demand for expert radiologists visually and quantitatively evaluating high-resolution computed tomography (CT) with additional functional acquisitions such as paired inspiratory-expiratory scans or dynamic airway CT. The differentiation between emphysema-dominant and airway-dominant COPD phenotypes by imaging has immediate clinical value for patient management. Assessment of emphysema severity, distribution patterns, and fissure integrity are essential for stratifying patients for different surgical and end...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: New Horizons in Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Machine Learning and Deep Neural Networks in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging
Advances in technology have always had the potential and opportunity to shape the practice of medicine, and in no medical specialty has technology been more rapidly embraced and adopted than radiology. Machine learning and deep neural networks promise to transform the practice of medicine, and, in particular, the practice of diagnostic radiology. These technologies are evolving at a rapid pace due to innovations in computational hardware and novel neural network architectures. Several cutting-edge postprocessing analysis applications are actively being developed in the fields of thoracic and cardiovascular imaging, includi...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: New Horizons in Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Complications and Accuracy of Computed Tomography–guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy in Patients Over 80 Years of Age
Conclusions: PTNB is a safe and accurate procedure in patients aged 80 years and older. Complications and diagnostic accuracy are similar to those observed in younger patients. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Screening and Lung Nodule Management Source Type: research

Added Value of Ultra–low-dose Computed Tomography, Dose Equivalent to Chest X-Ray Radiography, for Diagnosing Chest Pathology
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of ultra–low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) compared with chest x-ray radiography (CXR) for diagnosing chest pathology. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients referred for CXR by outpatient clinics or general practitioners were enrolled prospectively. They underwent CXR (posteroanterior and lateral) and ULDCT (120 kV, 3 mAs) on the same day. In-room time and effective dose were recorded for each examination. Studies were categorized whether they were diagnostic or not, relevant radiologic diagnostic findings were reported...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Screening and Lung Nodule Management Source Type: research

Identification of Nonaggressive Pulmonary Nodules Using an Optimized Scoring System
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to define the optimal scoring method for identifying benign intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Subjects for this study were selected from the COPDGene study, a large multicenter longitudinal observational cohort study. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed using identified nodules on a subset of 377 patients who demonstrated 765 pulmonary nodules on their baseline computed tomography (CT) study. Nodule characteristics of 636 benign nodules (which resolved or showed (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Screening and Lung Nodule Management Source Type: research

Screening for Early Lung Cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease (the Big-3) Using Low-dose Chest Computed Tomography: Current Evidence and Technical Considerations
Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent in the general population and expected to cause most deaths by 2050. For these “Big-3,” treatment might cure, delay, or stop the progression of disease at a very early stage. Lung nodule growth rate (a biomarker for lung cancer), emphysema/air trapping (a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and coronary artery calcification (a biomarker for cardiovascular disease) are imaging biomarkers of early stages of the Big-3 that can be acquired with low-dose computed tomography (CT). We hypothesize that ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Screening and Lung Nodule Management Source Type: research

Current Controversies in Cardiothoracic Imaging: Overdiagnosis at Lung Cancer Screening—Not So Bad After All—Counterpoint
Initially introduced into the medical literature in research publications from “Special Project #1” of the Council for Tobacco Research, the concept of overdiagnosed lung cancer (OD LC) has consistently served to misinform and confuse the medical community, contributing to interminable delays in implementation of population lung cancer screening. Estimates of overdiagnosis vary enormously (9.5% to 75%). Careful, judicious application of diagnostic algorithms and clinical practice guidelines prevents overtreatment of potentially OD LC and offers a safe and effective method to prevent tens of thousands of LC-rela...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Current Controversiers in Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Current Controversies in Cardiothoracic Imaging: Low-dose Computerized Tomographic Overdiagnosis of Lung Cancer is Substantial; Its Consequences are Underappreciated—Point
Lung cancer seems an ideal screening candidate because of its frequency and lethality, its well-known risk factors, and because it can often be identified at a curable stage with noninvasive procedures. The lethality of clinically diagnosed lung cancers rendered the possibility of material overdiagnosis (OD) (by means of screening) implausible in the judgment of experienced clinicians. Increased experience with lung cancer screening trials, which showed an excess of cases in screened versus control cohorts, led to broader acceptance of its existence. The magnitude of OD and the appropriate methodology for its assessment ar...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Current Controversiers in Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Overdiagnosis: “A Malformed Concept”
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - April 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Current Controversiers in Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

New Developments in Imaging Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis With Hyperpolarized Xenon Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary disease that is ultimately fatal. Although the diagnosis of IPF has been revolutionized by high-resolution computed tomography, this imaging modality still exhibits significant limitations, particularly in assessing disease progression and therapy response. The need for noninvasive regional assessment has become more acute in light of recently introduced novel therapies and numerous others in the pipeline. Thus, it will likely be valuable to complement 3-dimensional imaging of lung structure with 3-dimensional regional assessment of function. This challenge is ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Noncontrast Chest Computed Tomographic Imaging of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: Part II Noncardiovascular Findings
The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art for the noncardiovascular imaging biomarkers of metabolic syndrome found on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) of the chest and their prognostic significance. Routine chest NCCT includes quantitative information with regard to tissue density and organ volumes in the neck, chest, and upper abdomen. The specific imaging biomarkers that may be seen in association with metabolic syndrome include low thyroid iodine organification, hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia (muscle volume and density), demineralization of the thoracic and upper...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Noncontrast Chest Computed Tomographic Imaging of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: Part I Cardiovascular Findings
There are physiological consequences of overeating that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art in the non–cardiac-gated, noncontrast chest computed tomographic (NCCT) imaging biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome and their prognostic significance found in the lower neck and chest. NCCT imaging biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome in the chest include premature coronary artery calcification, acceleration of large vessel arterial and valvular calcifications associated with atherosclerosis, and pulmonary arteri...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Measurement Variability in Treatment Response Determination for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: Improvements Using Radiomics
Multimodality imaging measurements of treatment response are critical for clinical practice, oncology trials, and the evaluation of new treatment modalities. The current standard for determining treatment response in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on tumor size using the RECIST criteria. Molecular targeted agents and immunotherapies often cause morphological change without reduction of tumor size. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate therapeutic response by conventional methods. Radiomics is the study of cancer imaging features that are extracted using machine learning and other semantic features. This...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Effect of Reconstruction Parameters on the Quantitative Analysis of Chest Computed Tomography
Quantitative features obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans are being explored for clinical applications. Various classes of quantitative features exist for chest CT including radiomics features, emphysema measurements, lung nodule volumetric measurements, dual energy quantification, and perfusion parameters. A number of research articles have shown promise in diagnosis and prognosis prediction of oncologic patients or those with diffuse lung diseases using these feature classes. Nevertheless, a prerequisite for the quantification is the evaluation of variation in measurements in terms of repeatability and reproduci...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Performance of Deep Learning Model in Detecting Operable Lung Cancer With Chest Radiographs
Conclusions: A DLM has high diagnostic performance in detecting operable lung cancer with CXR, demonstrating a potential of playing a pivotal role for lung cancer screening. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Deep Learning Applications in Chest Radiography and Computed Tomography: Current State of the Art
Deep learning is a genre of machine learning that allows computational models to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction using numerous processing layers. A distinctive feature of deep learning, compared with conventional machine learning methods, is that it can generate appropriate models for tasks directly from the raw data, removing the need for human-led feature extraction. Medical images are particularly suited for deep learning applications. Deep learning techniques have already demonstrated high performance in the detection of diabetic retinopathy on fundoscopic images and metastatic breast...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Pulmonary/Thoracic Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Advances in Chest Imaging From the International Workshop for Pulmonary Functional Imaging (IWPFI): Context is Everything
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Axillary Chest Wall Hibernoma With Intrathoracic Extension Presenting as Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Hibernomas are rare benign soft tissue tumors derived from brown fat. This case report describes an axillary hibernoma with intrathoracic extension, presenting as a thoracic outlet syndrome. A multimodality imaging series illustrates the classic radiologic features of hibernoma as well as its highly unusual pattern of growth. The latter resulted in TOS with vascular displacement and osseous remodeling, features that are generally absent in lipomatous masses. Detailed preoperative imaging allowed to plan a single surgical procedure in which an extrathoracic axillary approach was combined with intrathoracic video-assisted th...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Pictorial Essay Source Type: research

Evaluation of Incidental Cardiac Masses on Computed Tomography Imaging: An Algorithmic Approach
Cardiac masses encountered on imaging may present a diagnostic dilemma when discovered incidentally, or even when they serve as the principal reason for the examination. In this review, we present an algorithmic approach for assessing cardiac masses by integrating clinical information with radiologic findings to reach a specific diagnosis or a narrow differential diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Web Exclusive Content-Pictorial Essay Source Type: research

An Update on the European Lung Cancer Screening Trials and Comparison of Lung Cancer Screening Recommendations in Europe
While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published recommendations for lung cancer screening using computed tomography. However, there is still a debate with regard to the...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery
Proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery (PIPA) is an uncommon developmental anomaly resulting in underdevelopment of the proximal portion of the pulmonary artery with preservation of the intrapulmonary segments. Clinical presentation ranges between an asymptomatic incidental finding to massive hemoptysis. When findings suggestive of PIPA are present radiographically, the diagnosis of PIPA can be definitively diagnosed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography. Other imaging modalities, such as nuclear perfusion scan and catheter angiography can help in the diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Prevalence and Clinical Relevance of Extracardiac Findings in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusions: The detection of significant and major ECF is common during CMR reporting. The knowledge and the correct identification of most frequent ECF enable earlier diagnoses and faster treatment initiation of unknown extracardiac pathologies in patients referred to CMR imaging. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Imaging in Cardiac Risk Prediction Source Type: research