Cerebral adaptation to lower motor neuron injury
In this edition of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Li Hi Shing et al. present an intriguing report of cortical reorganisation in a cohort of poliomyelitis survivors: “Cerebral changes in post-polio syndrome“. The authors present a comprehensive neuroimaging analysis of a group of patients who had poliomyelitis in their infancy and they not only identify increased cortical partial volumes, but also increased white matter integrity in certain tracts. The study is not only interesting because it focuses on a relatively neglected neurological condition where woefully limited research has been carried out ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pierre-Francois Pradat Source Type: research

Delayed-onset motor aphasia succeeds Holmes' tremor and neuropathic pain after left thalamic hemorrhage
Although most neurological symptoms related to cerebrovascular diseases appear immediately after the events, some delayed-onset neurological symptoms, such as Holmes' tremor or central post-stroke pain (CPSP), can occur after a certain period of time [1]. The alterations in the neural networks caused by maladaptative neuroplasticity have been hypothesized to underlie this pathophysiology [2]. Here we report on a 53-year-old male patient who presented with a rare, delayed-onset motor aphasia caused by a left thalamic hemorrhage. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomoyo Shimada, Wataru Uchida, Atsuhiko Shindo, Koji Kamagata, Nobutaka Hattori, Taiji Tsunemi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Factors associated with resistance to benzodiazepines in status epilepticus
To investigate factors related to benzodiazepine (BZD) resistance in status epilepticus (SE) with a focus on their relationship with the etiology of the episode. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Arnau Llaurad ó, Manuel Quintana, Alejandro Ballvé, Daniel Campos, Elena Fonseca, Laura Abraira, Manuel Toledo, Estevo Santamarina Source Type: research

Inhibition of HERV-K (HML-2) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients on antiretroviral therapy
Reactivation of Human Endogenous Retrovirus K (HERV-K), subtype HML-2, has been associated with pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in inhibiting HML-2 in patients with ALS and a possible association between the change in HML-2 levels and clinical outcomes. We studied the effect of 24-weeks antiretroviral combination therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, and dolutegravir on HML-2 levels in 29 ALS patients. HML-2 levels decreased progressively over 24  weeks (P = 0.001) and rebounded within a week of stopping medications (P = 0.02). (Source...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: M. Garcia-Montojo, S. Fathi, G. Norato, B.R. Smith, D.B. Rowe, M.C. Kiernan, S. Vucic, S. Mathers, R.P.A. van Eijk, U. Santamaria, M.-L. Rogers, A. Malaspina, V. Lombardi, P.R. Mehta, H.-J. Westeneng, L.H. van den Berg, A. Al-Chalabi, J. Gold, A. Nath Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Distinctive regional asymmetry in dopaminergic and serotoninergic dysfunction in degenerative Parkinsonisms
This study aimed to identify regional asymmetry in dopaminergic and serotoninergic dysfunction in degenerative parkinsonisms, using dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography images. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryuichi Takahashi, Kazunari Ishii, Kaoru Sousa, Kohei Marumoto, Tetsuo Kashubayashi, Jun Fujita, Kazumasa Yokoyama Source Type: research

A novel diagnostic marker for progressive supranuclear palsy targeting atrophy of the subthalamic nucleus
Despite great progress in radiological diagnostic tools for neurodegenerative disorders, their diagnostic accuracy has been unsatisfactory. One of the pathological hallmarks of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is atrophy of the subthalamic nucleus, which has not attracted much attention for imaging analysis. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Shinsuke Fujioka, Takashi Morishita, Koichi Takano, Nobutaka Takahashi, Kanako Kurihara, Akihiro Nishida, Takayasu Mishima, Midori Suenaga, Yoichi Matsunaga, Yoshi Tsuboi Source Type: research

Cerebral thrombi of cardioembolic etiology have an increased content of neutrophil extracellular traps
Inflammation is emerging as an essential trigger for thrombosis. In the interplay between innate immunity and coagulation cascade, neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can promote thrombus formation and stabilization. In ischemic stroke, it is uncertain whether the involvement of the inflammatory component may differ in thrombi of diverse etiology. We here aimed to evaluate the presence of neutrophils and NETs in thrombi of diverse etiology retrieved by endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Angela Genchi, Aurora Semerano, Giorgia Serena Gullotta, Davide Strambo, Ghil Schwarz, Andrea Bergamaschi, Pietro Panni, Franco Simionato, Francesco Scomazzoni, Caterina Michelozzi, Mattia Pozzato, Norma Maugeri, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Luisa Rover Source Type: research

Cerebral changes in post-polio syndrome: A quantitative MRI study
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) has been traditionally considered a slowly progressive condition that affects polio survivors decades after their initial infection. Cerebral changes in PPS are poorly characterised and the few existing studies are strikingly conflicting. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Stacey Li Hi Shing, Jasmin Lope, Mary Clare McKenna, Rangariroyashe H. Chipika, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede Source Type: research

Distinct neural circuits are associated with subclinical neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) can present with neuropsychiatric symptoms (here, anxiety, depression, and apathy) at any stage of the disease. We investigated the neural correlates of subclinical neuropsychiatric symptoms in relation to motor and cognitive symptoms in a high-functioning PD cohort. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sule Tinaz, Serageldin Kamel, Sai S. Aravala, Mine Sezgin, Mohamed Elfil, Rajita Sinha Source Type: research

HERV-K inactive or potential pathogens from within?
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) count for up to 8% of our genome, remnants of an ancestral infection and inherited through germlines [1]. Multiple HERV families have been identified in the past decades [2] and although many are inactive due to a subsequent accumulation of mutations within their sequences, a small subset have been acknowledged to be the most biologically active such as HERV type- K (HERV-K, subtype HML-2) and current research indicates that it's reactivation can be implicated in certain autoimmune disease and cancers [3,4]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yousra Khalfallah, Angela Genge Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Increased plasma levels of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) protein in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus
This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic value of plasma chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) protein levels as a disease-specific biomarker for iNPH. We selected both iNPH and AD patients as well as normal and disease control subjects from an enrolled dementia registry. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pan-Woo Ko, Ho-Won Lee, Myunghoon Lee, Young Chul Youn, SangYun Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Kyunghun Kang, Kyoungho Suk Source Type: research

Clinical utility of serial systemic immune inflammation index (SSII) in the context of post covid-19 neurological syndrome (PCNS)
We present the data of serial systemic immune inflammation index (SSII) over four months in the setting of PCNS. The clinical details of this case were published previously [1]. The patient showed evidence of PCNS on discharge with persistent fatigue, brain fog, tiredness with a modified Rankin score of 3 at three months post-discharge [2]. His SSII over four months are shown in Fig. 1 (note the first SII (normal at 252)on 12/02/2020 was three weeks before the COVID-19 infection.). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tissa Wijeratne, Chanith Wijeratne Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Are there disparities in acute stroke treatment between the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel? Results from the National Acute Stroke Israeli registry
According to the latest reported data from the National Acute Stroke Israeli Survey (NASIS), around 18,000 strokes occur annually in Israel. Data regarding disparities in stroke care between the Jewish and the Arab populations in Israel are lacking. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Naaem Simaan, Andrei Filioglo, Asaf Honig, Anat Horev, David Orion, Natan M. Bornstein, Gregory Telman, David Tanne, Guy Raphaeli, Jacob Amsalem, Jose E. Cohen, Neuman Hadar, Reem Habib-Simaan, Ronen R. Leker Source Type: research

Electronic health record derived-impact of COVID-19 on myasthenia gravis
As effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerge, it is important to have timely real-word data that guides immunization prioritization for our patients and especially possibly more vulnerable neuromuscular populations [1]. Recent data have shown that patients with chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disorders who are on immunosuppression were more likely to require hospitalization with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [2]. Similarly, recent preliminary data published from the COVID-19 Associated Risks and Effects in Myasthenia Gravis (CARE-MG) registry, demonstrated a morta...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhaskar Roy, Sukanthi Kovvuru, Krishna Nalleballe, Sanjeeva Reddy Onteddu, Richard J. Nowak Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Significance of concurrent ipsilateral intracranial carotid artery stenosis in carotid revascularization
A 71-year-old male presenting with a transient ischemic attack was found to have an ipsilateral severe proximal right internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis as graded per the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria. He was subsequently treated with right internal carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The surgery was complicated by a right sided watershed infarction determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head. His post-surgery National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 6 and the 90  days modified Rankin Scale score was 3. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Riwaj Bhagat, Allison Muha Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evaluating the frequency of positive paraneoplastic antibodies and associated malignancy risk
To evaluate the association between malignancy and frequently positive paraneoplastic antibodies. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Moein Amin, Yuebing Li, Thomas M. Daly, Robert J. Marquardt Source Type: research

Characteristics and outcomes of 100 consecutive patients with acute stroke and COVID-19
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started as a respiratory illness. Now, there are increasing reports of its hypercoagulable and thrombotic complications [1] leading to stroke [2,3]. Initial studies suggested strokes to be a feature of severe and late COVID-19 [2,4]; usually occurring in the second week of illness after the onset of typical respiratory symptoms [4]. Recent studies identified these even in mild to moderate infection [5,6]. A recent meta-analysis also noted that 24.5% of patients with stroke symptoms did not experience any of the other typical COVID- 19 symptoms [6]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rajesh Benny, Rakeshsingh K. Singh, Anil Venkitachalam, Rakesh Shyam Lalla, Rahul A. Pandit, Keyur C. Panchal, Vibhor Pardasani, Gunjan Chanchalani, Mheboob Basle, Vyankatesh Bolegave, Hunnur Manoj, Ashutosh N. Shetty, Amit M. Shah, Pawan Pai, Nilesh M. B Source Type: research

Early neuropsychological markers of cognitive involvement in multiple sclerosis
Cognitive impairment due to multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and often limits occupational functioning, contributes to disability, and reduces quality of life. Early detection of cognitive involvement in MS is critical for treatment planning and intervention, and frequent, regular cognitive monitoring may provide insight into subtle changes in disease progression. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tehila Eilam-Stock, Michael T. Shaw, Lauren B. Krupp, Leigh E. Charvet Source Type: research

Polyneuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); update of a clinical experience
Polyneuropathies associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) encompass a group of phenotypically and immunologically heterogeneous neuropathies. While the best characterized is that associated with anti-myelin glycoprotein (MAG) antibodies, there are phenotypical and immunological neuropathy variants that still lack a clear classification. We analyzed a significant number of patients, in order to better evaluate the distribution of neuropathy phenotypes and to look for some common characteristics. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sabrina Mat à, Sara Torricelli, Alessandro Barilaro, Antonello Grippo, Paolo Forleo, Monica Del Mastio, Sandro Sorbi Source Type: research

Highly sensitive screening of antisense sequences for different types of DMD mutations in patients' urine-derived cells
Exon skipping using short antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) is a promising treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Several exon-skipping drugs, including viltolarsen (NS-065/NCNP-01), have been approved worldwide. Immortalized human skeletal muscle cell lines, such as rhabdomyosarcoma cells, are frequently used to screen efficient oligonucleotide sequences. However, rhabdomyosarcoma cells do not recapitulate DMD pathophysiology as they express endogenous dystrophin. To overcome this limitation, we recently established a direct human somatic cell reprogramming technology and successfully developed a cellular skelet...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hotake Takizawa, Eri Takeshita, Mitsuto Sato, Yuko Shimizu-Motohashi, Akihiko Ishiyama, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yuji Takahashi, Hirofumi Komaki, Yoshitsugu Aoki Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of endovascular simple coiling versus neurosurgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Previous studies on ruptured intracranial aneurysms have shown favourable long-term outcomes of patients undergoing endovascular coiling compared to neurosurgical clipping. We aimed to evaluate if these results also apply to patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Christian H. Krag, Lasse Speiser, Rikke B. Dalby Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Trends in ischemic stroke outcomes in a rural population in the United States
The stroke mortality rate has gradually declined due to improved interventions and controlled risk factors. We investigated the trends in stroke recurrence and all-cause mortality in stroke patients from a rural population in the United States between 2004 and 2018. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Durgesh Chaudhary, Ayesha Khan, Shima Shahjouei, Mudit Gupta, Clare Lambert, Venkatesh Avula, Clemens M. Schirmer, Neil Holland, Christoph J. Griessenauer, M. Reza Azarpazhooh, Jiang Li, Vida Abedi, Ramin Zand Source Type: research

Neuropathy associated with IgA monoclonal Gammopathy. A harbinger of AL amyloidosis
Peripheral neuropathy is seen in 15% of patients with IgA monoclonal gammopathy. Treatment and prognosis of dysproteinemic neuropathy is usually guided by the underlying plasma cell disorders, which could be either benign or malignant. The true incidence of hematologic malignancy in patients with neuropathy associated with IgA monoclonal gammopathy is not known. However, patients with IgA M-protein are generally at increased risk for malignant transformation. Since neuropathy may be the first and only organ involvement, neurologists are key contributors in identifying each patient's plasma cell dyscrasia. (Source: Journal ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pitcha Chompoopong, Bayan Almarwani, Bashar Katirji Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Case report of a complicated neurologically manifesting acute porphyria treated successfully with Givosiran
Acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) is a rare cause of neurological disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system. The underlying pathophysiology comprises deficiencies of diverse enzymes required for heme biosynthesis [1]. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common hepatic porphyria and is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, unspecific diffuse abdominal pain and in severe cases consciousness loss, coma and seizures [2]. The accumulation of various metabolites such as delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and possibly porphobilinogen (PBG) may cause neuropathy of the peripheral and autonomous nervous system incl...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 31, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tim Steinberg, Mustafa Kilic, Kornelius Fuchs, Karel Hanyk, Ralf A. Linker, Felix Schlachetzki, Bernhard Neumann Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Exploring new avenues for treating Alzheimer's disease: The rise of natural medicine
With a constantly growing elderly population worldwide, a focus on developing efficient prevention and therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) seems timely and topical. Emphasis on natural medicine is increasingly popular in the search for drug candidates that are capable of preventing and treating AD related pathology, particularly where suppression of amyloid accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are equally significant. A number of phytochemical compounds have been shown to collectively reduce these AD hallmarks with the progression of natural drug candidates into human clin...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Lye, Caitlin E. Aust, Lyn R. Griffiths, Francesca Fernandez Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Circulatory dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (cDPP3) is a potential biomarker for early detection of secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a common complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) that can culminate in secondary brain damage. Although it remains one of the main preventable causes of aSAH-related morbidity, there is still a lack of prognostic criteria for identification of patients at risk of developing DCI. Because elevated circulatory levels of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (cDPP3) were recently identified as a potential biomarker for outcome prediction in critically ill patients, we evaluated the time-course of changes in cDPP3 levels after aSAH. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Felix Neumaier, Christian Stoppe, Michael Veldeman, Miriam Weiss, Tim Simon, Anke Hoellig, Gernot Marx, Hans Clusmann, Walid Albanna Source Type: research

The entity of asymptomatic ventriculomegaly with features of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on magnetic resonance imaging?
Letter to the Editor, (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Halil Onder Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The spiral axis: A comparison of unaffected first-degree relatives of essential tremor cases vs. controls
We previously observed that during a spiral drawing task, in essential tremor (ET) cases, the tremor wave forms align along a single predominant axis. This interesting clinical feature can distinguish ET from dystonia cases. We now investigate whether the unaffected relatives of ET cases also express this trait, albeit perhaps in a milder form. To address our aim, we assessed the spiral axis in 237 unaffected first-degree relatives of ET cases (FD-ET), comparing them to 105 controls (Co). A movement disorder neurologist assessed four hand drawn spirals for the presence of a single identifiable tremor orientation axis. (Sou...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: ElanD. Louis, Hollie N. Dowd, Mazen Elkurd Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease after COVID-19
A few cases of “Parkinson's disease” (PD) have been recently reported following COVID-19 infection (Table 1). The authors propose various hypotheses about the relationship of COVID-19 and the subsequent parkinsonism, but they do not mention the possibility of a prodromal (pre-symptomatic) PD that became sympto matic as a result of biologic or psychologic stress related to the COVID-19. Thus, in the reported cases of COVID-19 related PD the cause-and-effect relationship could not be established with certainty [1]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Karim Makhoul, Joseph Jankovic Source Type: research

More prominent fibrosis of the cricopharyngeal muscle in inclusion body myositis
In this study, we aimed to histopathologically evaluate the CP muscle in comparison with other muscles involved in laryngeal elevation, such as the sternohyoid and omohyoid muscl es, in IBM patients with dysphagia who underwent CP myotomy. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenichiro Taira, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Kazuaki Sajima, Hotake Takizawa, Jun Shinmi, Yasushi Oya, Takaharu Nito, Ichizo Nishino, Yuji Takahashi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Risk factors and prognosis of adult-onset post-pump chorea
Post-pump chorea (PPC), defined as the development of chorea after major cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been rarely reported in adults. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jong Hyeon Ahn, Joomee Song, Inyoung Choi, Jinyoung Youn, Jin Whan Cho Source Type: research

CNS fungal infections: A review
Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS), though rare, have become increasingly common in the past several decades [1]. This is largely the consequence of increased use of immunosuppressive therapies, wider availability of stem cell and organ transplantation, and the spread of HIV/AIDS. Despite their clinical presentation, they are associated with potentially devastating health outcomes. There are currently more than 100,000 fungal species that have been recognized, but only a couple of hundred have been demonstrated to be pathogenic and only 10 –15% of those result in neurological disease [1]. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cody L. Nathan, Brian E. Emmert, Ernest Nelson, Joseph R. Berger Source Type: research

Modulatory effects of cognitive exertion on regional functional connectivity of the salience network in women with ME/CFS: A pilot study
A common symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is post-exertional malaise (PEM). Various brain abnormalities have been observed in patients with ME/CFS, especially in insular and limbic areas, but their link with ME/CFS symptoms is still unclear. This pilot study aimed at investigating the association between PEM in ME/CFS and changes in functional connectivity (FC) of two main networks: the salience network (SN) and the default-mode network (DMN). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Riccardo Manca, Katija Khan, Micaela Mitolo, Matteo De Marco, Lynsey Grieveson, Rosemary Varley, Iain D. Wilkinson, Annalena Venneri Source Type: research

NeuroQ: A neurophobia screening tool assesses how roleplay challenges neurophobia
Neurophobia is a chronic disease of medical students and junior doctors. Early detection is needed to facilitate prevention and management as this fear can negatively impact patient care. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Eavan McGovern, C éline Louapre, Julien Cassereau, Constance Flamand-Roze, Elise Corsetti, Prasanthi Jegatheesan, David Bendetowicz, Camille Giron, Margaux Dunoyer, Nicolas Villain, Marie-Christine Renaud, Paul Sauleau, Laure Michel, Marc Vérin, Yulia W Source Type: research

Management decisions on unruptured intracranial aneurysms before and after implementation of the PHASES score
In management decisions on saccular unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) the risk of rupture is an important factor. The PHASES score, introduced in 2014, provides absolute 5-year risks of rupture based on six easily retrievable patient and aneurysm characteristics. We assessed whether management decisions on UIAs changed after implementation of the PHASES score. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Laurie J. Hollands, Mervyn D.I. Vergouwen, Jacoba P. Greving, Marieke J.H. Wermer, Gabri ël J.E. Rinkel, Annemijn M. Algra Source Type: research

Early diagnosis of MECP2 duplication syndrome: Insights from a nationwide survey in Japan
This study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS), particularly at initial presentation, and to provide clinical clues for the early diagnosis of this condition. We conducted a nationwide survey for MDS by sending questionnaires to 575 hospitals where board-certified pediatric neurologists were working and 195 residential hospitals for persons with severe motor and intellectual disabilities in Japan. This survey found 65 cases of MDS, and clinical data of 24 cases in which the diagnosis was genetically confirmed were analyzed. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryo Takeguchi, Satoru Takahashi, Yuichi Akaba, Ryosuke Tanaka, Shin Nabatame, Kenji Kurosawa, Toyojiro Matsuishi, Masayuki Itoh Source Type: research

Parcellation-based modeling of the supplementary motor area
The supplementary motor area (SMA) plays an important role in the initiation and coordination of internally and externally cued movements. Such movements include reaching, grasping, speaking, and bilateral hand coordination. While many studies discuss the SMA and its relationship to other parts of the motor network, there is minimal literature examining the connectivity of the SMA outside of the motor network. Using region-based fMRI studies, we built a neuroanatomical model to account for these extra-motor connections. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: John R. Sheets, Robert G. Briggs, Isabella M. Young, Michael Y. Bai, Yueh-Hsin Lin, Anujan Poologaindran, Andrew K. Conner, Christen M. O'Neal, Cordell M. Baker, Chad A. Glenn, Michael E. Sughrue Source Type: research

Assessing neurophobia: A good move
Recently, medical education has been considered an emerging subspeciality within neurology [1]. Teaching is an exciting and rewarding activity, especially in such an interesting field. However, medical educators in neurology face a specific challenge: neurophobia. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthieu Perrenoud Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Recent advances and remaining questions of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis
The judicious use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) for MS requires understanding the potential benefits, identifying the most appropriate patient, and acknowledging the risks and differences between different protocols. Recently, AHSCT for MS is occurring more frequently, with a better safety profile than earlier studies. This review assesses recently published studies to determine the advances that have been made and remaining questions that future studies are poised to answer. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gauruv Bose, Mark S. Freedman Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Single-dose L-dopa increases upper brainstem GABA in Parkinson's disease: A preliminary study
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the dysfunction between dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal activities. Dopamine (DA) replacement by its precursor L-dopa remains the primary treatment for PD. In this preliminary study, we test the hypotheses that GABA+ levels would be lower in PD patients than controls, and normalized by L-dopa. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yulu Song, Tao Gong, Yuanyuan Xiang, Mark Mikkelsen, Guangbin Wang, Richard A.E. Edden Source Type: research

Susceptibility-weighted imaging reveals cerebral microvascular injury in severe COVID-19
We evaluated the incidence, distribution, and histopathologic correlates of microvascular brain lesions in patients with severe COVID-19. Sixteen consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe COVID-19 undergoing brain MRI for evaluation of coma or neurologic deficits were retrospectively identified. Eleven patients had punctate susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter, eight patients had>10 SWI lesions, and four patients had lesions involving the corpus callosum. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: John Conklin, Matthew P. Frosch, Shibani Mukerji, Otto Rapalino, Mary D. Maher, Pamela W. Schaefer, Michael H. Lev, R.G. Gonzalez, Sudeshna Das, Samantha N. Champion, Colin Magdamo, Pritha Sen, G. Kyle Harrold, Haitham Alabsi, Erica Normandin, Bennett Sha Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Development of the SMA Independence Scale –Upper Limb Module (SMAIS–ULM): A novel scale for individuals with Type 2 and non-ambulant Type 3 SMA
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dylan Trundell, Anne Skalicky, Hannah Staunton, Asha Hareendran, Stephanie Le Scouiller, Louise Barrett, Owen Cooper, Ksenija Gorni, Tim Seabrook, Sangeeta Jethwa, Stefan Cano Source Type: research

Peri-hematoma corticospinal tract integrity in intracerebral hemorrhage patients: A diffusion-tensor imaging study
The impact of perihematoma edema in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) on white matter integrity is uncertain. Fractional Anisotropy (FA), as measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), can be used to assess white matter microstructure. We tested the hypotheses that sections of the Corticospinal Tract (CST) passing through perihematoma edema would 1) have low FA relative to the contralateral CST and 2) would predict NIHSS motor score in ICH patients. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca McCourt, Ehsan Misaghi, Wei Tu, Mahesh Kate, Laura Gioia, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu, Ken S. Butcher Source Type: research

Development of the SMA Independence Scale –Upper Limb Module (SMAIS–ULM): A novel scale for individuals with Type 2 and non-ambulant Type 3 SMA
The amount of assistance required to perform daily activities for individuals with Type 2 and non-ambulant Type 3 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is often cited as meaningful for quality of life, and important to routinely assess. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dylan Trundell, Anne Skalicky, Hannah Staunton, Asha Hareendran, Stephanie Le Scouiller, Louise Barrett, Owen Cooper, Ksenija Gorni, Tim Seabrook, Sangeeta Jethwa, Stefan Cano Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19: A systematic review of the literature
We sought to review the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ariane Lewis, Jennifer Frontera, Dimitris G. Placantonakis, Jennifer Lighter, Steven Galetta, Laura Balcer, Kara Melmed Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Onchocerciasis in tropical neurology: A scoping review
Onchocerciasis is a serious problem in tropical areas. The role of the parasite as a factor associated with neurological diseases needs to be addressed because it might involve a reduction of the risk via elimination strategies. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify available studies on this association and put into perspective the different methodological approaches for interpreting the evidence. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jaime Luna, Salvatore Metanmo, Farid Boumediene, Pascal Mbelesso, Emilie Auditeau, Daniel Ajzenberg, Pierre-Marie Preux Source Type: research

Detection of varicella zoster virus antigen and DNA in two cases of cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) have similar clinical presentations: both affect cerebrovasculature in the elderly, produce hemorrhage, and can have a protracted course of cognitive decline and other neurological deficits. The cause of CAA is unknown, but amyloid-beta (A β) is found within arterial walls. Recent studies show that VZV induces Aβ and amylin expression and an amyloid-promoting environment. Thus, we determined if VZV was present in CAA-affected arteries. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Teresa Mescher, Philip J. Boyer, Andrew N. Bubak, James E. Hassell, Maria A. Nagel Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Predictors and outcomes of hemorrhagic stroke in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome
In this study, we compared hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic RCVS with an aim to evaluate the risk factors and short-term clinical outcomes of hemorrhagic lesions. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Aayushi Garg, Marcelo Rocha, Matthew Starr, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez Source Type: research

Value of next-generation sequencing in early diagnosis of patients with tuberculous meningitis
Objectives: To assess the value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology in early diagnosis of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM).Methods: 56 patients with clinically suspected TBM who came to Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital from February 2, 2018 to August 2, 2018 were prospectively included, and the clinical diagnosis and treatment outcomes were followed up. NGS was performed for the cerebrospinal fluid specimens submitted for test on the BGISEQ-100 platform of Tianjin Huada Gene Research Institute and the obtained pathogen sequences were compared with the pathogen data to get the final results. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ai-Qing Lin, Bao-Tao Cheng, Xiao-chun Han, Hong Zhang, Xiao-li Liu, Xue-ping Liu Source Type: research

Ebola: A review and focus on neurologic manifestations
Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is a severe, highly contagious, and often fatal systemic disease in human and non-human primates. Zoonotic and human-to-human transmission have been well documented. Ebolaviruses are endemic to equatorial and West Africa and there have been over 20 outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa since 1976. The largest known outbreak of EVD occurred between 2013 and 2016 across several West African countries. It resulted in 28,646 suspected and confirmed cases and 11,323 deaths. There are 5 species within the genus Ebolavirus with 4 of them being clinically significant. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Olukemi Adekanmbi, Olayinka Ilesanmi, Sulaimon Lakoh Source Type: research