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Juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN1) disease with a novel deletion and duplication in the PPT1 gene
We report the case in which a female Japanese patient developed juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), characterized by a novel deletion and duplication in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) gene. The patient has no siblings and no medical history of neurological disorders in her family. She exhibited normal development during infancy. Her visual acuity started to decline since the age of 8  years and she completely lost her eyesight by the age of 11 years. Visual and auditory hallucinations appeared at the age of 14 years. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatsuhiko Ozono, Makoto Kinoshita, Aya Narita, Asami Hirakiyama, Motomichi Kosuga, Torayuki Okuyama, Kei Fukada Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A comparison of pediatric and adult neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A review of clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Serum immunoglobulin G autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) are identified in the majority of NMOSD patients. The Pediatric form presents before 18  years. Based on the similarity of clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory characteristics of pediatric NMOSD to those of the adult form, the international panel suggested that adult criteria of NMOSD also are appropriate in pediatric patients. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Nasrin Asgari, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Ganciclovir and foscarnet dual-therapy for cytomegalovirus encephalitis: A case report and review of the literature
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus which establishes lifelong latency following primary infection. It is then capable of reactivating in the face of immunosuppression. Encephalitis is a less common, but particularly devastating syndrome associated with CMV. Here, we describe a case of CMV encephalitis in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient who received dual antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet. The case presentation is followed by a summary of cases reported in the last ten years, with the goal of describing vulnerable patient populations, treatment courses, and outcomes. (...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Adam Baghban, Maricar Malinis Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in the very young: An in depth review of the present data
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the human central nervous system, which follows a recurring course in most affected patients. Neurologic disability stemming from NMOSD often results from cumulative relapses [1]. NMOSD, as a separate disease from multiple sclerosis, causes optic neuritis and myelitis. The immunopathogenesis of NMOSD includes disruption of the blood brain barrier evidenced by the presence of MR contrast enhancing lesions [2 –4]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: C. Jeanie, Alireza Minagar Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Hysteria in ancient civilisations a neurological review
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420  BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as “func tional neurological disorder”.The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria. (Sourc...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Edward H. Reynolds Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Plasma citrulline levels are increased in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Myelin basic protein (MBP), which is one of the main compounds of CNS myelin, appears to be hypercitrullinated in the brain of patients with MS. We hypothesized that MS is associated with an increased release of citrulline from the brain. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Maxime Vande Vyver, Roel Beelen, Jacques De Keyser, Guy Nagels, Anne-Marie Van Binst, Christiaan Verborgh, Miguel D'haeseleer Source Type: research

Is the impact of fatigue related to walking capacity and perceived ability in persons with multiple sclerosis? A multicenter study
The relationship between fatigue impact and walking capacity and perceived ability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is inconclusive in the existing literature. A better understanding might guide new treatment avenues for fatigue and/or walking capacity in patients with MS. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: U. Dalgas, M. Langeskov-Christensen, A. Skjerbaek, E. Jensen, I. Baert, A. Romberg, C. Santoyo Medina, B. Gebara, B. Maertens de Noordhout, K. Knuts, F. B éthoux, K. Rasova, D. Severijns, B.M. Bibby, A. Kalron, B. Norman, F. Van Geel, I. Wens, P. Feys Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Argentinean recommendations on the identification of treatment failure in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients” [J. Neurol. Sci. 385C (2018) 217–224]
The authors regret that they did not include the following conflict of interest statement: “Dr. Marcela Fiol (MF) has received reimbursement fordeveloping educational presentations from Merck-SeronoArgentina, Biogen-IdecArgentina, Genzyme Argentina, Bayer Inc and Novartis and travel/accommodations from Merck-SeronoArgentina, Bayer Inc., Novartis and TEVA-TuteurArgentina.” (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Edgardo Cristiano, Ricardo Alonso, Amelia Alvez Pinheiro, Elizabeth A. Bacile, Mar ía Eugenia Balbuena, Carlos Ballario, Andrés G. Barboza, Santiago Bestoso, Marcos Burgos, Fernando Cáceres, Edgar Carnero Contentti, Adriana Carrá, Ernesto Crespo, Mar Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

A diagnostic decision tree for adult cerebellar ataxia based on pontine magnetic resonance imaging
This study aimed to establish a diagnostic decision tree for differentiating CAs based on pontine MRI findings. Two-hundred and two consecutive ataxia patients were clinically classified into 4 groups: (1) spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) with brainstem involvement (SCA-BSI), (2) Pure cerebellar SCA, (3) cerebellar dominant multiple system atrophy (MSA-c), and (4) Other CA. Signal intensity in pons was graded into 3 types: hot cross bun sign (HCBS), pontine midline linear T2-hyperintensity (PMH), or normal. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Miwa Higashi, Kokoro Ozaki, Takaaki Hattori, Takashi Ishii, Kazumasa Soga, Nozomu Sato, Makoto Tomita, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Kinya Ishikawa, Takanori Yokota Source Type: research

Effect of switching from glatiramer acetate 20  mg/daily to glatiramer acetate 40 mg three times a week on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal DTI study
Glatiramer acetate (GA) 40  mg × 3/weekly was approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). While the beneficial effect of GA 20 mg/daily in MS patients on non-conventional MRI measures has been demonstrated, the effect of GA 40 mg × 3/weekly at the microstructural tissue level h as yet to be explored. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert Zivadinov, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Eleonora Tavazzi, Deepa P. Ramasamay, Jackie Durfee, Mariya Cherneva, Ellen Carl, Jillian Carl, Channa Kolb, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman Source Type: research

In a stroke cohort with incident hypertension; are more women than men likely to be excluded from recombinant tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (rtPA)?
The treatment outcomes in the use of rt-PA have been reported. Some studies reported worse outcome in women than men, while others presented opposing data. Using data from a hospital-based stroke registry, we investigated evidence of gender difference and determined exclusion criteria in a stroke population with incidence of hypertension. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jordan Gainey, Leanne Brechtel, Sarah Konklin, Lee Madeline, Lowther Ervin, Brice Blum, Thomas I. Nathaniel Source Type: research

Endemic atypical parkinsonism
Lannuzel et al [1] report on 305 consecutive patients who presented to the departments of neurology in two of the French Antilles, Guadeloupe and Martinique, with probable neurodegenerative Parkinsonism over a four-year period (2012 –2016). Although the study is cross-sectional, the cohort in Guadeloupe has been followed-up since 1995. In the first study from Guadeloupe Caparros-Lefebre et al. [2] diagnosed only 22 (36%) of the patients presenting with Parkinsonism as Parkinson's disease (PD). The remaining patients had atypi cal Parkinsonism with some clinical features rarely found in PD: 31 were diagnosed with prob...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Silveira-Moriyama, Andrew J. Lees Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Phenotypical features of two patients diagnosed with PHARC syndrome and carriers of a new homozygous mutation in the ABHD12 gene
PHARC (Polyneuropathy, Hearing loss, Ataxia, Retinitis pigmentosa and Cataracts) (MIM# 612674) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABHD12 gene. We evaluated two Spanish siblings affected with pes cavus, sensorimotor neuropathy, hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and juvenile cataracts in whom the genetic test of ABHD12 revealed a novel homozygous frameshift mutation, c.211_223del (p.Arg71Tyrfs*26). The earliest clinical manifestation in these patients was a demyelinating neuropathy manifested with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype over three decades. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Marina Frasquet, Vincenzo Lupo, Mar ía José Chumillas, Juan Francisco Vázquez-Costa, Carmen Espinós, Teresa Sevilla Tags: Clinical Short Communication Source Type: research

Further evidence for a distinctive atypical degenerative parkinsonism in the Caribbean: A new cluster in the French West Indian Island of Martinique
A high prevalence of an atypical levodopa-resistant parkinsonism has been reported in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. These seminal observations have not been replicated or extended to neighbouring populations who share genetic and environmental characteristics. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Annie Lannuzel, R égine Edragas, Angéla Lackmy, Benoit Tressières, Véronique Pelonde, Mireille Edimo Nana Kaptué, Sylvie Mécharles, Alexis Demas, Billy François, Eavan McGovern, Marie Vidailhet, Bertrand Gaymard, Emmanuel Roze Source Type: research

Oligoclonal bands and periventricular lesions in multiple sclerosis will not increase blood-brain barrier permeability
To elucidate the etiology and clinical significance of periventricular lesions (PVLs) and oligoclonal bands (OB) in multiple sclerosis (MS). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima Source Type: research

Future directions in tardive dyskinesia research
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) research is at a crossroads because of renewed interest in this syndrome following the successful development and regulatory approval of two novel vesicular monoamine transport 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors. Despite these clinical advances, significant lacunae exist in the knowledge base of TD pathophysiology, prognosis, and epidemiology. Moreover, conflicting definitions of TD as either a syndrome that encompasses a broad array of related phenomena or as a specific subset of tardive syndromes are an impediment to both clinical and basic science research, and to educational efforts targeting nonspecialist cl...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jonathan M. Meyer Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Tardive syndromes
are a group of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders that occur after some delay following exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents such as antipsychotic and anti-emetic drugs. The severity of these disorders ranges from mild to disabling or even life-threatening. There is a wide range of recognized tardive phenomenologies that may occur in isolation or in combination with each other. These phenomenologies include stereotypy, dystonia, chorea, akathisia, myoclonus, tremor, tics, gait disorders, parkinsonism, ocular deviations, respiratory dyskinesia, and a variety of sensory symptoms. (Source: Journal of th...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Daniel Savitt, Joseph Jankovic Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

VMAT2 inhibitors for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an often disabling hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents. Although initially thought to most commonly occur with typical antipsychotics, the incidence is likely similar with atypical antipsychotics and antiemetics such as metoclopramide. Increased prescribing of these agents as well as low rates of remission have contributed to a rising prevalence of TD. Although this condition was described nearly 60  years ago, it is only within the past year that two novel therapeutic agents were FDA approved. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura M. Scorr, Stewart A. Factor Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Tardive dyskinesia: Epidemiology
The term tardive syndrome (TS) encompasses a few different phenomenologic conditions, some of which occur in isolation and others in association with each other. This, along with the unusual confound for a drug side effect, in which increased use of the drug improves the problem, and the need for most patients to continue taking the offending drug, makes understanding the epidemiology difficult and unreliable. While the change from the “first generation” to the “second generation” of antipsychotic drugs is generally believed to have reduced the incidence of TS, prospective research studies have not ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Anelyssa D'Abreu, Umer Akbar, Joseph H. Friedman Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The nosology of tardive syndromes
Since the original description of side effects of neuroleptics, different terminologies and definitions for tardive dyskinesia (TD) and tardive syndrome (TS) have been used by different authors, and often these two terms have been used interchangeably. This paper proposes a nosology designed to define and clarify various terms and phenomenologies within the TS spectrum.We propose to use the term tardive dyskinesia to refer to the original description of repetitive and complex oral-buccal-lingual (OBL) movements, as well as to the analogous repetitive movements that can appear in the limbs, trunk, or pelvis. (Source: Journa...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Karen Frei, Daniel D. Truong, Stanley Fahn, Joseph Jankovic, Robert A. Hauser Source Type: research

Tardive dyskinesia: Out of the shadows
The approvals of the first two medications, valbenazine and deutetrabenazine, to treat tardive dyskinesia have ushered in a new era in neuropsychiatric care. Tardive syndromes are defined as delayed onset, persistent movement disorders or sensory phenomena that occur in association with exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Their underlying pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated, but clinicians can conceptualize tardive syndromes as persistent dopamine super sensitivity states. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert A. Hauser, Daniel Truong Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Updating the recommendations for treatment of tardive syndromes: A systematic review of new evidence and practical treatment algorithm
Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H. Friedman, Stanley Fahn Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Genetics of tardive dyskinesia: Promising leads and ways forward
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially irreversible and often debilitating movement disorder secondary to chronic use of dopamine receptor blocking medications. Genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of TD. We therefore have reviewed the most promising genes associated with TD, including DRD2, DRD3, VMAT2, HSPG2, HTR2A, HTR2C, and SOD2. In addition, we present evidence supporting a role for these genes from preclinical models of TD. The current understanding of the etiogenesis of TD is discussed in the light of the recent approvals of valbenazine and deutetrabenazine, VMAT2 inhibitors, for treating TD. (Sou...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Clement C. Zai, Miriam S. Maes, Arun K. Tiwari, Gwyneth C. Zai, Gary Remington, James L. Kennedy Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinical risk factors for the development of tardive dyskinesia
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe condition that can affect almost 1 out of 4 patients on current or previous antipsychotic treatment, including both first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While two novel vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, have shown acute efficacy for TD, the majority of patients do not remit, and TD appears to recur once treatment is withdrawn. Hence, prevention of TD remains a crucial goal. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Marco Solmi, Giorgio Pigato, John M. Kane, Christoph U. Correll Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for tardive syndromes: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Among the broad entity of tardive syndromes, tardive dystonia and classical tardive dyskinesia sometimes require advanced treatments like deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internum (Gpi-DBS) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). This systematic review has analyzed the currently available literature reporting cases with either tardive dystonia or dyskinesia treated with DBS. The key words for the literature search included all tardive syndromes and “deep brain stimulation.” Thirty-four level VI studies and one level II study with 117 patients were included. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Antonella Macerollo, G ünther Deuschl Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Non-VMAT2 inhibitor treatments for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia
Although VMAT2-inhibitors are now established as first-line treatment for tardive dyskinesia, not all patients respond to, or tolerate them. Numerous other agents have been adopted to treat tardive dyskinesia, but with variable results and generally lower quality methodologic reports. Amantadine is the most promising but benzodiazepines, branched chain neutral amino acids, Vitamin B6, several nutraceuticals, and botulinum toxin injections might help some patients. In all cases, better placebo controlled trials are needed before definitive recommendations can be made. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chih-Chun Lin, William G. Ondo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Ischemic stroke due to embolic heart diseases and associated factors in Benin hospital setting
Poor access to cardiovascular checkups is a major cause of ignorance of embolic heart diseases as the etiology for ischemic stroke. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gnonlonfoun Dieudonn é, Adjien Constant, Gnimavo Ronald, Goudjinou Gérard, Hotcho Corine, Nyangui Mapaga Jennifer, Sowanou Arlos, Gnigone Pupchen, Domingo Rodrigue, Houinato Dismand Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Identification of a prospective early motor progression cluster of Parkinson's disease: Data from the PPMI study
The aim of our study is to phenotype PD motor progression, and to detect whether serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging biomarkers and neuropsychological measures characterize PD motor progression phenotypes. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: George D. Vavougios, Triantafyllos Doskas, Constantinos Kormas, Karen A. Krogfelt, Sotirios G. Zarogiannis, Leonidas Stefanis Source Type: research

Imaging intralesional heterogeneity of sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: Initial evidence from 23Na-MRI
Sodium MRI (23Na-MRI) has been used to non-invasively quantify tissue sodium but has been limited by low spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate for the first time that high resolution 23Na-MRI reveals the spatial heterogeneity of sodium concentration within a multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion. A patient with treatment-na ïve relapsing-remitting MS and a ring-enhancing lesion was imaged using 23Na-MRI. The periphery of the lesion demonstrated an elevated total sodium content compared to the normal appearing white and grey matter (p (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: James T. Grist, Frank Riemer, Mary A. McLean, Tomasz Matys, Fulvio Zaccagna, Sarah F. Hilborne, Jackie P. Mason, Ilse Patterson, Rhys Slough, Joshua Kaggie, Surrin S. Deen, Martin J. Graves, Joanne L. Jones, Alasdair J. Coles, Ferdia A. Gallagher Tags: Clinical Short Communication Source Type: research

Cerebral infarction due to Zika virus
We read with great interest the letter by Anne Landais and colleagues entitled, “ZIKA vasculitis: A new cause of stroke in children.” [1] The article presents a case of an acute left middle cerebral artery infarct in an eight-month old boy within a few days of symptomatic Zika infection. He had positive Zika PCR in serum followed a few months later by positive Zika IgG and negative Zika IgM. The authors report this as the first case of cerebral infarction associated with Zika infection, broadening the clinical neurologic spectrum of Zika infection. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah B. Mulkey, Roberta L. DeBiasi, Adre J. du Plessis Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Historical perspectives on tardive dyskinesia
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with dopamine receptor blocking agents including antipsychotic medications. Although uncertainty and concern about this drug side effect has vacillated since its initial recognition 60  years ago, recent commercial interest in developing effective treatments has rekindled scientific and clinical interest after a protracted period of neglect. Although substantial research has advanced knowledge of the clinical features and epidemiology of TD, many fundamental questions raised by early investigators remain unresolved. (Source: Journal of the ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Stanley N. Caroff, Gabor S. Ungvari, David G. Cunningham Owens Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Response by Sarfo and Ovbiagele to letter regarding “Post-stroke depression: Risk assessment”
We sincerely thank Dr. Kawada for his interest in our study on Post-stroke depression in Ghana: characteristics and correlates [1]. The correspondents' main point centered on not using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria in our study to corroborate the diagnosis of depression after using the two validated screening instruments namely the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Geriatric depression scale (GDS). Our approach was informed by previous studies [2,3] which utilized only screening instruments to identify participants with depression without recourse to a st...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fred S. Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Post-stroke depression: Risk assessment
Sarfo et al. conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate factors for post-stroke depression (PSD) in 200 patients with stroke [1]. The authors used multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the number of patients with depression was 73. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the Modified Rankin scale and being divorced for PSD were 1.85 (1.28 –2.69) and 2.82 (1.18–6.71), respectively. I have some concerns about their study. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomoyuki Kawada Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Bilateral apraxia of eyelid closure following bilateral subcortical frontal infarcts
While apraxia of eyelid opening accompanies several neurological conditions, apraxia of eyelid closure has been reported less frequently. Apraxia of eyelid closure is impaired voluntary eye closure with normal language comprehension and level of alertness, and absent ocular pathology. It has been previously reported in progressive supranuclear palsy, vascular progressive supranuclear palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease, Huntington's disease, post encephalitic parkinsonism, and following non-dominant frontal or parietal lobe strokes [1 –9]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Eyad Almallouhi, Marian Dale Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

MRI scout images can detect the acute intracerebral hemorrhage on CT
We examined whether MRI scout imaging can detect ICHs observed by computed tomography (CT). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Toshiyuki Hayashi, Junya Aoki, Kentaro Suzuki, Yuki Sakamoto, Satoshi Suda, Seiji Okubo, Masahiro Mishina, Kazumi Kimura Source Type: research

Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies in patients with optic neuritis and seizures
We describe four patients who experienced optic neuritis (ON) and seizures and were found to have antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in serum. The index case was a previously healthy 39-year-old man who developed steroid dependent ON and had a generalized seizure when steroids were tapered. He tested positive for antibodies to MOG. We have reviewed the charts of all 11 anti-MOG antibody positive patients in our practice and found that 4 patients, all of whom had experienced one of more episodes of ON, also had a generalized seizure during the course of their illness. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Josef Maxwell Gutman, Mark Kupersmith, Steven Galetta, Ilya Kister Tags: Clinical Short Communication Source Type: research

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke
The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is closely linked to mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether NLR is associated with early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sungwook Yu, Hisatomi Arima, Carin Bertmar, Stephen Clarke, Geoffrey Herkes, Martin Krause Source Type: research

Quantification of whole-body bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease participants using multiple inertial sensors
Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) is a common motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that can severely affect quality of life for those living with the disease. Assessment and treatment of PD motor symptoms largely depends on clinical scales such as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). However, such clinical scales rely on the visual assessment by a human observer, naturally resulting in inter-rater variability. Although previous studies have developed objective means for measuring bradykinesia in PD patients, their evaluation was restricted by the type of movement and number of joints assessed. (Sour...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sara Memar, Mehdi Delrobaei, Marcus Pieterman, Kenneth McIsaac, Mandar Jog Source Type: research

Study of the placentae of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
The objective of this study was to explore whether AQP4-IgG influences pregnancy by affecting AQP4 expression and inducing placental inflammation in patients with NMOSD. We prospectively collected clinical data from six pregnant AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD patients and their infants, and investigated AQP4 expression and placental inflammatory infiltration by comparing hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical (AQP1, AQP4, C5b-9, IgG, CD3, CD8, CD20, and CD68) staining results with three normal controls. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yanyu Chang, Yaqing Shu, Xiaobo Sun, Tingting Lu, Chen Chen, Ling Fang, Dan He, Chengfang Xu, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu, Lisheng Peng, Allan G. Kermode, Wei Qiu Source Type: research

Software updates of OCT segmentation algorithms influence longitudinal assessment of retinal atrophy
To investigate whether there is a systematic difference in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness measurements between subsequent updates of pRNFL segmentation software provided by Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Danko Coric, Axel Petzold, Bernard M.J. Uitdehaag, Lisanne J. Balk Source Type: research

Alterations of regional homogeneity in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a serious complication in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and is more common in the late state of the disease. The high risk of falling in patients with FOG impacts their quality of life. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Caihong Zhou, Xiaoling Zhong, Yongzhe Yang, Wanqun Yang, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang, Kun Nie, Jianmin Xu, Biao Huang Source Type: research

Neuromuscular diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection
From the most common distal symmetric polyneuropathy (Bilgrami and O'Keefe, 2014 ) to the rare motor neuron diseases, HIV infection is associated with pathology at all levels of the peripheral nervous system. HIV infection can cause these conditions due to viral exposure itself, the resulting immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections found in untreated patients, and from the therapy used in treatment of the virus. Before the advent of antiretroviral therapy, neuromuscular diseases associated with HIV often resulted from opportunistic infections. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Devin E. Prior, Nancy Song, Jeffrey A. Cohen Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Socioeconomic class and universal healthcare: Analysis of stroke cost and outcomes in US military healthcare
Do socioeconomic disparities exist in the US military healthcare system with ischemic stroke admissions? (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew Blattner, James Price, Matthew D. Holtkamp Source Type: research

Transplantation of in vitro cultured endothelial progenitor cells repairs the blood-brain barrier and improves cognitive function of APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice
To date, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. It is well-known that excessive deposition of A β in the brain is a crucial part of the pathogenesis of AD. In recent years, the AD neurovascular unit hypothesis has attracted much attention. Impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) transport, and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes Aβ deposition througho ut the onset and progression of AD. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the universal cells for repairing blood vessels. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shishuang Zhang, Yongle Zhi, Fei Li, Shan Huang, Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Xintong Ge, Dai Li, Fanglian Chen, Xiaodong Kong, Ping Lei Source Type: research

Preoperative biomarkers in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus showing a favorable shunt surgery outcome
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is known to be a potentially treatable neurologic condition. The neurocognitive outcomes after surgery, however, have been variable. It is important to define preoperative characteristics of patients that predicts the shunting outcome. We aimed to compare baseline differences between shunt-responsive and unresponsive patients after 1year from surgery in order to identify preoperative predictors showing favorable clinical outcomes. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yun Jeong Hong, Min-Jeong Kim, Eunhye Jeong, Ji-Eun Kim, Jihye Hwang, Jung-Il Lee, Jae-Hong Lee, Duk L. Na Source Type: research

Quantifying iron deposition within the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease by quantitative susceptibility mapping
Iron deposition within the substantia nigra (SN) has been postulated to play a vital role in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to explore the inherent link of PD patients between their substantia nigra iron accumulation and clinical status using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) which is now considered to be the only quantitative imaging technique of brain iron deposition. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hedi An, Xiaoyan Zeng, Tengfei Niu, Gaiying Li, Jie Yang, Lanlan Zheng, Wei Zhou, Hong Liu, Miaomiao Zhang, Dongya Huang, Jianqi Li Source Type: research

Lovastatin promotes myelin formation in NPC1 mutant oligodendrocytes
In this study, by comparing protein expression in the cortical white matter tracts from mice at different postnatal days, we identified that in the NPC1 mutant (NPC1 −/−) mice, the onset of myelination is delayed and the amount of the major myelin protein MBP and PLP, and oligodendrocyte regulatory factor Olig1 and Olig2, but not NG2 and Sox10, decreased significantly, suggesting a disruption of oligodendrocyte differentiation. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan Yang, Xiao Feng, Arndt Rolfs, Jiankai Luo Source Type: research

Comparison of clinical features among Parkinson's disease subtypes: A large retrospective study in a single center
Tremor dominant (TD), postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD), and akinetic-rigid (AR) subtypes are widely used in classifying patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Takuya Konno, Angela Deutschl änder, Michael G. Heckman, Maryam Ossi, Emily R. Vargas, Audrey J. Strongosky, Jay A. van Gerpen, Ryan J. Uitti, Owen A. Ross, Zbigniew K. Wszolek Source Type: research

Comparative effects of low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase in ischemic patients with prior stroke and/or diabetes mellitus: The ENCHANTED trial
History of prior stroke (PS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered relative contraindications to the use of intravenous alteplase in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We aimed to assess whether a history of PS and DM modified the comparative effects of low- versus standard-dose alteplase in patients who participated in the alteplase-dose arm of the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Guofang Chen, Xia Wang, Thompson G. Robinson, Richard I. Lindley, Shengkui Zhou, Lei Ping, Weiwei Liu, Leijing Liu, John Chalmers, Craig S. Anderson, for the ENCHANTED Investigators Source Type: research

Adjuvant intra-arterial rt-PA injection at the initially deployed solitaire stent enhances the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke
Both intra-arterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and stent retrieval are effective for treating acute ischemic stroke. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stent retrieval combined with intra-arterial rt-PA administration via micro-catheter (called the complex technique) in acute ischemic stroke. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ting-Yu Yi, Wen-Huo Chen, Yan-Min Wu, Mei-Fang Zhang, Ding-Lai Lin, Xiao-Hui Lin Source Type: research