Risk factors for stroke occurrence in a low HIV endemic West African country: A case-control study
HIV infection is an emerging vascular risk factor associated with stroke occurrence. The weight of evidence from sub-Saharan Africa in support of this has accrued from countries with high HIV prevalence. Our objective was to assess the contribution of HIV sero-positivity to the occurrence and outcomes of stroke in a West African country with low HIV prevalence. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fred Stephen Sarfo, Ohene Opare-Sem, Martin Agyei, John Akassi, Dorcas Owusu, Mayowa Owolabi, Bruce Ovbiagele Source Type: research

Estimated glomerular filtration rate predicts incident stroke among ghanaians with diabetes and hypertension
This study sought to fill this knowledge gap. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fred Stephen Sarfo, Linda Meta Mobula, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Sheila Adamu, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Daniel Ansong, Rexford Adu Gyamfi, James Duah, Bertha Abraham, David Ofori-Adjei Source Type: research

Predictors of long-term survival after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in southern Portugal: A retrospective study of a community representative population
Stroke survivors, particularly of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), remain at high risk of death on the long-term [1 –3]. A meta-analysis of the long-term prognosis after SICH showed that the 1-year and 5-year mortality rates were 54% and 71% respectively [2]. Along with the post-stroke disability, the presence of underlying risk factors such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, diabete s mellitus and the coexistence of several other comorbidities may explain the high rates of mortality on the long-term [3,4]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hip ólito Nzwalo, Catarina Félix, Jerina Nogueira, Patrícia Guilherme, Fátima Ferreira, Teresa Salero, Sara Ramalhete, Joana Martinez, Maria Mouzinho, Ana Marreiros, Lars Thomassen, Nicola Logallo Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Long-term follow-up for multiple sclerosis patients initially treated with interferon-beta and glatiramer acetate
Our goal was to compare subjects treated with glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFN- β) in terms of long-term clinical outcomes. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Brian C. Healy, Bonnie I. Glanz, Jonathan D. Zurawski, Maria Mazzola, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L. Weiner Source Type: research

Incidence of dementia in patients with adult-onset epilepsy of unknown causes
Epilepsy is generally considered to occur most commonly in childhood; however, several epidemiological studies confirmed that its occurrence increases from middle age [1,2], and is the third most common neurological disease affecting the elderly, following dementia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [3,4]. These diseases interact with each other in later life. The leading etiology of elderly-onset epilepsy is CVD [5,6], and CVD is a major risk factor for dementia with neurodegenerative disease, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD) [7,8]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Osamu Kawakami, Yasuo Koike, Tetsuo Ando, Makoto Sugiura, Hiroko Kato, Keita Hiraga, Hiroshi Kito, Hajime Kondo Source Type: research

West Nile virus induces a post-infectious pro-inflammatory state that explains transformation of stable ocular myasthenia gravis to myasthenic crises
We present a patient with stable ocular MG and positive anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies who progressed to myasthenic crisis after WNV neuroinvasive disease. In this case of stable autoimmune disease with proven auto-antibodies, transformation to generalized disease cannot be attributed to molecular mimicry, which requires that an immune response first be generated against an infectious agent. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: M.A. Hawkes, S. Hocker, A.A. Leis Tags: Clinical Short Communication Source Type: research

Dabigatran – Idarucizumab-facilitated intravenous thrombolysis – Hemorrhagic transformation
We read with interest the cases reported by Tsai et al. [1] on hemorrhagic transformation associated with idarucizumab-facilitated intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic cerebrovascular accident. Hemorrhagic transformation should be an expected serious consequence with idarucizumab-facilitated intravenous thrombolysis. We previously raised a serious concern that while idarucizumab is very effective in neutralizing intravascular dabigatran activity and correcting clotting times profile, there is a dissociation between laboratory and clinical hemostasis [2 –4]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Luke Yip, Jou-Fang Deng Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Idarucizumab-facilitated intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke: A therapeutic strategy requiring further investigation
Although dabigatran does a better job reducing the risk of cardioembolic stroke than warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, 0.92 –1.34% of dabigatran users still develop isch emic stroke [1]. The usage of warfarin (even at a suboptimal therapeutic level) increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after intravenous thrombolysis (IT) [2]; therefore, current guidelines advise against performing IT in patients receiv ing any direct oral anti-coagulant (DOAC), including dabigatran [3]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hsiao Yu-Jen, Tsai Yi-Te, Li-Kai Tsai, Fang Chen-wen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Incident stroke among Ghanaians with hypertension and diabetes: A multicenter, prospective cohort study
The burden of stroke among hypertensive and diabetic population in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. We sought to identify the risk factors associated with stroke occurrence in these high-risk population groups. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fred S. Sarfo, Linda M. Mobula, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Daniel Ansong, David Ofori-Adjei Source Type: research

Representation of ethnic groups in dementia trials: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Despite the projected increase in dementia cases affecting various ethnic groups worldwide, representation of these ethnic groups in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments to improve cognitive function in persons with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is unclear. We aimed to quantify the inclusion of various ethnicities in dementia treatment RCTs. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Manav V. Vyas, Pranali K. Raval, Jennifer A. Watt, David F. Tang-Wai Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Collateral circulation assessment within the 4.5  h time window in patients with and without DWI/FLAIR MRI mismatch
The aim of the present study was to assess the association between collateral status and DWI-FLAIR mismatch in patients with acute ischemic stroke within the 4.5  h time-window. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yves Berthez ène, Omer Eker, Nikolaos Makris, Maxime Bettan, Adeline Mansuy, Aurélie Chabrol, Irene K. Mikkelsenm, Marc Hermier, Laura Mechtouff, Elodie Ong, Laurent Derex, Lise-Prune Berner, Roxana Ameli, Salvador Pedraza, Gotz Thomalla, Leif Østergaa Source Type: research

Baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability are predictors of mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
We aimed to investigate the link between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) impairment, assessed using baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV) indices, and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Agnieszka Uryga, Ma łgorzata Burzyńska, Paweł Tabakow, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Karol P. Budohoski, Agnieszka Kazimierska, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Waldemar Goździk Source Type: research

Epileptic chorea: Another window into neural networks?
Paroxysmal abnormalities of motor or non-motor function are defined as epileptic when they co-occur with specific patterns of organized electrical activity as measured by scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Certain forms of abdominal pain and migraine may be therefore epileptic [1]. Stereotypical movements at night can be the result of mesial frontal epilepsy, despite a negative EEG and prolonged focal paroxysmal dystonia can result from unilateral putaminal hemorrhage [2]. Short-lasting motor activity categorized clinically as dystonia or athetosis, meeting criteria for paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD), may re...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fernando Ten ório Gameleira, Karina Torres Alúcio, Maria Luísa Maia Nobre de Paiva, Kathleen Caroline de Lima Carlos, Kedma Mayara de Lima, Mariana Holanda Gameleira, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Alberto J. Espay Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The morphology of amyloid fibrils and their impact on tissue damage in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis: An ultrastructural study
We evaluated the morphology of amyloid fibrils in the peripheral nervous system using biopsy or autopsy specimens from hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis patients. The impact of amyloid fibril formation on neighboring tissues was also investigated. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Haruki Koike, Ryoji Nishi, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Takeo Sakurai, Takayoshi Shimohata, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue Source Type: research

Hashimoto's encephalopathy mimicking a brain tumor and its pathological findings: A case report
Hashimoto's encephalopathy is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies with no alternative cause. Patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy present with various clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of Hashimoto's encephalopathy with MRI findings mimicking a brain tumor. The patient was a 41-year-old woman with a history of Hashimoto's disease. She experienced gradually worsening Parkinsonism and an MRI revealed a brain tumor-like lesion at the left caudate nucleus. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hisashi Uwatoko, Ichiro Yabe, Shoki Sato, Megumi Abe, Shinichi Shirai, Ikuko Takahashi, Masaaki Matsushima, Takahiro Kano, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Kanako C. Hatanaka, Makoto Yoneda, Hidenao Sasaki Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Response to: Towards an integrated functional and epileptological approach in the management of meningioangiomatosis
We would like to thank Roux et al. for their valuable correspondence regarding our publication. We enjoyed learning about the experience of physicians treating meningioangiomatosis in centers in France and concur that there is certainly shared difficulties in both identifying and treating this condition across the world. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Christine Tomkinson, Jian-Qiang Lu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The first Japanese report on neuromyelitis optica rediscovered: acute bilateral blindness, tetraparesis and respiratory insufficiency in a 35-year-old man (1891)
The term ‘neuromyelitis optica’ (NMO, Devic syndrome) is used to refer to a syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis. For many decades NMO was classified as a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent research has shown, however, that NMO differs from MS in terms of immunopathogene sis, clinical presentation, and optimum treatment. In most cases, NMO is caused by autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. While the history of classic MS has been studied extensively, only relatively little is known about the early history of NMO. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: S. Jarius, A.B. Wuthenow, B. Wildemann Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Cognitive functioning in patients with carotid artery occlusion; a systematic review
Patients with complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery (CAO) are vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion. Since cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, patients with CAO may have an increased risk of cognitive impairment. We aimed to assess the prevalence and profile of cognitive impairment in patients with CAO and to explore the relation between hemodynamic impairment and cognitive functioning. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: E.A. Oudeman, L.J. Kappelle, R.M. Van den Berg-Vos, H.C. Weinstein, E. van den Berg, C.J.M. Klijn Source Type: research

Arterial spin labeling MR imaging for the clinical detection of cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Masamichi Ikawa, Hirohiko Kimura, Yuki Kitazaki, Katsuya Sugimoto, Akiko Matsunaga, Kouji Hayashi, Osamu Yamamura, Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Tadanori Hamano, Makoto Yoneda, Hidehiko Okazawa, Yasunari Nakamoto Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

Milder forms of α-sarcoglicanopathies diagnosed in adulthood by NGS analysis
Introduction: Sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD 2C2F) are a subgroup of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD), caused by mutations in sarcoglycan genes. They usually have a childhood onset and rapidly progressive course with loss of ability to walk over 12 –16 years. Methods: Next generation sequencing (NGS) targeted gene panel was performed in three adult patients with progressive muscle weakness in which routine muscle histology and immunohistochemistry were not diagnostic. Results: Genetic analysis revealed homozygous or compound heterozygous m utations in SGCA gene and Western Blot demonstrated protein reduction conf...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Diana Cantero, Aurelio Hern ández-Laín, Juan Francisco Gonzalo Martínez, María Rabasa Pérez, Yolanda Ruano, Cinta Lleixà, Eduard Gallardo, Cristina Domínguez-González Tags: Clinical short communication Source Type: research

An optimal protocol for measurement of corticospinal excitability, short intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation in the rectus femoris
The study aimed to determine the optimal application of single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the rectus femoris. Twenty-nine male adults participated in the study, which involved 5 separate experiments. Experiments 1 to 3 assessed the effect of conditioning stimulus (CS) intensity (60, 70, 80 and 90% active motor threshold, AMT), contraction strength (5, 10, 20 and 50% maximum voluntary contraction, MVC), and inter-stimulus interval (ISI, 2 –5 ms for short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI and 10–15 ms for intracortical facilitation, ICF) on SICI and ICF. (Source: Journa...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Callum G. Brownstein, Paul Ansdell, Jakob Škarabot, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas Source Type: research

Towards an integrated functional and epileptological approach in the management of meningioangiomatosis
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Alexandre Roux, Marc Zanello, Johan Pallud Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Risk of psychiatric disorders in Guillain-Barr é syndrome
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomoyuki Kawada Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessment of clinical and inflammatory markers in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
To evaluate potential associations between clinical features and inflammatory markers in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura de Godoy Rousseff Prado, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Isabella Carolina Santos Bicalho, Rodrigo Santiago Gomez, Mauro Vidigal-Lopes, Nayara Felicidade Tomaz Braz, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Source Type: research

Non-ataxic manifestations of Spinocerebellar ataxia-2, their determinants and predictors
To evaluate the non-ataxic clinical manifestations in genetically proven Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) and identify their determinants and predictors. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Albert Stezin, Soumya D. Venkatesh, Kandavel Thennarasu, Meera Purushottam, Sanjeev Jain, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal Source Type: research

The association between restless legs syndrome and premotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Previous studies regarding the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) have produced contradictory results. However, the time frame between them has varied across these studies, and also, the longitudinal trajectroy of RLS symptoms has not been considered. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hirotaka Iwaki, Katherine C. Hughes, Xiang Gao, Michael A. Schwarzschild, Alberto Ascherio Source Type: research

MicroRNAs to differentiate Parkinsonian disorders: Advances in biomarkers and therapeutics
Parkinsonian disorders are a set of progressive neurodegenerative movement disorders characterized by rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and their distinction has significant implications in terms of management and prognosis. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common among them. Its clinical diagnosis is challenging and, it can be misdiagnosed in the early stages. Multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy are the close mimickers in early stages, due to overlapping clinical features. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Palaniswamy Ramaswamy, Rita Christopher, Pramod Kumar Pal, Ravi Yadav Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Full reversal of an atypical right pericallosal artery infarction assessed by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging
Anterior cerebral artery infarction (ACAI) account for only up to 3 –5% of strokes [1]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fontaine Julia, Roxana Amelie, Omer Eker, Lise Prune Berner, Norbert Nighoghossian Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Kind and distribution of cutaneous sensation loss in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy
Report on the kind and distribution of somatotopic sensation loss and its utility in assessing severity of sensation loss in study of a large international cohort of patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (hATTR-PN). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Marcus V. Pinto, P. James B. Dyck, Linde E. Gove, Bryan M. McCauley, Elizabeth J. Ackermann, Steven G. Hughes, Marcia Waddington-Cruz, Peter J. Dyck Source Type: research

A Japanese CADASIL patient with homozygous NOTCH3 p.Arg544Cys mutation confirmed pathologically
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL, OMIM #125310) is caused by mutations in NOTCH3, which encodes a transmembranous receptor. All CADASIL mutations reported to date localize in one of the 34 epidermal growth factor-like repeats (EGFrs) in NOTCH3, and most of them result in gain or loss of a cysteine residue [1]. The p.Arg544Cys (c.1630C  > T) mutation is atypical because the 544th amino acid localizes not in an EGFr but between the 13th and 14th EGFrs. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mao Mukai, Ikuko Mizuta, Akihiko Ueda, Daisuke Nakashima, Yukie Kushimura, Yu-ichi Noto, Tomoyuki Ohara, Kyoko Itoh, Yukio Ando, Toshiki Mizuno Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The plasticity of the corticospinal tract in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy after Botulinum Toxin A treatment
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BTX-A) intervention has long-term benefits for children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Although cortical plasticity has been widely studied, plasticity in white matter has not received as much attention. Here, six children with OBPP underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before and 6  months after BTX-A treatment. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded. The aim was to investigate changes in the corticospinal tract (CST) as an example longitudinal observation of white matter plasticity. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Si-da Xi, Yu-lan Zhu, Chan Chen, Han-qiu Liu, Wei-wei Wang, Fang Li Source Type: research

Lenalidomide induced reversible parkinsonism, dystonia, and dementia in subclinical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative in nature and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms are evident [1]. Unlike thalidomide, lenalidomide rarely associates with neurotoxicicity. Up to now, thalidomide, but not lenalidomide, has been reported to be linked to acutely worsening Parkinson's disease [2]. Two cases have been reported with transient memory loss due to lenalidomide so far [3]. Here we describe a patient with reversible asymmetric parkinsonism, dystonia, and rapidly progressive dementia that appeared after administration of lenalidomide, and completely resolved shortly after its discontinuation. (Source: Jour...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: H. Argente-Escrig, J.C. Martinez, E. G ómez, A. Balaguer, T. Sevilla, L. Bataller Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Estimating the uptake of brain imaging and 30-days stroke mortality in Nigeria: A meta-analysis of hospital-based studies
This study aims to estimate the computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uptake, stroke subtypes and 30-days case-fatality in Nigeria. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Martinsixtus Ezejimofor, Amabetare Biu, Olalekan A. Uthman Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Impact of atrial fibrillation on the rate of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly
The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) on cognitive performances in the elderly in comparison with similar cardiovascular risks. One hundred unselected patients were included in AF+ and AF- groups. Patients with prodromal Alzheimer disease as shown by semantic cueing test, and those suffering from major cognitive decline according to DSM 5 criteria were evaluated separately from those patients analysed for vascular cognitive impairment. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Krupenin Pavel Source Type: research

Phentermine associated recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage
Awareness of obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular events has increased in recent years. Many medications have been developed to suppress appetite to achieve weight loss. Phentermine is one of many medications that often used for weight loss. However, the sympathomimetic effect of phentermine can result in palpitations, hypertension, and tachycardia [1]. Neurological complications include irritability, ischemic stroke, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and hemorrhagic stroke [2 –6]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Stephanie McNeill, Eyad Almallouhi, Forrest J. Lowe, Tanya N. Turan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Hemichorea-hemiballism by branch atheromatous disease with a unique cerebral blood flow abnormality
Hemichorea-hemiballism (HCHB) is a rare manifestation caused by hyperglycemia or stroke [1,2]. The predominantly affected sites are the basal ganglia and thalamus [3,4]. However, why HCHB appears in only a few cases remains unclear. We herein report a case involving a man with branch atheromatous disease (BAD) in the internal putamen with the development of a cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormality beyond the ischemic lesion and resultant HCHB. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kosuke Matsuzono, Masayuki Suzuki, Kohei Furuya, Dan Tomomasa, Younhee Kim, Tadashi Ozawa, Takafumi Mashiko, Haruo Shimazaki, Reiji Koide, Ryota Tanaka, Shigeru Fujimoto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Walking disability measures in multiple sclerosis patients: Correlations with MRI-derived global and microstructural damage
The relationship between walking disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their macro- and microstructural MRI-derived measures still remains unclear. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Dejan Jakimovski, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Jesper Hagemeier, Caila Vaughn, Katelyn Kavak, Sirin Gandhi, Susan Bennett, Tom Fuchs, Niels Bergsland, Michael G. Dwyer, Ralph H.B. Benedict, Robert Zivadinov Source Type: research

Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) in MS: Evaluation of a new visual test of rapid picture naming
The Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) is a test of rapid picture naming that is under investigation for concussion. MULES captures an extensive visual network, including pathways for eye movements, color perception, memory and object recognition. The purpose of this study was to introduce the MULES to visual assessment of patients with MS, and to examine associations with other tests of afferent and efferent visual function. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Meagan Seay, Omar Akhand, Matthew S. Galetta, Lucy Cobbs, Lisena Hasanaj, Prin Amorapanth, John-Ross Rizzo, Rachel Nolan, Liliana Serrano, Janet C. Rucker, Steven L. Galetta, Laura J. Balcer Source Type: research

Persistent adverse effects following different targets and periods after bilateral deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
Performed as one of the major treatments for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery can induce adverse effects (AEs) on cognition, gait, mood, speech and swallowing, which are frequently reported and seriously affect the patient's daily life. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zixiao Yin, Yuan Cao, Suyue Zheng, Jian Duan, Dongwei Zhou, Renxu Xu, Tao Hong, Guohui Lu Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Establishment of primary myoblast cell cultures from cryopreserved skeletal muscle biopsies to serve as a tool in related research & development studies
Primary myoblast cell cultures display the phenotypic characteristics and genetic defects of the donor tissue and represent an in vitro model system reflecting the disease pathology. They have been generated only from freshly harvested tissue biopsies. Here, we describe a novel technique to establish myoblast cell cultures from cryopreserved skeletal muscle biopsy tissues that are useful for diagnostic and research purposes. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Burcu Balci-Hayta, Can Ebru Bekircan-Kurt, Evrim Aksu, Didem Dayangac-Erden, Ersin Tan, Sevim Erdem-Ozdamar Source Type: research

Congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion accompanied by dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with a novel p.G48A ACTA1 mutation
Congenital myopathies are a group of genetic muscle disorders characterized by muscle weakness and hypotonia that are usually present at birth. They are histologically classified into nemaline myopathy (NM), core myopathy, centronuclear myopathy, congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) and other conditions. CFTD is histologically characterized by the absence of diagnostic histological features, except for common findings of type 1 fiber predominance and fiber size disproportion. Several causative genes, including nebulin (NEB), actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle (ACTA1), tropomyosin 3 (TPM3), and ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Koh Tadokoro, Yasuyuki Ohta, Ryo Sasaki, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Kota Sato, Jingwei Shang, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Toru Yamashita, Kazufumi Nakamura, Ichizo Nishino, Koji Abe Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to alleviate depression and cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson's disease: A review and clinical implications
The rapid methodological development and growing availability of neuromodulation techniques have spurred myriad studies investigating their clinical effectiveness. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has in many instances been proven to exert antidepressant-like effects superior to placebo and equivalent to standard psychopharmacological treatment. Due to the similar neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of executive and affective control processes, rTMS to the DLPFC may be able to address multiple issues simultaneously. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ren é Randver Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The role of LP in NDs where there is no neuroimaging
A lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is often the only available investigation in Africa that can confirm or exclude a treatable neurological disorder (ND). NDs are common in Africa accounting for up to 20% of adult hospital admissions with an overall lesser burden in children. The main treatable causes are infections which include, acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), cryptococcal meningitis (CM), tuberculous meningitis (TBM), toxoplasmosis and malaria. Other neurological disorders where an LP may be diagnostic include encephalitis, inflammation, vasculitis, strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, para...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: William P. Howlett Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Clinical evidences supporting the Src/c-Abl pathway as potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common degenerative disease affecting motor neurons, lacks an effective disease-modifying disease treatment [1 –3]. Recently, the Src/c-Abl pathway has been postulated as a potential therapeutic target in ALS. [4]. Imamura et al. developed a phenotypic screen to repurpose existing drugs for ALS patients, which resulted in the identification of 27 potential hits. Intriguingly, more than half of the hits tar geted the Src/c-Abl signaling pathway [4]. Complementary studies demonstrated that Src/c-Abl inhibitors increased the survival of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Javier Riancho, Francisco J. Gil-Bea, David Castanedo-Vazquez, Mar ía José Sedano, Mónica Zufiría, Gorka Fernández Garcia de Eulate, Juan José Poza, Adolfo López de Munaín Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Where there is no brain imaging: Safety and diagnostic value of lumbar puncture in patients with neurological disorders in a rural hospital of Central Africa
The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and diagnostic yield of LP in a rural hospital of central Africa and to identify predictors of CSF pleocytosis (white blood cell count>5/ μL) as surrogate marker of neuro-infections. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Deby Mukendi, Jean-Roger Lilo Kalo, Tharcisse Kayembe, Pascal Lutumba, Barbara Barb é, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs, Cedric P. Yansouni, François Chappuis, Kristien Verdonck, Marleen Boelaert, Andrea S. Winkler, Emmanuel Bottieau Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease and related conditions: A scoping review
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the presence of a complex of signals resulting from the loss of REM sleep atony and manifested by vigorous and sometimes violent motor jerks and nocturnal vocalizations associated with dream enactment. RBD might be a clinical predictor of severity for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one of its most important non-motor manifestations, preceding the emergence of synucleinopathy by several years or even decades. The detection of RBD may represent a therapeutic window for research regarding the development of new neuroprotective therapies with...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Vitor Tumas, Alan Luiz Eckeli Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Three new case reports of Arteriovenous malformation-related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
We report here 3 additional cases of young adults, who had undergone repeated embolizations for complex AVMs, and who then developed, after many years, ALS symptoms and signs. In two of these cases Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels were found to be extremely high, in contrast to previous reports. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Chondrogianni, Marianna Bregianni, Frantzeska Frantzeskaki, Evangelos Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos Anagnostou, Evangelia Kararizou, Georgia Karadima, George Koutsis, Christos Moschovos, Anastasios Bonakis, Leonidas Stefanis Source Type: research

Saving the brain initiative – Developing an effective hub-and-spoke model to improve the acute stroke management pathways in urban India
We aimed to develop and evaluate a hub-and-spoke model in the East Delhi by assessing knowledge and creating awareness through sensitization programs in target communities and among general physicians (GPs) along with implementation of a standard stroke management protocol (SMP) at our institute in order to extend the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Suman Kushwaha, Puneet Talwar, Niketa Chandel, Aldrin Anthony, Siddharth Maheshwari, Sarbjeet Khurana Source Type: research

The presence of cerebral microbleeds is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, their association with cognitive decline has been unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis of 124 cases of clinically diagnosed PD to determine the association between the presence of CMBs and cognitive decline. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kensuke Daida, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Takashi Ogawa, Genko Oyama, Kenya Nishioka, Yasushi Shimo, Atsushi Umemura, Nobutaka Hattori Source Type: research

Restless legs syndrome, leg motor restlessness and their variants in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of restless leg syndrome (RLS), leg motor restlessness (LMR) and RLS/LMR variants and their relationship with clinical factors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Takeo Matsubara, Keisuke Suzuki, Hiroaki Fujita, Yuji Watanabe, Hirotaka Sakuramoto, Masanori Matsubara, Koichi Hirata Source Type: research