Comment on COVID-19 Impact on Surgical Resident Education and Coping
Firstly, we congratulate the authors of the paper titled “COVID-19 Impact on Surgical Resident Education and Coping”.1 This is a very timely paper. During the last year and a half, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on residency training in surgical departments. With the onset of the pandemic, the volume of surgeries taking place in surgi cal departments decreased, due to the postponement or cancellation of many elective surgeries. As a natural result of this, surgical residents lacked sufficient opportunities to practice and improve their surgical skills. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - September 17, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Prof.MD Ramazan Karabulut Source Type: research

From the OR to Online: Medical Student Surgery Education in the Time of COVID-19
On March 17, 2020 the AAMC recommended dismissal of medical students from clinical settings due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Third-year (M3) and fourth-year (M4) medical students were at home, M4s were interested in teaching, and residents and faculty had fewer clinical responsibilities due to elective surgery cancellations. To continue M3 access to education, we created a virtual surgery elective (VSE) that aimed to broaden students ’ exposure to, and elicit interest in, general surgery (GS). (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Zachary Grady, Lindsay Gallo, Heather Lin, Benjamin Magod, Stacy Coulthard, Benjamin Flink, Eric Knauer, Joshua Winer, Dominic Papandria, Barbara Pettitt Source Type: research

Academic Global Surgery Curricula: Current Status and a Call for a More Equitable Approach
We aimed to search the literature for global surgical curricula, assess if published resources align with existing competency frameworks in global health and surgical education, and determine if there is consensus around a fundamental set of competencies for the developing field of academic global surgery. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Anusha Jayaram, Natalie Pawlak, Alexis Kahanu, Parisa Fallah, Haniee Chung, Nancy Valencia-Rojas, Edgar B Rodas, Ahmadreza Abbaslou, Adnan Alseidi, Emmanuel A Ameh, Abebe Bekele, Kathleen Casey, Kathryn Chu, Robert Dempsey, Chris Dodgion, Randeep Jawa, Ma Source Type: research

Commentary on ‘Academic Global Surgery Curricula – Current Status and a Call for a More Equitable Approach.’
Triplets delivered in 2015, (the World Bank's Disease Control Priorities 3rd edition, the World Health Assembly's resolution 68.15, and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery report), injected a fresh breath of life into the global health fraternity. Their delivery led to the recognition of surgery as a public health intervention, and its inclusion within universal healthcare.1-3 Although global surgery was practiced widely before 2015, there was a flurry of activity with soaring interest thereafter, as mirrored by the rapid growth of global surgery publications. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Peter Muli Nthumba Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Re: Open Versus Ultrasound Guided Tunneled Central Venous Access in children: A Randomized Controlled Study
We read with interest the published randomized controlled trial by Soundappan et  al., comparing open cut-down versus ultrasound (US) guided percutaneous insertion of central venous access devices (CVADs) via the internal jugular vein (IJV) in children.1 We congratulate the authors in recruiting 108 patients in the trial, since conducting RCTs in the setting of pediatrics can b e extremely challenging, as demonstrated by the long recruitment time in this study. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Timothy R. Spencer, Mauro Pittiruti, Gloria Ortiz Miluy, Maurizio Pacilli Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Standardized Care and Oral Antibiotics on Discharge for Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis
To the Editor (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sherif Emil Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Global Surgery Education: Whose Needs Should We Serve?
It is only in the past two decades that surgical care has begun to be recognized by global public health experts to be cost-effective and important to the overall health and productivity of citizens world-wide. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Karen Deveney Tags: Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Response to the Letter to Editor: Standard Discharge Antibiotics may Reduce Readmissions in Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis
We thank Dr. Emil for the thoughtful and critical analysis of some recent studies published in the Journal of Surgical Research regarding the management of pediatric appendicitis.1 It is with utmost importance that surgeons and clinical researchers carefully evaluate the literature and identify their strengths and weaknesses. Along with Dr. Emil's sentiments, I agree that elimination of variability is imperative in our field. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: KuoJen Tsao Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Why Evaluate and Compare Emotional Intelligence and Improvement Mindset of Plastic Surgery Residents
Serebrakin and co-authors1 sought to elucidate the degree to which surgery residents generally, and plastic surgery residents in particular, possess emotional intelligence (EI) and a growth mindset. Growth mindset is defined as the belief that intelligence and ability can be augmented by learning. On the face of it, that sounds like the fundamental premise of residency training. To deny it implies the untenable; that at the completion of training Program Directors simply certify that their residents have completed the requisite time on service in their programs. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 14, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: James B. Alexander Source Type: research

Evaluating and Comparing Emotional Intelligence and Improvement Mindset of Plastic Surgery Residents
Plastic surgeons must extensively collaborate with physicians from multiple surgical and non-surgical specialties. Effectively managing emotions while interacting with colleagues and patients of various backgrounds is important for plastic surgeons and directly impacts patient care. However, plastic surgery residency training is difficult with high resident burnout rates.1-3 It is clear that successful navigation through plastic surgery residency is not only about passing exams, mastering technical skills in the operating room, or planning operations but also requires trainees to gain numerous non-technical, interpersonal ...
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 13, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Arman T. Serebrakian, Emil R. Petrusa, Sophia K. McKinley, Ricardo Ortiz, William G. Austen, Roy Phitayakorn Source Type: research

Traumatic Injury Under COVID-19 Stay-at-home Advisory: Experience of a New England Trauma Center
This study aims to characterize patterns of trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic at a Level I Trauma Center. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 9, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Chloe H. Williams, Erin M. Scott, Jon D. Dorfman, Bruce J. Simon Source Type: research

2021 Association for Academic Surgery Ethics Committee Essay and Cover Art Contest
COVID-19 exerted a profound psychologic impact on the world and the medical community. The Ethics Committee of the Association for Academic Surgery (AAS) saw an opportunity to offer our members a means to express their feelings and emotions through art with respect to this pandemic. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Featured Articles
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Subscription Information
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - August 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Response to the Letter to the Editor: Concerning the Article "Open Versus Ultrasound Guided Tunnelled Central Venous Access in Children: A Randomized Controlled Study"
We thank T. Spencer et al1 for their interest and insightful comments regarding our article titled “Open versus ultrasound guided tunnelled central venous access in children: A randomized controlled study.” They rightly point out the many advantages of ultrasound guided venous access compared to open or land mark technique. However, ultrasound guided technique is not yet popular among pediatr ic surgeons possibly due to lack of training in ultrasound. Since this study ultrasound (US) guided technique has become the standard in our unit. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Soundappan S.V. Soundappan Source Type: research

Endocrine Surgical Procedures During COVID-19: Patient Prioritization and Time to Surgery
We tracked endocrine surgery patients with treatment delays due to COVID-19 to investigate the relationship between physician assigned priority scoring (PAPS), the Medically Necessary, Time Sensitive (MeNTS) scoring system and delay to surgery. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jae P. Ermer, Jacqueline M. Soegaard Ballester, Beatrice C. Go, Benjamin Philipson, Peter E. Gabriel, Daniel A. Pryma, Douglas L. Fraker, Rachel R. Kelz, Heather Wachtel Source Type: research

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Elective Inpatient Surgical Admissions: Evidence from Maryland,
The COVID-19 pandemic led to large-scale cancellation and deferral of elective surgeries. We quantified volume declines, and subsequent recoveries, across all hospitals in Maryland. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Joseph F. Levy, Kevin Y. Wang, Benedic N. Ippolito, James R. Ficke, Amit Jain Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Perforated Appendicitis during a Pandemic: The Downstream Effect of COVID-19 in Children
The presentation and continued evolution of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a public health priority. With varying symptoms and transmission rates, this disease has spread quickly, affecting millions of people worldwide1-3. As a result of climbing numbers and its global presence, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 20203. Responses designed to diminish the effects of the virus varied around the world from strict person-to-person tracking to mask wearing mandates and much more. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Joseph R. Esparaz, Mike K. Chen, Elizabeth A. Beierle, Scott A. Anderson, Colin A. Martin, Vincent E. Mortellaro, David A. Rogers, Michelle S. Mathis, Robert T. Russell Source Type: research

Pediatric Firearm-related Injuries: Taking Kids out of Harm's Way Begins With Targeted Prevention
Pediatric firearm injury is a leading cause of death in children in the United States and the incidence continues to rise each year; however, comprehensive and accurate data on the scope of the problem is lacking.1 National statistics on firearm violence focus almost exclusively on deaths. This information is publicly available through the National Violent Death Reporting System, a state-based resource of violence-related deaths from multiple sources that informs the CDCs Web-Based Injury Statistics and Query System (WISQARS). (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 21, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Bindi Naik-Mathuria Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Pediatric Firearm-Related Injuries: Taking Kids Out of Harm's Way Begins with Targeted Prevention
Preventable injury remains the most significant cause of pediatric death in the United States (US).1 In 2016, firearm-related injury was the second most common cause of child and adolescent death nationally.2) In the three years preceding, there was a 28% relative increase in the number of pediatric firearm-related deaths.2 Further, for every pediatric firearm-related death, there are seven to eight nonfatal firearm injuries.3 The US has the highest rate of pediatric firearm-related injuries compared to any other developed country, reaching 10-35 times higher than other high-income countries. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 17, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Leah C Tatebe, Joseph Sanchez, Sydney Pekarek, Nathaniel Koo, Justin Mis, Victoria Schlanser, Faran Bokhari, Andrew J Dennis Source Type: research

Response to Letter to Editor: Standardized Care and Oral Antibioics on Discharge for Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis
We would like to thank Dr. Emil for his insight and thoughts regarding pediatric perforated appendicitis and are gratified that our article on the use of oral antibiotics after appendectomy for perforated appendicitis was referred to in their recent letter to the editor.1 (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 14, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sandra Tomita, Jason Fisher, Howard Ginsburg, Keith Kuenzler, Jee-Hye Choi, Alex Gordon Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Designing an Intimate Partner Violence Screening Program for Surgical Residents in Trauma
Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as physical, psychological, and/or verbal harm by a current or former intimate partner, is a national and international public health issue.1 The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 25% of women and 10% of men have experienced IPV at some point in their lifetime.1 IPV carries significant short and long term health sequelae, ranging from physical injuries sustained during abuse to greater healthcare utilization with psychosomatic complaints and psychiatric problems. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 10, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Hannah Decker, Marisa E. Schwab, Jane Wang, Micaela L. Rosser, Vagn Petersen, Meghan Berger, Deborah M. Stein, Tasce Bongiovanni Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research

A Prospective Study of Intraarterial Infusion Chemotherapy in Advanced WT BRAF Melanoma Patients
Cutaneous melanomas (CMs) are increasing in incidence and recur in approximately 10% of cases as locoregional metastases, including local recurrences, in-transit and satellites metastases, and regional lymph node metastases. Approximately 4% of locoregional metastases cumulatively localise to inferior limb, inguinal and pelvic regions, with synchronous inferior limb, inguinal region and/or pelvic involvement observed in approximately 2% of cases.1-3 (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - July 10, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Stefano Guadagni, Odysseas Zoras, Giammaria Fiorentini, Francesco Masedu, Konstantinos Lasithiotakis, Donatella Sarti, Antonietta Rosella Farina, Andrew Reay Mackay, Marco Clementi Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Circulating sFasL Levels Predict the Severity and Outcome of Burn Injury: A Prospective Observational Study
Severe burn injury activates shock, inflammation, and blood cell system, but inappropriate reactions may lead to adverse outcomes. Soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) participates in apoptosis and inflammatory response. The circulating sFasL levels we investigated in association with the burn severity, shock, inflammation, blood cells, and mortality in patients with severe burns. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jian-Chang Lin, Zhao-Hong Chen, Xiao-Dong Chen, Shun-Bin Wang Source Type: research

Objective Strategies and Recommendations in the Era of the Binary USMLE Step 1 Score
Recent studies have brought forth potential downstream implications of a binary reporting of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score.1,2 Potential issues such as applicant selection for interviews, shifted focus to Step 2 CK, additional paradoxical stresses, and added barriers to international medical graduates compound the inherent stresses in applying to competitive surgical residencies. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Zain Aryanpour, Shivani Ananthasekar, Carter J. Boyd Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Featured Articles
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Subscription Information
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 25, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Self-Neglect is NOT Selfless
An uncomplicated open tracheostomy for respiratory failure. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Shruti Ramesh Hegde Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 19, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Featured Articles
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 19, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Subscription Information
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 19, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 19, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Response to the Letter to the Editor: Concerning the Article "Open Versus Ultrasound Guided Tunnelled Central Venous Access in Children: A Randomised Controlled Study"
To (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Soundappan SV  Soundappan Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Mentorship: a millennia-old remedy for learner success amidst COVID-19
The ongoing pandemic has severely disrupted medical education and graduate medical training. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rendered long-established educational paradigms and traditional teaching modalities obsolete. The threat of students and educators falling ill resulted in the temporary suspension of most, if not all, face-to-face educational interactions1. Consequently, medical schools and hospitals had to promptly adopt new strategies to continue meeting institutional as well as national pedagogical milestones. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Luis Santiesteban, Mark McKenney, Adel Elkbuli Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Training Surgical Residents to Screen for Intimate Partner Violence
Dr Kieran is the sole contributor to this work and is responsible for the writing and editing. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 17, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Kathleen Kieran Source Type: research

Operative Shutdown and Recovery: Restructuring Surgical Operations During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has presented unique challenges to surgical practice worldwide. COVID-19 has been linked to increased perioperative morbidity and mortality, and diagnosis of preexisting infection is often missed preoperatively1,2. In addition, both patients and providers are at risk of transmitting or acquiring COVID-19 in the hospital environment, which discourages elective surgeries and creates technical obstacles for urgent or emergency surgeries3. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 15, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Paul H. McClelland, Olivia Cheng, James Hu, John G. Hunter, Alfred C. Winkler, Roseanna Lee, Michael E. Zenilman Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research

Challenges in the Development and Implementation of Older Adult Trauma Prognostication Tools to Facilitate Shared Decision-Making
Older trauma patients (> 65 years old) have a higher risk of mortality compared to the younger trauma patient population.1 Still, greater than 50% survive to discharge and up to 85% of those return to prehospital or independent function.1,2 The 15% who do not fully recover to baseline present a unique challenge to the medical community. These patients have different anatomy, physiology, and decreased ability to recover from a traumatic event.3 Today's older aged adults value autonomy, engagement, and control over their lives. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 8, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Rachel S. Morris, Terri A. deRoon-Cassini, Edmund H. Duthie, Christopher J. Tignanelli Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Longitudinal Risk Management for Patients with Increased Risk for Breast Cancer
This study aims to characterize longitudinal care management and evaluate the relationship between various patient factors and the likelihood of choosing risk-reducing behaviors in women with increased risk of developing breast cancer. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 5, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Malcolm Su, Victoria Huynh, Michael Bronsert, Erica Su, Jennifer Goode, Allison Lock, Serenity Banden, Gretchen Ahrendt, Anosheh Afghahi, Jaime Arruda, Sarah Tevis Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research

Preinjury Functional Independence is not Associated with Discharge Location in Older Trauma Patients
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between pre-injury Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) functional status and discharge to a facility in non-neurologically injured older trauma patients. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 5, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Emma Holler, Ashley D. Meagher, Damaris Ortiz, Sanjay Mohanty, America Newnum, Anthony Perkins, Sujuan Gao, Gabriel Kinnaman, Malaz Boustani, Ben Zarzaur Source Type: research

Making it Complicated: Does Disparity in Access to Care Lead to More Perforated Appendicitis?
Our understanding of social determinants of health as a driving force behind outcomes in surgical care is growing but still incomplete. The CDC defines social determinants of health as particular conditions in a person's life that influence a wide range of health-related risks and outcomes.1 These factors are multifactorial and span a wide range of social domains such as quality of education, access to transportation, housing stability, socioeconomic status, food security, and workplace conditions. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Josue B. Estrella, Heather Carmichael, Quintin W.O. Myers, Sterling Lee, Catherine G. Velopulos Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research

Applying LEAN Healthcare in Lean Settings: Launching Quality Improvement in Resource-Limited Regions
This study details the first known attempt to use Lean techniques to improve surgical care systems in LMIC. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Pavithra K. Rao, Aaron J. Cunningham, Daniel Kenron, Philip Mshelbwala, Emmanuel A. Ameh, Sanjay Krishnaswami Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research

Disparities in Utilization of Ambulatory Cholecystectomy: Results From Three States
Cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the United States, with more than 750,000 procedures each year.1 Recently, surgeons have begun to perform more elective procedures in the ambulatory setting.2 Ambulatory cholecystectomy is more cost effective, has lower unplanned admission rates, and is associated with greater patient satisfaction.3-5 Increasing utilization of ambulatory cholecystectomy may therefore be an important step toward improving surgical care for gallbladder disease. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 2, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Megan G. Janeway, Sabrina E. Sanchez, Amy K. Rosen, Gregory Patts, Lisa C. Allee, Karen E. Lasser, Tracey A. Dechert Source Type: research

Preoperative and Intraoperative Blood Pressure Variability Independently Correlate with Outcomes
Blood pressure variability (BPV) describes visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) changes independent of hypertension. Preoperative BPV and intraoperative BPV are associated with increased postoperative outcomes. We investigated the impact of both preoperative BPV and intraoperative BPV on elective surgical outcomes, specifically whether preoperative BPV and intraoperative BPV were independent risk factors for surgical complications. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 2, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Molly M. Benolken, Alexus E. Meduna, Marilyn G. Klug, Marc D. Basson Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research

An Early Interview Day with Feedback to Prepare General Surgery Applicants for Residency Interviews
The residency application process for general surgery residency continues to be competitive.1 The interview is a critical tool used to evaluate candidates for general surgery residency and has been identified as an area for improvement in the recruitment process.2,3 Among factors used to rank applicants, general surgery program directors report interpersonal skills and interview day interactions as the most important.4 One study found that 90% of general surgery programs based at least 25% of an applicant's final ranking on the interview score. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 2, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jackson A. Baril, Matthew C. Bobel, Melissa E. Brunsvold Source Type: research

BNP and NT-proBNP Concentrations in Paired cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Samples of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion patterns of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze the source of them in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Dewen Ru, Yufeng Yan, Bing Li, Xiao Shen, Ri Tang, Ersong Wang Source Type: research

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Local Anesthesia for Inguinal Hernia Repair
Despite ongoing efforts to address inequality in the US healthcare system, there are still considerable racial disparities in access to care modalities that can affect clinical outcomes.1 Most studies of racial and ethnic disparities in surgery have focused on access to new surgical techniques or devices (such as robotic and laparoscopic surgery), or on biases that affect diagnosis and quality of care. Few studies in the surgical literature have focused on disparities in access to anesthesia modalities and how this can affect postoperative outcomes. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - June 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jennie Meier, Audrey Stevens, Miles Berger, Timothy P. Hogan, Joan Reisch, C. Munro Cullum, Simon C. Lee, Celette Sugg Skinner, Herbert Zeh, Cynthia J. Brown, Courtney J. Balentine Tags: Association for Academic Surgery Source Type: research