Masthead
(Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The Effects of Static and Moving Spectral Ripple Sensitivity on Unaided and Aided Speech Perception in Noise
Conclusions The results suggest that, for hearing aid users, poor speech understanding in noise and sensitivity to both static and slow-moving ripples may reflect deficits in the same underlying auditory processing mechanism. Significant factor loadings involving ripple stimuli with low-frequency content may suggest an impaired ability to use temporal fine structure information in the stimulus waveform. Support is provided for the use of spectral ripple testing to predict speech perception outcomes in clinical settings. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Developmental Shifts in Detection and Attention for Auditory, Visual, and Audiovisual Speech
Conclusions The faster RTs indicated that AV input did not enhance detection in any group, but the slower RTs indicated that AV speech and dynamic V speech (mouthing) significantly minimized attentional lapses and thus did influence performance. Overall, A and AV inputs were detected consistently faster than V input; this result endorsed stimulus-bound auditory processing by these children. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Basic Measures of Prosody in Spontaneous Speech of Children With Early and Late Cochlear Implantation
Conclusions Results did not support the phonetic dimension hierarchy hypothesis, suggesting that the appropriateness of the production of basic prosodic measures does not depend on auditory resolution. Rather, it seems to depend on the amount of control necessary for speech production. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Information in Preschool Children With and Without Developmental Language Disorder: A Follow-Up Study
Conclusions Despite the groups' similar sentence comprehension abilities and ability to accurately respond to the information provided by the subject noun, children with DLD did not show sensitivity to number information on the fronted auxiliary. This insensitivity is considered in light of these children's weaker command of tense/agreement forms in their speech. Specifically, we consider the possibility that failure to grasp the relation between the subject –verb sequence (e.g.,dogs running) and preceding information (e.g.,are) in questions in the input contributes to the protracted inconsistency in producing auxili...
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Publication Bias Tests in Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
Conclusion Findings reveal that more attention is needed to the presence and impact of publication bias. This research note concludes with 5 recommendations for addressing publication bias.Supplemental Materialhttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7268648 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Non-Orthographic Language Abilities and Reading Performance in Chronic Aphasia: An Exploration of the Primary Systems Hypothesis
Conclusions Findings support the primary systems view of language by showing that non-orthographic language abilities and reading abilities are closely linked. This preliminary work requires replication and extension; however, current results highlight the importance of routine, integrated assessment and treatment of spoken and written language in aphasia.Supplemental Materialhttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7403963 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

A Multimethod Analysis of Pragmatic Skills in Children and Adolescents With Fragile X Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Down Syndrome
Conclusion Results suggest both similarities and differences in the pragmatic profiles observed across different neurodevelopmental disabilities, including idiopathic and FXS-associated cases of ASD, as well as an important sex difference in FXS-ASD. These findings and congruency between the 2 language sample analysis techniques together have important implications for assessment and intervention efforts. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Language Skill Mediates the Relationship Between Language Load and Articulatory Variability in Children With Language and Speech Sound Disorders
Conclusion Higher-level language processes affect lower-level speech motor control processes, and this relationship appears to be more strongly mediated by language than speech skill. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Verb Variability and Morphosyntactic Priming With Typically Developing 2- and 3-Year-Olds
Conclusions Typically developing children do indeed make use of lexical variability in their linguistic input to help them extract and generalize abstract grammatical rules. They can do this quite quickly, with relatively stable, robust learning occurring after a single optimally variable input session. With reduced variability, learning does not occur. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Relations Between Teacher Talk Characteristics and Child Language in Spoken-Language Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Classrooms
Conclusion Reformulation and explicit vocabulary instruction may be areas where training can help teachers improve, and improvements in the teachers' talk may benefit their students. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Structural Relationship Between Cognitive Processing and Syntactic Sentence Comprehension in Children With and Without Developmental Language Disorder
Conclusions cWM mediates sentence comprehension in children with DLD and TD children. For TD children, comprehension occurs automatically through pattern recognition and linguistic chunking. For children with DLD, comprehension is cognitively effortful. Whereas canonical comprehension occurs through chunking, noncanonical comprehension develops on a word-by-word basis.Supplemental Materialhttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7178939 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Modifying and Validating a Measure of Chronic Stress for People With Aphasia
Conclusion Although questions remain about the biological correlates of chronic stress in people with poststroke aphasia, significant associations between chronic stress and several psychosocial variables provide evidence of validity of this emerging measure of chronic stress. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

An Eye-Tracking Study of Receptive Verb Knowledge in Toddlers
Conclusions The dynamic nature of videos depicting verb knowledge results in differences in eye-gaze as compared to static images depicting nouns. An eye-tracking assessment of verb knowledge is worthwhile to develop. However, the particular dependent measures used may be different than those used for static images and nouns. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Identification of Affective State Change in Adults With Aphasia Using Speech Acoustics
Conclusions The results suggest the existence of objectively measurable aspects of speech that may be used to identify changes in acute affect from adults with aphasia. This work is exploratory and hypothesis-generating; more work will be needed to make conclusive claims. Further work in this area could lead to automated tools to assist clinicians with their diagnoses of stress, depression, and other forms of affect in adults with aphasia. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The Coexistence of Disabling Conditions in Children Who Stutter: Evidence From the National Health Interview Survey
This study sample included 62,450 children, of which 1,231 were CWS. Overall, the presence of at least 1 disabling developmental condition was 5.5 times higher in CWS when compared with children who do not stutter. The presence of stuttering was also associated with higher odds of each of the following coexisting developmental conditions: intellectual disability (odds ratio [OR] = 6.67,p
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Individualized Patient Vocal Priorities for Tailored Therapy
Conclusions A patient's vocal priorities can be identified and taken into consideration in planning behavioral or surgical intervention for a voice disorder. Inclusion of vocal priorities in treatment planning empowers the patient in shared decision making, helps the clinician tailor treatment, and may also improve therapy compliance. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

School-Aged Children's Phonological Accuracy in Multisyllabic Words on a Whole-Word Metric
Conclusion Phonological accuracy in MSW production was differentiated for elementary school –aged children with TD and PPD, using a whole-word metric. To assist with the identification of children with ongoing PPD, the metric has the ability to detect weaknesses and track progress in global MSW phonological production. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Frequencies in Perception and Production Differentially Affect Child Speech
Conclusions The results confirm that the input can be facilitative, but input frequency and production practice interact in ways that limit input-based learning, and more input is not always better. Future research on this interaction may allow clinicians to optimize various types of frequency commonly used during therapy. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Data-Driven Classification of Dysarthria Profiles in Children With Cerebral Palsy
Conclusion This study provides initial evidence that different speech profiles exist among 5-year-old children with dysarthria secondary to CP, even among children with similar intelligibility levels, suggesting the potential for developing a pediatric dysarthria classification system that could be used to stratify children with dysarthria into meaningful subgroups for studying speech motor development and efficacy of interventions. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - December 10, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions Reveal an Efficient Auditory Efferent Network
Conclusions The results suggest that even the earliest stages of speech comprehension are modulated by top-down influences, resulting in changes to SOAEs depending on the presence of bimodal or unimodal input. Neural processes responsible for changes in cochlear function are sensitive to redundancy across auditory and visual input channels and coordinate activity to maximize efficiency in the auditory periphery. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Vocal Biomarkers of Mild-to-Moderate Hearing Loss in Children and Adults: Voiceless Sibilants
Conclusions At least one aspect of speech production (voiceless sibilants) is measurably affected by high-frequency hearing loss and is related to speech perception in children. Speech production did not predict speech perception in adults, suggesting a more complex relationship between auditory feedback and feedforward mechanisms with age. Even so, these results suggest that this vocal biomarker may be useful for identifying the presence of high-frequency hearing loss in adults and children and for predicting the impact of hearing loss in children. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Effect of Dual-Carrier Processing on the Intelligibility of Concurrent Vocoded Sentences
Conclusions The data showed a clear benefit of using a distinct carrier to convey each sentence (i.e., DC processing). Accordingly, the poor speech intelligibility in noise typically observed with SC-vocoded speech may be partly attributed to the envelope of independent sound sources sharing the same carrier. Moreover, this work suggests that noise reduction may not be the only viable option to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of cochlear implants. Alternative approaches aimed at enhancing sound source segregation such as DC processing may help to improve speech intelligibility while preserving and enhanci...
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Time Course of the Second Morpheme Processing During Spoken Disyllabic Compound Word Recognition in Chinese
Conclusion Findings in this study suggest that semantic information of both the 2nd morpheme and the whole word of a compound was activated in spoken word recognition and that the meaning activation of the 2nd morpheme followed the activation of the whole word. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The Dimensionality of Oral Language in Kindergarten Spanish –English Dual Language Learners
Conclusions These results indicate that a general language ability may underlie development in both Spanish and English. In contrast to a unidimensional structure found for monolingual English-speaking kindergarteners, oral language appears to be multidimensional in Spanish –English DLL kindergarteners, but multidimensionality is reflected in Spanish, not English. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Measuring Articulation Rate: A Comparison of Two Methods
Conclusions The MAR method is a valid method to measure articulation rate. However, it cannot be used interchangeably with the prevailing global method. Further standardization of the MAR method is needed before general clinical use can be suggested. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Minimally Detectable Change and Minimal Clinically Important Difference of a Decline in Sentence Intelligibility and Speaking Rate for Individuals With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Conclusions The findings suggest that declines greater than 12% sentence intelligibility and 37 WPM are required to be outside measurement error and that these estimates vary widely across dysarthria severities. The MDC and MCID metrics used in this study to detect real and clinically relevant change should be estimated for other measures of speech outcomes in intervention research. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

A Survey of Clinician Decision Making When Identifying Swallowing Impairments and Determining Treatment
Conclusions Poor to modest agreement in swallowing impairment identification, frequent false positives, and wide variability in treatment planning recommendations suggest that additional research and training in healthy and disordered swallowing are needed to increase accurate dysphagia diagnosis and treatment among clinicians. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Human Voice as a Measure of Mental Load Level
Conclusions Some acoustic parameters of the human voice could be an appropriate and efficient means for detecting mental load levels. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Treating Speech Movement Hypokinesia in Parkinson's Disease: Does Movement Size Matter?
Conclusions This study demonstrated that using an augmented visual feedback approach is beneficial, beyond a verbal cue alone, in addressing articulatory hypokinesia in individuals with PD. An optimal degree of articulatory expansion might, however, be required to elicit a speech intelligibility benefit. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The Shape Bias in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Sources of Individual Differences
Conclusions These findings suggest that no single account sufficiently explains the observed individual differences in shape bias performance in children with ASD. Nonetheless, these findings break new ground in highlighting the role of social communicative interactions as integral to understanding specific language outcomes (i.e., the shape bias) in children with ASD, especially those with low verbal abilities, and point to new hypotheses concerning the linguistic content of these interactions.Presentation Videohttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7299581 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Early Motor and Communicative Development in Infants With an Older Sibling With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Conclusions Advances in communicative and language development are supported by advances in motor skill. When these advances are slowed and/or when new skills are not consolidated and remain challenging for the infant, the enhanced potential for exploration afforded by new abilities and the concomitant increase in opportunities for learning are reduced. Improving our understanding of communicative delays of the sort observed in ASD and developing effective intervention methods requires going beyond the individual to consider the constant, complex interplay between developing communicators and their environments.Presentatio...
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Lexical Development in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): How ASD May Affect Intake From the Input
Conclusion Our review of studies that examine lexical development in children with ASD suggests that innovative intervention approaches that take into account both the social communication and processing demands of the learning situation may be particularly beneficial. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Executive Function Skills in School-Age Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Association With Language Abilities
Conclusions There is a need for future research to examine the direction of influence between EF and language. It would be beneficial for EF interventions with children with ASD to consider language outcomes and, conversely, to examine whether specific language training facilitates aspects of executive control in children on the autism spectrum.Presentation Videohttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7298144 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

SMARTer Approach to Personalizing Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Conclusion Bridging the gap between research studies and clinical practice can be advanced by research that attempts to answer questions pertinent to the broad heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder, their response to interventions, and the fact that a single intervention is not effective for all children.Presentation Videohttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7298021 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Changing Developmental Trajectories of Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Strategies for Bridging Research to Community Practice
Conclusions Current health care and education systems are challenged to provide intervention of adequate intensity for toddlers with ASD. The use of innovative technology can increase acceleration of access to evidence-based early intervention for toddlers with ASD that addresses health disparities, enables immediate response as soon as ASD is suspected, and rapidly bridges the research-to-practice gap.Presentation Videohttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7297817 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Introduction to the Research Symposium Forum
Purpose The purpose of this introduction is to provide an overview of the articles contained within this research forum ofJSLHR. Each of these articles is based upon presentations from the 2017 ASHA Research Symposium. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Pilot Study of Audiometric Patterns in Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy
Conclusion In the first study to use objectively measured hearing, FCD was associated with poorer low-frequency and better high-frequency audiometric thresholds than population controls. Further studies are needed to characterize this relationship. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Hearing Loss Treatment in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review
Conclusion Based on the systematic review, evidence suggests that treating hearing loss in persons with cognitive impairment can have benefits to communication and quality of life. Because of the quasi- and nonexperimental nature of most of the evidence found in this review, further studies are necessary to understand the effect of treatment in the context of a variable and progressive disease. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Perceptual Organization of Interrupted Speech and Text
Conclusion The observed rate-specific variation in the perception of speech and text may potentially affect the degree to which recognition accuracy in one modality is predictive of the other. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Development of Phonological, Lexical, and Syntactic Abilities in Children With Cochlear Implants Across the Elementary Grades
Conclusions Congenital hearing loss puts children at continued risk of language deficits, especially for phonologically based skills. Two interventions that appear to ameliorate that risk are providing a period of bimodal stimulation and strong literacy instruction. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Dynamic Assessment of Narratives Among Navajo Preschoolers
Conclusion The PEARL is a promising assessment for accurately differentiating Navajo preschool children with LI from those with TD language, particularly with a revised pretest cutoff score. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Changes in English Past Tense Use by Bilingual School-Age Children With and Without Developmental Language Disorder
Discussion Contrary to an earlier report (Jacobson& Schwartz, 2005), the relative greater difficulty with regular and novel verbs was replaced by greater difficulty for irregular past tense, a pattern consistent with monolingual impairment. Age was a contributing factor, particularly for younger children with DLD who produced more stem + ing errors in the novel verb condition. For all children, and particularly for those with DLD, an extended period for irregular past tense learning was evident. The results support a usage-based theory of language acquisition and impairment. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Explaining Reading Comprehension in Children With Developmental Language Disorder: The Importance of Elaborative Inferencing
Conclusions These results indicate that interventions targeting the reading comprehension of children with DLD should focus on elaborative inferencing skill. There are also clinical implications as the development of new standardized assessments differentiating between inference types is called for. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Erratum
(Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Characteristics of Speech Rate in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Longitudinal Study
Conclusions There were no significant age-related differences in speech rate in children with CP regardless of group membership. Sentence length differentially impacted speech rate and its characteristics in both groups of children with CP. This may be due to cognitive –linguistic and/or speech motor control factors. (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Examining Factors Influencing the Viability of Automatic Acoustic Analysis of Child Speech
Conclusions Alignment accuracy of child speech can be improved by using more specific training and transcription. However, poor alignment accuracy was not found to impede acoustic analysis of /s/ produced by even very young children. Thus, forced alignment presents a useful tool for the analysis of child speech.Supplemental Materialhttps://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7070105 (Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research)
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Bilingual Speech Sound Development During the Preschool Years: The Role of Language Proficiency and Cross-Linguistic Relatedness
Conclusions This study is the first to document developmental changes in the speech patterns of Spanish –English bilingual preschool children over 1 year. Accuracy rates improved significantly in both languages, suggesting that enhanced exposure to the majority language at school may not impede phonological development in the home language. Bootstrapping effects were particularly pronounced on cross -linguistically shared sounds, which suggests that the same underlying skills are utilized in both languages, whereas language-specific singleton consonants and consonant clusters did not appear to benefit from exposure t...
Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research