The protective effect of endothelin receptor antagonists against surgically induced impairment of gastrointestinal motility in rats.
This study indicates that delay in the intestinal transit in late phase of surgically induced POI involves an ET-dependent mechanism. PMID: 31527357 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - September 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of rubratoxin A, a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2, on the Ca2+-dependent contraction of skinned carotid artery from guinea pig.
Authors: Naraki Y, Watanabe M, Takeya K Abstract Rubratoxin A, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is known to suppress smooth muscle contraction. The inhibitory role of PP2A in smooth muscle contraction is still unclear. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanisms of PP2A on vascular smooth muscle contractility, we examined the effects of rubratoxin A on the Ca2+-induced contraction of β-escin skinned carotid artery preparations from guinea pigs. Rubratoxin A at 1 µM and 10 µM significantly inhibited skinned carotid artery contraction at any Ca2+ concentration. The data fitting to the Hill equation in [...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Sustained exposure to prostaglandin D2 augments the contraction induced by acetylcholine via a DP1 receptor-mediated activation of p38 in bronchial smooth muscle of naive mice.
Authors: Suto W, Sakai H, Chiba Y Abstract Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), one of the key lipid mediators of allergic airway inflammation, is increased in the airways of asthmatics. However, the role of PGD2 in the pathogenesis of asthma is not fully understood. In the present study, effects of PGD2 on smooth muscle contractility of the airways were determined to elucidate its role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In a murine model of allergic asthma, antigen challenge to the sensitized animals caused a sustained increase in PGD2 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, indicating that smooth ...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 30, 2019 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

The impact of Pompe disease on smooth muscle: a review.
Authors: McCall AL, Salemi J, Bhanap P, Strickland LM, Elmallah MK Abstract Pompe disease (OMIM 232300) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding acid α-glucosidase (GAA) (EC 3.2.1.20), the enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing lysosomal glycogen. The primary cellular pathology is lysosomal glycogen accumulation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and motor neurons, which ultimately results in cardiorespiratory failure. However, the severity of pathology and its impact on clinical outcomes are poorly described in smooth muscle. The advent of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in 2...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - February 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the brain regulate phase II of migrating motor contractions in the Suncus murinus.
Authors: Horita T, Koyama K, Takemi S, Tanaka T, Sakai T, Sakata I Abstract Gastric contractions exhibit characteristic motor patterns in the fasted state, known as migrating motor contractions (MMC). MMC consist of three periodically repeated phases (phase I, II and III) and are known to be regulated by hormones and the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. However, the central regulation of gastric contractions in the fasted state is not completely understood. Here, we have examined the central effects of motilin, ghrelin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamate signaling on gastric MMC by using suncus ...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - February 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Role of calcium channels and endothelial factors in nickel induced aortic hypercontraction in Wistar rats.
CONCLUSION: Nickel has caused augmentation of PE-induced contractions as a result of the endothelial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) dependent endothelium contracting factors (EDCFs), which increases the influx of extracellular calcium through T-type Ca2+ channels in smooth muscle cells. PMID: 30210089 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - September 14, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

MECHANOMEDICINE: applications of mechanobiology to medical sciences and next-generation medical technologies.
Authors: Naruse K Abstract Mechanical stress underlies most aspects of cell and organismal biology. Mechanomedicine is a field of biology that seeks to understand molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and individual responses to mechanical stimuli and aims to apply the gained knowledge to improve health. Combining biology and engineering, we explore research areas including mechanosensitive ion channels, heart failure, and regenerative medicine.This review will describe our findings in mechanobiology, our establishment of a joint venture business as we developed devices responding to medical needs, and our alliance w...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - September 14, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

The effects of stress during the mirror drawing test on electrogastrograms of subjects who underwent gastrointestinal surgery involving either total gastrectomy, distal gastrectomy, or total esophagectomy with colonic replacement.
Authors: Homma S Abstract Electrogastrograms (EGGs) were recorded from 16 locations on the thoraco-abdominal surface to find the maximum absolute power foci during rest (RAP) and the maximum ratio of the % content during the mirror drawing test (MDT) compared to that during rest (%C-MDT/R) for both the 3 cpm (2.4-4.9) and 6 cpm (5.0-7.4) groups. The maximum foci were obtained from control subjects and those who received gastro-intestinal surgery via total gastrectomy (TG), distal gastrectomy (DG), and total esophagectomy with colonic replacement (CR). The control mean of the infraumbilical channels 10-16 (I) expres...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - July 28, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Mitochondria in smooth muscle cells of viscera.
Authors: Gabella G Abstract The spatial density of mitochondria was studied by thin-section electron microscopy in smooth muscles of bladder, iris and gut in mice, rats, guinea-pigs and sheep. Morphometric data included areas of muscle cell profiles (~6,000 muscle cells were measured) and areas of their mitochondria (more than three times as many). The visual method delivers accurate estimates of the extent of the chondrioma (the ensemble of mitochondria in a cell), measuring all and only the mitochondria in each muscle cell and no other cells. The digital records obtained can be used again for checks and new searc...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - July 28, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Functional comparison of anoctamin 1 antagonists on human uterine smooth muscle contractility and excitability.
CONCLUSION: While all 3 ANO1 antagonists attenuate pregnant human uterine tissue contractility and excitability, BB is the most potent tocolytic drug. Our findings may serve as a foundation for future structure-function analyses for novel tocolytic drug development. PMID: 29937453 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - June 27, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

β-Adrenoceptor subtypes and cAMP role in adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced relaxation in the rat thoracic aorta.
Conclusion In rat thoracic aorta, AD- and NA-induced relaxations, which are both strongly dependent on increased tissue cAMP levels, are mainly mediated through β2- and β1-adrenoceptors respectively. PMID: 29540622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 17, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological identification of β-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating isoprenaline-induced relaxation of guinea pig colonic longitudinal smooth muscle.
Conclusion These findings indicated that the β-AR subtypes involved in isoprenaline-induced relaxation of colonic longitudinal guinea pig muscles are β1-AR and β3-AR. PMID: 29540623 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 17, 2018 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Role of mast cells in bronchial contraction in nonallergic obstructive lung pathology.
Authors: Kuzubova NA, Lebedeva ES, Titova ON, Fedin AN, Dvorakovskaya IV Abstract The role of mast cells in contractile bronchial smooth muscle activity has been evaluated in a model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced in rats that were intermittently exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 60 days. Starting from the 31st day, one group of rats inhaled sodium cromoglycate before exposure to NO2 to stabilize mast cell membranes. The second group (control) was not treated. Isometric smooth muscle contraction was analysed in isolated bronchial samples in response to nerve and smooth muscle stimulation. Hist...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Gastric emptying after artificial ulceration in rats: differences due to the site of the ulcer and the effects of prokinetic drugs.
Conclusion These findings show that gastric emptying is influenced by the position of the ulcer and the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall plays an important role in gastric emptying. Moreover, it was found that metoclopramide and mosapride do not improve the delayed gastric emptying caused by acetic acid ulcers induced on the anterior wall in the region between the fundus and pylorus. PMID: 28652516 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Role of prostatic interstitial cells in prostate motility.
Authors: Lang RJ, Hashitani H Abstract The prostate is a gland whose secretions contribute to the seminal fluids ejaculated upon activation of autonomic sympathetic nerves. In elder males, the prostate undergoes an increase in stroma mass and myogenic tone, leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia that occludes the proximal urethra and the presentation of various lower urinary tract symptoms that decrease their quality of life. This review summarises the role of prostatic interstitial cells (PICs) in the generation of the spontaneous tone in the prostate. It presents current knowledge of the role of Ca(2+) plays in ...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

The expression of genes involved in myometrial contractility changes during ex situ culture of pregnant human uterine smooth muscle tissue.
CONCLUSION: Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes culture-induced gene expression changes consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. Changes in ESR1, PTGS2 and OXTR expression could not be controlled simultaneously. Until optimal culture conditions are determined, results of in vitro experiments with myometrial tissues should be interpreted with caution. PMID: 28652518 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of hyper-contractility of bronchial smooth muscle in allergic asthma.
Authors: Sakai H, Suto W, Kai Y, Chiba Y Abstract Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation are key pathophysiological features of asthma. Enhanced contraction of bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) is one of the causes of the AHR. It is thus important for development of asthma therapy to understand the change in the contractile signaling of airway smooth muscle cells associated with the AHR. In addition to the Ca(2+)-mediated phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC), contractile agonists also enhance MLC phosphorylation level, Ca(2+)-independently, by inactivating MLC phosphatase (MLCP), called Ca(2+) sensiti...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - May 11, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Diversity and plasticity in signaling pathways that regulate smooth muscle responsiveness: Paradigms and paradoxes for the myosin phosphatase, the master regulator of smooth muscle contraction.
Authors: Eto M, Kitazawa T Abstract A hallmark of smooth muscle cells is their ability to adapt their functions to meet temporal and chronic fluctuations in their demands. These functions include force development and growth. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the functional plasticity of smooth muscles, the major constituent of organ walls, is fundamental to elucidating pathophysiological rationales of failures of organ functions. Also, the knowledge is expected to facilitate devising innovative strategies that more precisely monitor and normalize organ functions by targeting individual smooth muscles. Eviden...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Changes in renal vessels associated with long-term administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in Zucker fatty rats.
In this study, we investigated renal afferent arteriolar changes induced by the long-term administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in ZFRs. Materials and Methods Fourteen 6-week-old male ZFRs were divided into two groups (n=14): the ZFR+ACEI group (n=6) was fed a standard diet containing ACEI (Enalapril, 2 mg/kg/day), and the ZFR control group (n=8) for 12 weeks. Blood pressure and proteinuria were examined and morphological studies on kidneys were performed. Results Remarkable proliferative changes in the afferent arteriolar SMCs were frequently observed in the group given ACEI; (66.1 ±...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of Lemur catta L.
Authors: Elofsson R, Kröger RH Abstract The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter. PMID: 28260706 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Deterioration of epithelium mediated mechanisms in diabetic-antigen sensitized airways of guinea pigs.
CONCLUSION: EpDHF pathway is damaged in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways. Diabetes further aggravates the NO and COX mediated pathways in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways. PMID: 28025466 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - December 29, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Significant contribution of TRPC6 channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease fibrotic stenosis.
Authors: Kurahara LH, Hiraishi K, Sumiyoshi M, Doi M, Hu Y, Aoyagi K, Jian Y, Inoue R Abstract Intestinal fibrosis is an intractable complication of Crohn's disease (CD), and, when occurring excessively, causes severe intestinal obstruction that often necessitates surgical resection. The fibrosis is characterized by an imbalance in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, where intestinal fibroblasts/myofibroblasts play active roles in ECM production, fibrogenesis and tissue remodeling, which eventually leads to the formation of stenotic lesions. There is however a great paucity of knowledge about how...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - November 9, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

MYPT1 isoforms expressed in HEK293T cells are differentially phosphorylated after GTP γS treatment.
This study was designed to determine if Rho kinase differentially phosphorylates MYPT1 isoforms. In HEK293T cells expressing each of the four MYPT1 isoforms, we could not detect a change in Thr853 MYPT1 phosphorylation following GTPγS treatment. However, there is differential phosphorylation of MYPT1 isoforms at Thr696; GTPγS treatment increases MYPT1 phosphorylation for the CI+LZ- and CI-LZ- MYPT1 isoforms, but not the CI+LZ+ or CI-LZ+ MYPT1 isoforms. These data could suggest that in smooth muscle Rho kinase differentially phosphorylates MYPT1 isoforms. PMID: 27725371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - October 14, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Influence of amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation (accommodation) in rats as evaluated with a barostat.
CONCLUSION: Among the amino acids evaluated in the present study, glycine and l-serine significantly enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation, suggesting that short alkyl chain amino acids may enhance gastric adaptive relaxation as compared with the other amino acids. These findings may suggest that glycine and l-serine would be useful in the therapy of functional dyspepsia, especially for early satiety, because the dysfunction of adaptive relaxation is one of the causes of early satiety. PMID: 27558952 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - August 27, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Highly sensitive myosin phosphorylation analysis in the renal afferent arteriole.
Authors: Takeya K Abstract The regulation of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation involves phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of regulatory proteins, particularly myosin. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms, analyzing the phosphorylation signal transduction is crucial. Although a pharmacological approach with selective inhibitors is sensitive and a useful technique, it leads to speculation regarding a signaling pathway but does not provide direct evidence of changes at a molecular level. We developed a highly sensitive biochemical technique to analyze phosphorylation by adapting Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. With th...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - July 6, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying evaluated using a non-invasive breath test in conscious rats.
CONCLUSION: The results show that the amino acids used in the present study had different effects on gastric emptying. Moreover, it was found that inhibition and delay of gastric emptying were clearly classifiable by analyzing the change in (13)CO2 content of the expired air and the Cmax, Tmax and AUC120min values. PMID: 27169776 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - May 15, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

TRPA1-dependent regulation of bladder detrusor smooth muscle contractility in normal and type I diabetic rats.
Authors: Philyppov IB, Paduraru ON, Gulak KL, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N, Shuba YM Abstract TRPA1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel that is activated by painful low temperatures (
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 5, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol can both enhance and relax adrenergic contractions of the rat tail artery.
Authors: Stom SM, Phelps LE, Peuler JD Abstract Our aims were to determine 1) if resveratrol's vasorelaxant action is greater in the distal (resistance) versus proximal (conductance) portion of the rat tail artery, and 2) if it can be blocked by agents known to block different potassium (K) channels in arterial smooth muscle. We found that its half-maximally effective concentration values were essentially identical (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μM) for relaxing adrenergically-precontracted rings prepared from distal versus proximal tissues. This does not confirm a previous report of greater relaxation in r...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - March 5, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Existence of c-Kit negative cells with ultrastructural features of interstitial cells of Cajal in the subserosal layer of the W/Wv mutant mouse colon.
In this study, the characterization of interstitial cells in the subserosal layer of W/Wv mice was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. In the proximal and distal colon of W/Wv mutant mice, no c-Kit-positive cells were detected in the subserosal layer by immunohistochemistry. By electron microscopy, the interstitial cells, which were characterized by the existence of caveolae, abundant mitochondria and gap junctions, were observed in the W/Wv mutant colon.The morphological characteristics were comparable to those of the multipolar c-Kit positive ICC seen in the subserosa of proximal and distal colon of...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - January 16, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Force-inhibiting effect of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A inhibitors on bovine ciliary muscle.
Force-inhibiting effect of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A inhibitors on bovine ciliary muscle. J Smooth Muscle Res. 2015;51(0):10-21 Authors: Ishida M, Takeya K, Miyazu M, Yoshida A, Takai A Abstract Ciliary muscle is a smooth muscle characterized by a rapid response to muscarinic receptor stimulation and sustained contraction. Although it is evident that these contractions are Ca2+-dependent, detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. In order to elucidate the role of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ciliary muscle contraction, we examined the effects of okadaic acid and other PP2A inhib...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - January 16, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Sildenafil does not enhance but rather attenuates vasorelaxant effects of antidiabetic agents.
Sildenafil does not enhance but rather attenuates vasorelaxant effects of antidiabetic agents. J Smooth Muscle Res. 2015;51(0):22-36 Authors: Peuler JD, Phelps LE Abstract Type 2 diabetic men commonly experience erectile dysfunction for which phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors like sildenafil (Viagra) are often recommended. By preventing degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in vascular smooth muscle, these inhibitors also enhance arterial vasorelaxant effects of nitric oxide donors (which stimulate cGMP synthesis). In the present work, we confirmed this enhancing effect after co-admi...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - January 16, 2016 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Activation of 5-HT4 receptors facilitates neurogenesis of injured enteric neurons at an anastomosis in the lower gut.
Authors: Takaki M, Goto K, Kawahara I, Nabekura J Abstract Two-photon microscopy (2PM) can enable high-resolution deep imaging of thick tissue by exciting a fluorescent dye and protein at anastomotic sites in the mouse small intestine in vivo. We performed gut surgery and transplanted neural stem cells (NSC) from the embryonic central nervous system after marking them with the fluorescent cell linker, PKH26. We found that neurons differentiated from transplanted NSC (PKH [+]) and newborn enteric neurons differentiated from mobilized (host) NSC (YFP [+]) could be localized within the granulation tissue of anastomose...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - December 16, 2015 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and endothelial dysfunction: molecular insights and pathophysiological mechanisms.
Authors: Taguchi K, Matsumoto T, Kobayashi T Abstract Smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells are the major cell types in blood vessels. The principal function of vascular SMC in the body is to regulate blood flow and pressure through contraction and relaxation. The endothelium performs a crucial role in maintaining vascular integrity by achieving whole-organ metabolic homeostasis via the production of factors associated with vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. In this review, we have focused on the production of nitric oxide (NO), a vasorelaxation factor. The extent of NO production represents a key marker...
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ulcerative colitis have altered resting gastric myoelectrical activity during the remission phase of the disease. PMID: 26447103 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Ca(2+) dependent but PKC independent signalling mediates UTP induced contraction of rat mesenteric arteries.
In conclusion, both UTP induced contraction of mesenteric artery and the inhibition of Kv and KATP currents of mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells by UTP are relatively independent of PKC activation; furthermore, the inhibition of both Kv and KATP currents requires intracellular Ca(2+). PMID: 26447104 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research

Intensity of swimming exercise influences tracheal reactivity in rats.
In conclusion, a single bout of swimming exercise acutely altered tracheal responsiveness in an intensity-related manner and the elevation in lipid peroxidation indicates a degree of oxidative stress involvement. PMID: 26497013 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research)
Source: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Research Tags: J Smooth Muscle Res Source Type: research