The Influence of Stadia and the Built Environment on the Spatial Distribution of Crime
ConclusionsOur findings provide further support for ecological theories of crime and how factors that influence the likely convergence of people in urban spaces affect levels of crime. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - December 5, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A Field-Wide Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Putative Risk and Protective Factors for Radicalization Outcomes
ConclusionsThe most commonly researched factors, sociodemographic factors, have exceptionally small effects, even when effect sizes are derived from bivariate relationships. The finding regarding the effects of radical attitudes on intentions and actions provide empirical support for existing theoretical frameworks. The consistency among the clustering of familiar criminogenic factors within the rank-order could have implications for the development of a more evidence based approach to risk assessment and counter violent extremism policies. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - December 3, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Integrating the Literature on Police Use of Deadly Force and Police Lethal Victimization: How Does Place Impact Fatal Police –Citizen Encounters?
ConclusionsA more complete understanding of fatal police –citizen encounters requires considering police use of lethal force and police lethal victimization concurrently in their broader social contexts. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 30, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Mobile Phones and Crime: The Protective Effect of Mobile Network Infrastructures
ConclusionsThis study highlights the necessity of extending the study of crime with a technological dimension of other emerging technologies (e.g., augmented reality and location-based mobile games) on crime. Further, it supports the notion that (1) the maintenance of mobile network infrastructures might be a matter of public interest; and (2) in some cases, mobile phones can be a useful and cost-effective crime reduction measure which is worth to be considered in the process of extending the government's catalog of crime countermeasures. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 27, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Are Relational Inferences from Crowdsourced and Opt-in Samples Generalizable? Comparing Criminal Justice Attitudes in the GSS and Five Online Samples
ConclusionsOnline non-probability samples appear useful for estimating the direction but not the magnitude of relationships between variables, at least absent effective model-based adjustments. However, adjusting only for demographics, either through weighting or statistical control, is insufficient. We recommend that researchers conduct both a provisional generalizability check and a model-specification test before using these samples to make relational inferences. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 13, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Mapping Attitudes Towards the Police at Micro Places
ConclusionsAsking survey respondents to provide the nearest intersection to where they live is a simple approach to mapping attitudes towards police at micro places. This approach provides advantages beyond those of using traditional neighborhood boundaries. Specifically, it provides more precise locations police may target interventions, as well as illuminates an important predictor (i.e., nearby violent crimes) of policing attitudes. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - October 25, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Measuring the Direct and Spillover Effects of Body Worn Cameras on the Civility of Police –Citizen Encounters and Police Work Activities
ConclusionsThe results of this study suggest that a limited BWC adoption may generate spillover deterrent impacts as officers and citizens perceive an increased threat that inappropriate and illegal behaviors will be captured on video even when BWCs are not actually present during an encounter. Partial BWC implementation seems like a cost-effective alternative to full implementation. However, police executives and policy makers need to think carefully about possible negative externalities generated by uneven BWC coverage. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - October 19, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Situational Correlates of Adolescent Substance Use: An Improved Test of the Routine Activity Theory of Deviant Behavior
ConclusionsSupporting the routine activity theory of deviance, we conclude that unstructured activity, peer presence and absence of authority figures are situational factors that facilitate substance use. In contrast to what the theory proposes, and relevant for parents and professionals, these factors function independently and need not all be present simultaneously for deviant behavior to occur. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - October 17, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

“Location, Location, Location”: Effects of Neighborhood and House Attributes on Burglars’ Target Selection
ConclusionsBoth area-level and target-level attributes are found to affect burglars ’ target choices. Our results offer support for theoretical accounts of burglary target selection that characterize it as being informed both by attributes of individual properties and attributes of the environment as well as combinations thereof. This spatial decision-making model implies that en vironmental information at multiple and increasingly finer scales of spatial resolution informs crime site selection. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - October 11, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens ’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial
We provide the corrected results table below. Note that this correction does not alter the findings from the analysis, nor the interpretation of results. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - September 17, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Maternal Parenting Stress Following Paternal or Close Family Incarceration: Bayesian Model-Based Profiling Using the HILDA Longitudinal Survey
ConclusionsNeither PI nor CFI helped profile mothers. Thus, research should examine wider family incarceration effects on children and caregivers. Prior adversity, wellbeing and family demographics contributed to the cluster profiles. Parenting stress is heterogeneous and improved methods are needed to disentangle the effects of incarceration from other contextual, recent and cumulative adverse events in people ’s lives. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - September 10, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The Effect of Police Use of Lethal Force on Murder Levels in American Cities Before and After Ferguson
ConclusionsChanges in policing following the events of Ferguson had a generally positive but uneven effect. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 30, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Pathways: Examining Street Network Configurations, Structural Characteristics and Spatial Crime Patterns in Street Segments
ConclusionsThe current study highlights that there is an important relationship of the physical environment in terms of the street network configuration and crime in street segments. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 30, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Application of Rational Choice Theory: How Costs Imposed by, and Benefits Derived from, the U.S. Federal Government Affect Incidents Perpetrated by the Radical Eco-Movement
ConclusionsTheorizing as to why such nuanced findings were discovered, we conclude that the decision-making process of the radical eco-movement is more complex than originally anticipated. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 30, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Socially Demoralizing Environments and the Development of the Street Code from Childhood to Emerging Adulthood
ConclusionThe street code is malleable from childhood through emerging adulthood. Commitment to the street code is not a stable product of socialization or early childhood social  environmental exposures. The degree to which individuals embrace the code is largely a function of their current social environment. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 26, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Dynamic Patterns of Terrorist Networks: Efficiency and Security in the Evolution of Eleven Islamic Extremist Attack Networks
ConclusionsOur findings have the potential to inform counterterrorism efforts by suggesting which actors in the network make the most influential targets for law enforcement. We discuss how these strategies should vary as extremist networks evolve over time. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 22, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Industry Self-regulation Under Government Intervention
ConclusionsThese findings go in line with the theory that government intervention makes industry-self regulation more mandated and less voluntary. Under less government intervention, industry actors may promote more voluntary efforts to comply. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 20, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Psychological Distress, Terrorist Involvement and Disengagement from Terrorism: A Sequence Analysis Approach
ConclusionsThe results helped highlight the complexity of ‘being’ a terrorist; multiple factors at individual, social, and group levels impact on an individual as they pass through life. Individuals engaged within terrorism encounter a number of risk factors, which if an individual has lower baseline levels of individual resilience and is not fully com mitted to the group identity, may impact them psychologically. The results highlighted that it is not the presence of risk factors which impact on an individual, but how they perceive these risk factors. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - August 1, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Exploring the Determinants of Crime-Terror Cooperation using Machine Learning
ConclusionsThe study finds that theory building should seek to examine temporal variation in the organizational structure of terrorist groups as a fruitful way forward for further understanding when a group is likely to engage in organized criminal behavior. It also suggests that scholars should seek to engage more critically with concepts surrounding the potential non-linear pathways in which groups end up engaging in organized crime. Finally, the results illustrate the utility of modern machine learning algorithms and inductive research processes for both academic and practitioner needs alike. Especially when dealing wit...
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - July 19, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Revisiting the Economics and Terrorism Nexus: Collective Deprivation, Ideology and Domestic Radicalization in the US (1948 –2016)
ConclusionsThe study challenges the view that economic conditions have no role in triggering terrorist mobilization. The differential effect of collective deprivation on far-right and far-left terrorism is compatible withsystem-justification andbacklash theories. Besides, the findings suggest that collective deprivation affects radicalization at an early phase rather than the offending phase. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - July 12, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A Social Interactionist Approach to the Victim-Offender Overlap
ConclusionsThe findings indicate the victim-offender overlap is partly due to the behaviors of offenders and third parties during disputes that significantly increase the risk of conflict escalation. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - June 28, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Crime and Terror: Examining Criminal Risk Factors for Terrorist Recidivism
ConclusionsMany factors, including sentence length, age, and prior terrorist criminal records show similar impacts upon terrorist offenders. However, others have opposing impacts. While prior criminality is a known risk factor for criminal offenders, recidivism of terrorists into further terrorism involvement is inhibited by prior criminal records as opposed to prior records for terrorism. Marital status, generally seen as an inhibitor of criminality increases re-offending for the first offender group. This might be explained by the financial incentives that terrorism offenders and their families receive from the Palestini...
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - June 26, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

As Violence Unfolds: A Space –Time Study of Situational Triggers of Violent Victimization Among Urban Youth
ConclusionThis study demonstrates the value of documenting how individuals navigate their daily activity space, and ultimately advances our understanding of youth violence from a real-time, real-life standpoint. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - June 25, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The Gender Gap in Sex Offender Punishment
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that female sex offenders are treated more leniently than their matched male counterparts, even in instances of more serious sex offenses and those involving minor victims. Findings support theoretical arguments that contend that court decision-making is influenced by legally-irrelevant characteristics and raise questions about the source of gendered views of sex offenders and their effects on punishment approaches. Findings also raise questions about the virtue of get-tough sentencing policies that provide leeway for such dramatic variation across different groups of people. (Source: Jour...
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - May 31, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The Crime of Animal Abuse in Two Nonwestern Cities: Prevalence, Perpetrators, and Pathways
ConclusionsPeople who abuse animals appear to do so partly because, due to low self-control and exposure to animal-abusing peers, they hold beliefs justifying the behavior and perceive greater benefits associated with it. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - May 29, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Concentrated and Close to Home: The Spatial Clustering and Distance Decay of Lone Terrorist Vehicular Attacks
ConclusionsThe findings indicate that the laws of crime concentration are applicable to the case of lone terrorist vehicular attacks. The results demonstrate the utility of the methodological approach to examining specific types of terror attacks. Such approaches may be useful for informing environmental based prevention policies and strategies. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - May 8, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Violent Dissident Republican Incidents in Belfast: A Comparison of Bombings and Bomb Hoaxes
ConclusionsRTM could be a useful tool in guiding targeted responses to the dissident Republican threat in Belfast. The results suggest that there is some assessment of risk by the offenders, and that they are selecting targets rationally. Due to the differences in risk factors for the two types of events it can be proposed that there may be differences between targets relevant to ideology and realistic targets with increased chance of success. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - April 17, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Prison and Violent Political Extremism in the United States
ConclusionsIn support of longstanding arguments that prison plays a major role in the identity and behavior of individuals after their release, we find consistent evidence that the post-prison use of politically motivated violence can be estimated in part by whether perpetrators spent time in prison and whether they were radicalized there. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - April 16, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The Application of the “Law of Crime Concentration” to Terrorism: The Jerusalem Case Study
ConclusionsThe concentration of terror attacks calls for a specialized counterterrorism response equivalent to “hot spots policing” based on the characteristics of the potential terrorist hot spots. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - April 15, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Street Egohood: An Alternative Perspective of Measuring Neighborhood and Spatial Patterns of Crime
ConclusionsA primary contribution of the current study is to develop and propose a new perspective of measuring neighborhood based on urban streets. We empirically demonstrated that whereas certain socio-demographic measures show the strongest relationship with crime when measured at the micro geographic unit of street segments, a number of them actually exhibited the strongest relationship when measured using our larger street egohoods. We hope future research can use egohoods to expand understanding of neighborhoods and crime. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - March 28, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Paying Money for Freedom: Effects of Monetary Compensation on Sentencing for Criminal Traffic Offenses in China
ConclusionsThe significant positive relationship between monetary compensation and lenient sentencing outcomes suggests that compensation plays a crucial role in the Chinese judicial process. Our study will not only help researchers to better understand the legal process in China, but it will also benefit the larger community as an example of utilizing new sources of data. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - February 20, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Homelessness and Incarceration: A Reciprocal Relationship?
ConclusionsOur study shows the importance of having adequate coverage for post-release programs to break the link between incarceration and homelessness. Specifically, we find that the critical period for ex-inmates starts 6  months after release suggesting that this may be the time when support programs are currently lacking and would be most efficient. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - February 18, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Crime Feeds on Legal Activities: Daily Mobility Flows Help to Explain Thieves ’ Target Location Choices
ConclusionsThe mobility flow measure is a useful addition to the estimated effects of distance and crime generators. It predicts the locations of thefts much better than the presence of crime generators does. However, it does not replace the role of distance, suggesting that offenders are more spatially restricted than others, or that even within their activity spaces they prefer to offend near their homes. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - February 13, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Gang Organization and Gang Identity: An Investigation of Enduring Gang Membership
ConclusionsThis research finds support for using a theoretical framework based on gang organization and gang identity to understand enduring gang membership. Both gang identity and gang organization exert independent effects on the length of time an individual spends in a gang. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - February 11, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The Effect of Facility Security Classification on Serious Rules Violation Reports in California Prisons: A Regression Discontinuity Design
ConclusionsThe fuzzy regression discontinuity design allows for a rigorous way to estimate the causal effect of facility security classification on rules violation reports in California prisons, providing an evidence base for policy-makers facing capacity constraints within the prison system while at the same time updating the extant literature on the effects of an important feature of prison structure on inmate outcomes. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - January 24, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Reducing Bias in Estimates for the Law of Crime Concentration
ConclusionsThe Poisson –Gamma method has applications to measuring the concentration of rare events, comparisons of concentration across cities of different sizes, and improving time series estimates of crime concentration. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - January 14, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Correction to: Incarceration and Personal Networks: Unpacking Measures and Meanings of Tie Strength
The original version of the article contained an error in the text. The corrected text should read as. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - January 7, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Investigating the Assignment of Probation Conditions: Heterogeneity and the Role of Race and Ethnicity
ConclusionsLCA has the potential of classifying the multiple components of probation sentences without masking the heterogeneous nature of the conditions and imposing classification systems. Heterogeneity in the assignment of probation conditions represents a source of racial and ethnic sentencing disparities. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - December 14, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

What They Don ’t Know Says A Lot: Residents’ Knowledge of Neighborhood Crime in Contemporary China
ConclusionsUnderstanding the meanings behind DK has important implications for whether to include the DK option in survey designs and how to handle DK responses in data analysis when they occur. When DK is a valid answer for many respondents, not including the DK option in the survey instrument forces respondents to choose a nonexistent answer, which can result in misleading interpretations. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - December 11, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Criminal Offending and Mortality over the Full Life-Course: A 70-Year Follow-up of the Cambridge –Somerville Youth Study
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the relationship between criminal offending and mortality over the full life-course of treatment group participants in the Cambridge –Somerville Youth Study (CSYS).MethodsThe CSYS is a delinquency prevention experiment and prospective longitudinal survey of the development of offending. Begun in 1939, the study involves 506 at-risk boys, ages 5 –13 years (mean birth year = 1928), from Cambridge and Somerville, Massachusetts. Following the analytic strategy of Joan McCord, participants are drawn from the study’s longitudinal arm (N = 253). D...
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - December 1, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Pax Monopolista and Crime: The Case of the Emergence of the Primeiro Comando da Capital in S ão Paulo
ConclusionsResults are compatible with the main theoretical reasons why the monopolization of criminal activity may lead to a reduction in crime. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 16, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

The “Pliability” of Criminological Analyses: Assessing Bias in Regression Estimates Using Monte Carlo Simulations
ConclusionsAlthough MCS have been increasingly used by criminologists, they could be used by a broader body of researchers, instructors, and policymakers to assess and ensure the reliability of reported findings. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 14, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Toward an Integrated Multilevel Theory of Crime at Place: Routine Activities, Social Disorganization, and The Law of Crime Concentration
ConclusionsThis study lends support to a multilevel theory of the law of crime concentration that includes both neighborhood and street segment level conditions. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 8, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Disrupting the Pathway from Truancy to Delinquency: A Randomized Field Trial Test of the Longitudinal Impact of a School Engagement Program
ConclusionsPartnerships between schools and police that communicate, in a procedurally fair way, parental legal responsibilities for their children to attend school holds promise for increasing a truanting young person ’s willingness to go to school and reducing their self-reported antisocial behaviour, at least in the short run. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 8, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Effect of Gang Injunctions on Crime: A Study of Los Angeles from 1988 –2014
ConclusionsInjunctions represent a powerful place-based intervention strategy for police and prosecutors. Courts have recently subjected gang injunctions to closer scrutiny. This study indicates that gang injunctions contributed to a meaningful amount of the crime reductions in Los Angeles. Future research should examine whether gang injunctions reduce crime by specific deterrent effects on individual gang members or by the general deterrent effect of placing an area under greater police surveillance and restricting public gatherings and other actions deemed to be indicators of gang activity. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - November 1, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Religious Involvement, Moral Community and Social Ecology: New Considerations in the Study of Religion and Reentry
ConclusionsFindings have theoretical implications for the study of religion and reentry. Methodologically, failing to account for the religious context of counties, in addition to micro –macro linkages, harms individual level research on religion and reentry. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - October 9, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Extending Research on Neighborhoods and Crime: An Examination of Mortgage Fraud across Chicago Census Tracts
ConclusionsThe findings suggest the relationship between neighborhood structural characteristics and mortgage fraud is partially due to a lack of public social control in disadvantaged minority neighborhoods. Future research should build on this study and examine a wider variety of crimes than are traditionally studied at the neighborhood level. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - September 17, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Does Eligibility for Tertiary Education Affect Crime Rates? Quasi-Experimental Evidence
ConclusionsThe results show that when young people have the opportunity to attend tertiary education, and thus escape unemployment or inactivity, their propensity to commit crime decreases. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - September 1, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Working with Misspecified Regression Models
ConclusionsIf one is prepared to work with explicit approximations of a “true” model, defensible analyses can be obtained. The alternative is working with models about which all of the usual criticisms hold. (Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology)
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - September 1, 2018 Category: Criminology Source Type: research