HIV infection and frequency of micronucleus in human peripheral blood cells
Purpose: People living with HIV have higher rates of malignancies than the general population in the era of active antiretroviral therapy (ART). Genotoxic effects of HIV infection and/or ART that can induce neoplastic development are not yet well known. A prospective cohort study to investigate DNA damage measured through the micronuclei (MN) frequency in HIV-patients has been performed.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 52 HIV-patients treated with ART and 55 healthy controls.Results: By the comparison of MN frequency, a significant difference between HIV-patients (15.5 ±9.8) and ...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - October 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Long-term persistency of hepatitis B immunity: an observational cross-sectional study on medical students and resident doctors
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a main cause of chronic and acute hepatitis. Healthcare workers (HCWs), including medical students and resident doctors, have an occupational risk of HBV infection.The study aimed to evaluate the long-term persistence of protective anti-HBs antibody levels in healthcare students and resident doctors at risk for occupational exposure to (HBV) at 15 years after primary vaccination course. Further objective was to evaluate the anamnestic response observed in non-seroprotected subjects receiving a booster dose.Data were collected from the clinical documentation filled in during the occupational medic...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - September 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An epidemiological evaluation of predictors of overweight and obesity in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand.
Conclusion: The present study reveals that, there is high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study population. Certainly, there has been a considerable shift in their dietary and lifestyle profile. The dietary profile is changed to a mixture of rural and urban diets, with higher consumption of saturated fat and low intake of fibre. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - September 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Quality improvement of medical records through internal auditing: a comparative analysis
IntroductionThe systematic evaluation of the quality of medical records is crucial. Nevertheless, even if the improvement of medical records quality represents a priority for every health organization, it might be difficult to realize.This is the first study to assess the efficacy of internal audit as a tool to improve the quality of medical records in hospital setting.MethodsThe program was carried out in a third level teaching hospital. Trainedad hoc evaluation teams carried out two retrospective assessments of quality of medical records using a random sampling strategy. The quality assessment was performed using a 48-it...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - September 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impact assessment of an educational course on vaccinations in a population of medical students
The inadequate formation and knowledge about vaccinations of healthcare workers, including doctors, has certainly contributed to the spread of the vaccine hesitancy in recent years. Therefore, it is essential to improve the level of knowledge of future doctors so that they can deal with any hesitation within the population in order to increase the vaccination coverage. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of a course about vaccination on the knowledge of medical students.In order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain lecture about vaccinations on medical students, they were asked to complete an anonymous question...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - September 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The burden of severe cases of Influenza disease: the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region experience
Conclusion. The cornerstones of the management of all hospitalized influenza cases are the rapid identification and treatment of severe forms. Timely and strictly adherence to contact and respiratory precautions are also fundamental to reduce the risk of intra-hospital outbreaks. Despite the improvements of antiviral therapies and supportive measures, influenza-related morbidity and mortality remain high. According to our opinion, a universal vaccination program represents the only safe and effective method to fill the gap. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - August 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Metastasis, Recurrence, Stage and Grade of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-based Retrospective Cohort Study
Conclusion:Our results showed evidence of inequality in the metastasis, recurrence, stage and grade in BC patients. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - August 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Smoking behaviour among nursing students: attitudes toward smoking cessation.
Conclusions:Students and graduate nurses need to be aware of current knowledge in the smoking cessation field and they have an influential role in modifying patient behavior in order to assist them to smoking cessation. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 31, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Improving the quality of communication during handover in a Paediatric Emergency Department: A qualitative study
ConclusionsThe findings prompted researchers to highlight the need for a standardized tool that improves communication during handover. As such, standardizing the communication process during handover could be effectively resolved by using a mnemonic tool adapted for handover in a paediatric emergency department. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Study and implementation of a performance set of indicators for the nurse manager in a frailty hospital
Conclusion:This assessment method, validated with these tests, is able to evaluate the nurse manager ’s ability to manage personnel, resources and patients and to quantify his/her organisational and welfare performances. It is useful for planning actions that allow nurse manager to improve his/her skills. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexually-transmitted infections: what is the true prevalence? A cross-sectional online survey of men who have sex with men in the Veneto Region of Italy
ConclusionComprehensive STI prevention strategies are needed to improve sexual health among MSM. Such strategies should include implementing programs to improve awareness about routine screening, and promote a consistent use of condoms by MSM. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessment of the belief and attitudes of Iranian healthcare personnel ’s toward the influenza infection and influenza vaccination
Introduction: influenza is one of the main public health problems and Health Care Personnel's is one of the at-risk groups for this infection. So regarding this point, the goal of this research was to identify the beliefs and attitudes of the HCPs (Health Care Personnel) about influenza and the influenza vaccine.Methods: This cross-sectional study was planned in a general hospital in Tehran; Iran from January to June 2016.A total of 418 questionnaires was distributed among the HCPs. The entire data set was analyzed using the SPSS. We used the Chi2 test, linear regression and one-way ANOVA for data analysis. P-values less t...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Prediction Incidence of the Three Most Common Cancers Among Iranian Military Community During 2007-2019: a Time Series Analysis.
Conclusion. the trend of most prevalent cancers among Iranian MC was increasing but the different factors like the growth of population size and improving the registration system (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Using Intervention Mapping Approach to Finding Socio-Cognitive Determinants of Diabetes Preventive Behaviors
The objective of this study was to determine socio-cognitive determinants of diabetes preventive behaviors among sample of at risk group based on intervention mapping approach (IM) in Kermanshah, the west of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study which conducted among a total of 200 male and female aged 30 years old and more, who referred to health centers, during 2018 that randomly selected to participate voluntarily. Participants filled out a self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using bivariate correlations and linear regression at 95% significant level.Results: The mean age of respondent...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Practice of Safety Measures among Inter-City Commercial Vehicle Drivers in Kwara State, Nigeria
Conclusion: The middle age respondents had good safety practices compared with others. Safety practices were influenced by driving test before issuance of license and alcohol intake was a factor in RTC. Orientation of drivers and enforcement of laws are critical in road safety. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do HCWs adequately know about meningitis and 4CmenB vaccine and recommend its use to parents? A cross sectional analysis in Campania Region, Italy
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a severe disease caused by variousNeisseria meningitidis serogroups that represents a serious public health problem worldwide. In Italy, serogroups B and C are the major causes of IMD. On 14 January 2013, the European Medicines Agency authorized the use of the first vaccine available to protect against meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB). The aim of this study was to assess the IMD epidemiology knowledge and 4CMenB vaccine attitudes of healthcare workers (HCWs) with regard torecommending this vaccine for use, vaccine practices and infectious disease control in the Campania region in I...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Total Adenylate (ATP+ADP+AMP) Hygiene Monitoring Test in Healthcare Settings
Conclusions.TheA3 test appeared to be superior to the conventional ATP test for the rapid verification of cleaning procedures in healthcare settings. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Human trichinellosis in italy: an epidemiological review since 1989
Conclusion Trichinellosis is an old disease, still present in our country, but often forgotten by general practitioners and infectious diseases specialists. Our review shows how it is impossible to define a region with a negligible risk, and how physicians and veterinarians should be regularly trained about this parasitic disease. A strict surveillance, especially on meat products from endemic countries or from wild animals is necessary to considerably reduce the risk of acquiring the infection. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Psychoactive drug consumption among truck-drivers: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis and meta-regressions
Few studies have assessed the entity of psychoactive drug consumption in the occupational setting. The trucking sector, in particular, is an important cause for concern, since psychoactive substance use has a relevant impact on the drivers ’ health and safety, increasing the risk of injuries and traffic accidents, potentially affecting the general public health as well. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was performed in order to provide Occupational Health professionals and policy makers with an updated epidemi ological perspective regarding this important issue. The results showed a prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a training course on smoking cessation knowledge and behavior for health profession students: the SISMA project
INTRODUCTION: University students are at risk of starting smoking or continuing and increasing the consumption of tobacco products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the training course, Sisma Project, about smoking in healthcare degree courses, in terms of knowledge and behavior.METHODS: SISMA project is an intervention delivered to healthcare profession students about smoking, using a before-after design. It was an online optional course available on the eLearning platform Moodle 2 in a specific week during routine university lessons. The course was structured in four lessons of 60 minutes, with a final ...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessment of oral hygiene trends among dental patients in relation to chronic medical conditions by dental students. A cross-sectional study
There is a lack of information about knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding oral hygiene and dietary habits of adult patients attending dental clinical settings. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity and caries are increasing among different populations, resulting in the deterioration of the quality of life related to oral and general health. Objectives: To involve second year dental students in assessing oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, dietary habits and general health of dental patients, and screening for blood pressure, blood glucose level and obesity.Participants and methods: A convenient sample of 652 adult s...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Detection of bacterial pathogens in the hands of rural school children across different age groups and emphasizing the importance of hand wash.
Conclusion: It can thus be concluded from our study that simple handwashing practices can efficiently reduce the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from our hands and greatly reduce the transmission of infection. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Association of Mother ’s Handwashing Practices and Pediatric Diarrhea: Evidence from a Multi-Country Study on Community Oriented Interventions
ConclusionAccess to safe drinking water was reportedly higher for communities in Guatemala and Zambia (>80%), than those in Cambodia and Kenya (
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and risky behaviours: a survey among high school and university students
Conclusions Our results show that knowledge of STIs is poor and inadequate. This finding can put students at risk of STIs. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impact of training conferences on high-school students ’ knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
This study, part of the health promotion program of a high school in Milan (Italy), was aimed at evaluating the impact of training conferences on the awareness of STIs among adolescents aged 16-17.Students attending the 3rd class of a Scientific and Linguistic High School in Milan (Italy) participated in this study in November 2017.All students gave their anonymous answers on a voluntary basis in a pre-test survey, designed by psychologists and infectious diseases specialists, to test their basic knowledge, accuracy, and awareness of STIs. After a two-hour interactive conference, the students were asked to answer the post-...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Practice of Safety Measures among Inter-City Commercial Vehicle Drivers in Kwara State, Nigeria
Conclusion: The middle age respondents had good safety practices compared with others. Safety practices were influenced by driving test before issuance of license and alcohol intake was a factor in RTC. Orientation of drivers and enforcement of laws are critical in road safety. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do HCWs adequately know about meningitis and 4CmenB vaccine and recommend its use to parents? A cross sectional analysis in Campania Region, Italy
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Total Adenylate (ATP+ADP+AMP) Hygiene Monitoring Test in Healthcare Settings
Conclusions.TheA3 test appeared to be superior to the conventional ATP test for the rapid verification of cleaning procedures in healthcare settings. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Human trichinellosis in italy: an epidemiological review since 1989
Conclusion Trichinellosis is an old disease, still present in our country, but often forgotten by general practitioners and infectious diseases specialists. Our review shows how it is impossible to define a region with a negligible risk, and how physicians and veterinarians should be regularly trained about this parasitic disease. A strict surveillance, especially on meat products from endemic countries or from wild animals is necessary to considerably reduce the risk of acquiring the infection. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Psychoactive drug consumption among truck-drivers: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis and meta-regressions
Few studies have assessed the entity of psychoactive drug consumption in the occupational setting. The trucking sector, in particular, is an important cause for concern, since psychoactive substance use has a relevant impact on the drivers ’ health and safety, increasing the risk of injuries and traffic accidents, potentially affecting the general public health as well. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was performed in order to provide Occupational Health professionals and policy makers with an updated epidemi ological perspective regarding this important issue. The results showed a prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a training course on smoking cessation knowledge and behavior for health profession students: the SISMA project
INTRODUCTION: University students are at risk of starting smoking or continuing and increasing the consumption of tobacco products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the training course, Sisma Project, about smoking in healthcare degree courses, in terms of knowledge and behavior.METHODS: SISMA project is an intervention delivered to healthcare profession students about smoking, using a before-after design. It was an online optional course available on the eLearning platform Moodle 2 in a specific week during routine university lessons. The course was structured in four lessons of 60 minutes, with a final ...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessment of oral hygiene trends among dental patients in relation to chronic medical conditions by dental students. A cross-sectional study
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Detection of bacterial pathogens in the hands of rural school children across different age groups and emphasizing the importance of hand wash.
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Association of Mother ’s Handwashing Practices and Pediatric Diarrhea: Evidence from a Multi-Country Study on Community Oriented Interventions
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and risky behaviours: a survey among high school and university students
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impact of training conferences on high-school students ’ knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
This study, part of the health promotion program of a high school in Milan (Italy), was aimed at evaluating the impact of training conferences on the awareness of STIs among adolescents aged 16-17.Students attending the 3rd class of a Scientific and Linguistic High School in Milan (Italy) participated in this study in November 2017.All students gave their anonymous answers on a voluntary basis in a pre-test survey, designed by psychologists and infectious diseases specialists, to test their basic knowledge, accuracy, and awareness of STIs. After a two-hour interactive conference, the students were asked to answer the post-...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Behaviours monitoring and infections control in neonatal intensive care unit: how to improve ourselves?
Conclusions: Extemporaneous contact as the more frequent potential “high risk” moment in patient care in NICU. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Workplace health promotion programme in a University Hospital
Conclusions: albeit within the methodological limits of the assessment, the results showed that the diffusion of some major risk factors for chronic diseases had not decreased after 12 months'exposure to the programme. However, monitoring of these risk factors needs to be continued over a longer period, in order to detect the appearance of the expected changes in the long term. Moreover, it is essential to continue monitoring by sex and professional category, in order to pick out any differences and, if possible, take remedial action. Further studies, in collaboration with the pertinent physicians, are desirable, since int...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - June 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Anti-rabies vaccination between the 18th and 19th centuries and its pioneer Eusebio Giacinto Valli (1755-1816)
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Spanish Influenza Pandemic: a lesson from the history 100 years after 1918
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Uncompleted Emergency Department Care (UEDC): a 5-year population-based study in Veneto Region, Italy.
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Training to improve resilience and coping to monitor PTSD in rescue workers
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in a patient travelling from Shanghai to Italy in July 2018: an uncommon clinical presentation in a non-seasonal period
Influenza is one of the most common infectious diseases in travellers, especially in those returning from subtropical and tropical regions.In late June 2018 an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was diagnosed ina 36-years-old man, returned from a travel in Shanghai and hospitalized at the Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy, with a diagnosis of fever andan uncommon clinical presentation characterised by a persistentleukopenia.Phylogenetic analysis revealed a closeness with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains circulating in the US in May-June 2018.Prompt recognition of influenza infection led to a proper case mana...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Skin Safety and Health Prevention: an Overview of Chemicals in Cosmetic Products
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Smoke-free environment policy in Vietnam: What did people see and how did they react when they visited various public places?
Conclusions: The study has called for strengthening two of the six MPOWER (Monitor, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforce and Raise) components of the tobacco free initiative introduced by WHO,Monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies andProtectingpeople from tobacco smoke. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Survey of Social Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity among Iranian Women Using Path Analysis Method
Conclusions: The use of the present hypothetical model is suggested as an appropriate framework in research related to physical activity among women as well as to strengthening self-regulation skills in designing and implementing programs promoting physical activities. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Improvement of hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in intensive care units
Conclusions: The educational programs improved the HH compliance among HCWs in the intensive care units at Beni-Suef university hospital. The hospital should conduct continuous monitoring in observing the monthly trend of the units and sharing the findings to spread best practices. It is important to provide sustained intensified training programs to help efficient and effective HH into all elements of care delivery. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

High prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine clinical samples
Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin is the most common antimicrobial agent used for treating urinary tract infections (UTIs) in healthcare settings in Iran. Accumulation of different substitutions in the QRDR regions ofgyrA andparC confers high-level resistance of fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates. (Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Vaccination coverage in healthcare workers: a multicenter cross-sectional study in Italy
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impact assessment of an education course on vaccinations in a population of pregnant women
(Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - April 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research