Assessment of prescription pattern and prescription error in outpatient Department at Tertiary Care District Hospital, Central Nepal
ConclusionThe study shows low compliance with WHO prescribing indicators and high prescription errors. The prescribing practices were not confirmed to the standard recommended by WHO. Prescribing from the Essential Drug List (EDL), low rates of generic prescribing, high antibiotic prescribing and polypharmacy were a major problem. The study found major errors in prescriber and prescribed medicine details. Remarkable drug interactions were seen in prescribed medicines. The study recommended necessary practices and policy formulation and implementation by DTC and regulatory bodies to promote the rational use of medicine. (So...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - July 10, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Association between medicine Price declaration by pharmaceutical industries and retail prices in Malaysia ’s private healthcare sector
ConclusionThe declared medicine price was found to have a significant association with the consumer retail medicine price. Thus, it may be a useful reference for consumers purchasing medicines in private healthcare settings. However, the government of Malaysia must develop strategies to increase medicine price transparency for price-control mechanisms in the private healthcare sector. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - July 3, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Factors influencing pharmaceutical pricing - a scoping review of academic literature in health science
ConclusionsInterest in pharmaceutical pricing literature is increasing. Robust evidence-producing study designs for pricing interventions will be a welcome development. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 27, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

A case of DAPSONE INDUCED METHEMOGLOBINEMIA
AbstractMethemoglobinemia (MetHb) being a rare cause of cyanosis is generally not considered in its differential diagnosis. Methemoglobinemia is an abnormal Hb produced physiologically by auto-oxidation. If this process of auto oxidation is impaired either due to genetic defect or due to exogenous drugs/ toxins, its level starts rising. Once it is>  3%, tissue hypoxia ensues. Here is a case of dapsone induced MetHb and is reported in a young girl with central cyanosis, and was treated successfully with methylene blue. Methemoglobinemia should be considered in differential diagnoses of cyanosed patient with normal...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 20, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Patient involvement in questionnaire design: tackling response error and burden
AbstractQuestionnaires capture patient perspectives succinctly and at relatively low cost, making them a popular data collection tool for health researchers. However, questionnaire data can be affected by response error and response burden. Patient involvement during questionnaire design can help reduce the effect of response error and burden. This paper describes a novel approach for patient involvement during questionnaire design, combining methods from cognitive interviewing (Think Aloud Tasks) with an open-ended follow-up discussion to collate and act on patient feedback, while also taking account of the common challen...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 17, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Pharmacovigilance systems in resource-limited settings: an evaluative case study of Sierra Leone
This study sought to assess the current status of pharmacovigilance in Sierra Leone since it became the 87th member of the World Health Organisation International Drug Monitoring Programme. This study evaluated the pharmacovigilance system in Sierra Leone through a comprehensive and system-based approach that covered the national medicines regulatory authority, health facilities and public health programmes. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed. Using a convenience sampling method, 14 respondents from the national medicines regulatory authority, six health facilities and six public health programmes were...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 11, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Access to and use of medicines in the Annapurna region of Western Nepal and possible impacting factors
This study investigates access to and use of medicines through health facility and household-based studies using standardised tools and through a series of structured key informant interviews with various stakeholders in health.Overall, access to essential medicines at public health facilities was good, but this was not benefitting households as much as it should. People were using the private sector for medicines because of their perception about the quality and limited numbers  of government-supplied free medicines. They utilised money from remittances and tourism, and subsidised healthcare from non-government organ...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 4, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Current status and future prospects of pharmacovigilance in Pakistan
AbstractCountries all around the globe are working to establish robust pharmacovigilance systems. Whereas the majority of the developed countries have established well-organized pharmacovigilance systems, the developing countries still lack the basic infrastructure to establish such systems. This commentary focuses on the need of pharmacovigilance and its current status and future trends in Pakistan. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - May 21, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Hypertension control among euvolemic hypertensive hemodialysis patients in Malaysia: a prospective follow-up study
This study included 145 euvolemic eligible hypertensive patients. Various sociodemographic, clinical factors and drugs were investigated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical methods to determine the factors influencing hypertension control among the study participants.ResultsOn baseline visit, the mean pre-dialysis systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) of study participants was 161.2  ± 24. and 79.21 ± 11.8 retrospectively, and 30 (20.6%) patients were on pre-dialysis goal BP. At the end of the 6-months follow-up, the mean pre-dialysis systolic BP and diastolic BP (mmHg) of the...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - May 14, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Rationing for medicines by health care providers in Indonesia National Health Insurance System at hospital setting: a qualitative study
ConclusionsAlthough rationing strategies were facilitating the implementation of National Formulary, they potentially raise problems related to the principles of medical ethics and distort a national health system ’s ability to progress towards UHC. If performed in the more standardized decision-making process, rationing would be of great benefits to patients and the system. Guidance for more explicit, fair and transparent of rationing should be developed at the hospital level. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - May 7, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Assessment of disposal practices of expired and unused medications among community pharmacies in Anambra State southeast Nigeria: a mixed study design
ConclusionPoor compliance with the national guideline for medication disposal increases the potential risk of contamination of our environment and increases the possibility of ingesting toxic pharmaceutical wastes by humans and animals. This underscores the need for improvement on expired drugs management protocols to prevent contaminations and the attendant health hazards. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - April 16, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Stakeholder driven development of a multi-criteria decision analysis tool for purchasing off-patent pharmaceuticals in Kuwait
ConclusionsA MCDA model was successfully adapted to the Kuwait decision context by a group of Kuwaiti pharmacists from a broad range of institutions. The participants agreed with the approach and considered it suitable to improve the transparency and consistency of decision making for off-patent pharmaceuticals in Kuwait. A pilot implementation project was proposed. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - April 16, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Optimization of antibiotic selection in the emergency department for urine culture follow ups, a retrospective pre-post intervention study: clinical pharmacist efforts
ConclusionNo statistically significant difference was observed between pharmacist driven monitoring and NP driven monitoring. In our institution, asymptomatic bacteriuria was commonly treated even in the absence of indications. We recommend that Pharmacists ’ roles in the ED cultures follow up be expanded to include antibiotic discontinuation in patients who meet asymptomatic bacteriuria criteria or have confirmed negative urine culture. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - April 9, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Investigating the association of proton pump inhibitors with chronic kidney disease and its impact on clinical practice and future research: a review
ConclusionsThe current evidence related to the potential association of CKD with PPI use remains inconclusive in establishing true causality. Further prospective studies including randomised controlled trials and cohort studies would be required to confirm the findings reported in this review and to draw any conclusions. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - March 29, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Diabetes policies and pharmacy-based diabetes interventions in Portugal: a comprehensive review
ConclusionsSome consistency in favorable findings, but also room for improvements in health policies, intervention design and research methods, were observed. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - March 21, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Jazia prime vendor system- a public-private partnership to improve medicine availability in Tanzania: from pilot to scale
ConclusionThe Prime Vendor system complements regular government supply through a regional contract approach. It is anchored in the structures of the regional health administration and in the decentralisation policy of the country. This partnership with the private sector facilitates procurement of additional supplies within a culture of transparency and accountability. Regional leadership, convincing pilot results and policy dialogue have led to national roll-out. Transferring this smaller-scale supply chain intervention to other regions requires country ownership and support for sustainable operations. (Source: Journal o...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - February 25, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Self medication practice and associated factors among students of Asmara College of Health Sciences, Eritrea: a cross sectional study
ConclusionNational guideline on medicine access should be developed and strong measures should be implemented to halt the selling of medications without a proper prescription. In addition, students should be educated on the consequences of self-medication practices. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - February 19, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Inter-rater reliability and validity of good pharmacy practices measures in inspection of public sector health facility pharmacies in Uganda
ConclusionsOur findings question the validity and reliability of many GPP inspection measures, particularly critical measures that greatly impact certification decision. This study demonstrates the need for assessments of, and interventions to improve, validity and reproducibility of GPP measures and inspections. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - January 22, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Use of generic medicines in Latvia: awareness, opinions and experiences of the population
AbstractBackgroundTo stimulate use of generic medicines a combination of supply and demand side mechanisms are employed in the Latvian reimbursement system. It is reported that patients have high out-of-pocket pharmaceutical spending and that they overpay by not choosing generic medicines. Patient preferences may be an important obstacle in implementing generic policy. Objective of this study was to assess awareness, opinions and experience of the Latvian population regarding use of generic medicines.MethodsSurvey of representative sample of the population of Latvia (n = 1005) aged 18–74 was conducted i...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - January 6, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

To sell or not to sell; the differences between regulatory and community demands regarding access to antibiotics in rural Ghana
ConclusionThe sale of antibiotics by LCS at the community level is influenced by both structural and individual contextual factors. There is a need to educate community members on the appropriate access and use of antibiotics in rural Ghana. In addition, rather than enforcing rules that go against practice, it may be more effective to regulate the sale of antibiotics by LCS and train them to make their dispensing more appropriate. CHPS compound could also be equipped to dispense some antibiotics to improve appropriate antibiotic access at the community level. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - December 14, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Patent challenges in the procurement and supply of generic new essential medicines and lessons from HIV in the southern African development community (SADC) region.
AbstractHigh medicines prices increasingly pose challenges for universal access to treatments of communicable and non-communicable diseases. New essential medicines are often patent-protected which sustains high prices in many countries, including in low- and middle-income countries. To respond to the HIV/AIDS crisis of the late nineties and to increase access to antiretroviral treatment, certain flexibilities contained in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS flexibilities) have been clarified and in some respects strengthened at the global level. They have been applied by a number ...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - December 4, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Generic prescription drug price increases: which products will be affected by proposed anti-gouging legislation?
Conclusions“Price spikes” among generic drugs in 2014 were more common than newspaper stories and legislative hearings suggest. While the cross-sectional association between an indicator of being sold by only a single manufacturer and the probability of meeting specific price growth thresholds is suggestiv e of an economically intuitive causal story, future work should delve more deeply into whether decreases in generic competition explain the dramatic price increases that have captured the public’s attention in recent years. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - November 21, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards disposal of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among community in Harar city, Eastern Ethiopia
ConclusionIn present study, there was high practice of keeping medication at home and most disposal approach indicated by the participants was not recommended methods. Awareness about proper disposal of unused and expired medicines among the public should be created. Guidelines on safe disposal are required and an organized method of collecting unused and expired pharmaceuticals needs to be introduced. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Prescription drug coverage in Canada: a review of the economic, policy and political considerations for universal pharmacare
ConclusionCanada patiently awaits to see how the issue of prescription drug coverage will be resolved through the work of the Advisory Council on the Implementation of National Pharmacare. The overarching and ongoing discourse on policy and program implementation may be construed as a political debate informed by divergent public and private interests. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - November 7, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Access to innovative cancer medicines in a middle-income country - the case of Mexico
ConclusionsThe use and access of some essential innovative cancer medicines has increased over the years, but remains unequal across insurance schemes and regions. Particularly, the Ministry of Health Insurance scheme and Northern and Western regions in the country would benefit from additional efforts to increase access to essential cancer medicines. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - October 24, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Investigation of prescribing behavior at outpatient settings of governmental hospitals in eastern Ethiopia: an overall evaluation beyond World Health Organization core prescribing indicators
ConclusionJH and SECIIIH were not using standard prescriptions at all during the review period. Besides, some important components of the prescription such as age, sex and diagnosis were not properly recorded or missed at all in the selected hospitals. The tendency of prescribing drugs with dose and dosage form was very poor. Overall, none of the core prescribing indicators was in line with the WHO standards. These and other related problems should be investigated in-depth to find out the underlying problems for which interventional strategies can be designed to reverse this worrying practice. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceu...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - October 15, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Pharmaceutical system strengthening in Uganda: implementing a holistic, evidence-informed, long-term strategy
We describe the evolution and key characteristics of the SURE/UHSC interventions. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - October 15, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Trade agreements and drug access: assessment of the impact of the 2009 Peruvian new drug policy on anti-infectives registration and availability
ConclusionsThe new NDP reduced the number of brand and generic registrations; generics had the largest decline in registrations. Anti-infectives found in pharmacies located in low-income areas were more likely to be generics, and less likely to be currently registered by DIGEMID. The potential reduction in generic registrations resulting from the implementation of the NDP as a consequence of the bilateral trade agreement could result in lower availability of low cost medicines, but may increase the safety, efficacy and quality of marketed medicines. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - October 10, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Country ownership and sustainability of Nigeria ’s HIV/AIDS Supply Chain System: qualitative perceptions of progress, challenges and prospects
ConclusionsNigeria has made some progress towards achieving CO and sustainability. The country however needs to address financial and human resource gaps through innovative resource mobilization and effective workforce planning. As other countries plan for CO and sustainability, it is important to secure political buy-in and adopt a working definition for CO and sustainability while resource mobilization and workforce planning should be prioritized. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - September 10, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

An analysis of pharmacy workforce capacity in Nigeria
ConclusionThe data indicate ongoing deficits in availability and supply of pharmacists in the country with widespread variance in distribution observed across the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The findings suggest that observed deficits are not solely related to out-migration and highlights the need for policies that will promote increased within-country availability, equitable distribution and retention, especially in the underserved regions of North East and North West of Nigeria. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - September 3, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

The impact of clinical services provided by community pharmacies on the Australian healthcare system: a review of the literature
ConclusionThere is sufficient evidence for the effectiveness of most of the pharmacy services reviewed. However, the potential of the individual services might be further enhanced by interlinking the services and better integrating them with the patient care provided by GPs and other health professionals. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - August 27, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Perceptions of the Malaysian general public on community pharmacy-based weight management services
ConclusionThe findings of this study demonstrated that the majority of respondents were in support of weight management services in community pharmacy; however only a low percentage reported utilizing these services. Factors influencing acceptability of services included payment, waiting time and the issue of privacy. With adequate training among pharmacists and increased awareness of services among the public, community pharmacists could play a larger and important role in addressing the issue of obesity in Malaysia. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - August 8, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

NPS MedicineWise: 20  years of change
This article reviews 20  years of experience for NPS MedicineWise (NPS).NPS provides evidence-based information to health professionals and consumers using interventions that have been shown to be effective. A mix of academic detailing, audit and feedback and interactive learning is built into national programs designed to improve the use of medicines and medical tests. The target audiences have typically been general practitioners, pharmacists and nurses in primary care. Consumer programs, including mass media campaigns have supported the work with health professionals.NPS receives most of its income from the Austral...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - August 1, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

A qualitative exploration of knowledge, attitudes and practices of hospital pharmacists towards adverse drug reaction reporting system in Lahore, Pakistan
ConclusionThe study revealed that that hospital pharmacists were good in understanding of medication safety and ADR reporting; however they don ’t practice this in real sense. The readiness of the hospital pharmacist towards the practice change has indicated that they are all set to be actively involved in the provision of medication safety in hospital setting. Involvement of key stake holders from ministry of health, academia, pharmaceut ical industry and healthcare professionals is warranted to promote safe and effective use of medicines. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - July 19, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Comment on  Hernandez-Vasquez et al., a bibliometric analysis of the global research on biosimilars
AbstractA bibliometric analysis provided by Hernandez-Vasquez et al. listed the institutions that have published most extensively in the field of biosimilars. Sandoz and Novartis International were considered as separate entities, but are both are divisions of the same parent company. When considered as a single entity for purposes of tracking publications, Sandoz-Novartis is among the leaders in the number of articles published about biosimilars. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - July 16, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Article 2: Longitudinal study assessing the one-year effects of supervision performance assessment and recognition strategy (SPARS) to improve medicines management in Uganda health facilities
ConclusionsSPARS was effective in building health facility capacity in medicines management, with a median overall improvement of almost 70% during the first year. The greatest improvements occurred in prescribing quality and at lower levels of care, although the highest level of performance was achieved in storage management. We recommend broad dissemination of the SPARS approach in all Ugandan health facilities as well as in other countries seeking a practical strategy to improve medicines management performance. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - July 5, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Regulatory requirements for the registration of generic medicines and format of drug dossiers: procedures in Sri Lanka in comparison with selected regulatory authorities
ConclusionsStreamlining the drug regulatory systems in LMIC such as Sri Lanka with that of HIC would facilitate an effective drug regulatory system based on reliance on decisions made by stringent regulatory authorities. Findings of this study encourage Sri Lanka to adopt a CTD format for regulatory submission of drug dossiers. Expanding the BE requirement drug list and accepting BCS-based biowaivers for BSC class 1 and 3 drugs during registration of generic drugs when it is scientifically justified is also recommended for Sri Lanka. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 21, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Assessment of primary labeling of medicines manufactured by Nepalese pharmaceutical industries
ConclusionsMajority of the products did not meet the regulatory standards of primary labeling of Nepalese pharmaceutical products. This study highlights the necessities for improvement from all stakeholders. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - June 7, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Provider preferences for postoperative analgesia in obese and non-obese patients undergoing ambulatory surgery
ConclusionsWhile there is a trend to prescribe less opioid analgesics to obese patients undergoing ambulatory surgery, these medications may still be over-prescribed. Less experienced physicians reported prescribing opioids to obese patients more frequently than more experienced physicians. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - May 17, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research