Mass Screening for Celiac Disease Among School-aged Children: Toward Exploring Celiac Iceberg in Saudi Arabia Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Response to Letter: How Much Free Sugars Intake Should Be Recommended for Children Younger Than 2 Years Old?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

How Much Free Sugars Intake Should Be Recommended for Children Younger Than 2 Years Old?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The Best Choice for Second-line Agent in Standard Treatment-refractory Children With Autoimmune Hepatitis
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Direct Acting Antiviral Treatment Selection in a Child With Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Compensated Cirrhosis
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Intestinal Perforation Associated With Perinatal Asphyxia and Anaemia
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Congenital Diarrhea From DGAT1 Mutation Leading to Electrolyte Derangements, Protein-losing Enteropathy, and Rickets
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Biliary-enteric Fistula, A Rare Complication of Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Image of the Month Source Type: research

Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Clinical Practice Guidelines: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
This document serves as an update of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) 2009 clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children and is intended to be applied in daily practice and as a basis for clinical trials. Eight clinical questions addressing diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic topics were formulated. A systematic literature search was performed from October 1, 2008 (if the question was addressed ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research

Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Children: A Position Paper by the Hepatology Committee of European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
ABSTRACTObjectives:In 2017, the European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and of the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for treatment of adolescents (12–17 years or weighing>35 kg) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, 4, 5, and 6 and genotype 2 and 3 infections, respectively. Although trials with direct-acting antivirals are ongoing for younger children, the only available treatment in the United States and Europe for those 35 kg) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, 4, 5, and 6 and genotyp...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research

Long-term Exposure of Children to a Mixed Lipid Emulsion Is Less Hepatotoxic Than Soybean-based Lipid Emulsion
This study compares the severity of hepatic injury between a prospective cohort of hospitalized children on ML (n = 20) and a historical age- and diagnosis-matched cohort of hospitalized children on SL (n = 20). Median exposure to ML and SL were 10 versus 6 weeks (P = 0.030), respectively, at similar median lipid doses (2.2 vs 2.1 g · kg−1 · day−1). Using a generalized estimating equations approach, conjugated bilirubin trajectory was found to be lower in patients on ML compared with SL (P  (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Nutrition Source Type: research

Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not Differ But Are Lower Than in US Infants
ABSTRACTObjectives:Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are more susceptible to infectious morbidity and growth faltering compared to their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) counterparts. Zinc supplementation of SGA infants may be beneficial but the underlying susceptibility to zinc deficiency of SGA infants has not been examined.Methods:In a community-based, observational, longitudinal study in a peri-urban settlement of Karachi, Pakistan, we compared the size of the exchangeable zinc pools (EZPs) in term SGA and AGA infants at birth and at 6 months of age, hypothesizing that the EZP would be lower in the SGA group...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research

Pilot Study Measuring the Novel Satiety Hormone, Pro-Uroguanylin, in Adolescents With and Without Obesity
ABSTRACTObjective:Disruption of satiety signaling may lead to increased caloric intake and obesity. Uroguanylin, the intestinal hormone, travels as a precursor to the central nervous system where it activates guanylyl cyclase C and stimulates pro-satiety neurons. Rodent studies have demonstrated that guanylyl cyclase C-knockout mice overeat and have increased weight gain versus wild-type mice and hyper-caloric obesity diminishes uroguanylin expression. We measured circulating plasma pro-uroguanylin, along with other gastrointestinal peptides and inflammatory markers, in human adolescents with and without obesity, as a pilo...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research

Growth Trajectory in Children With Short Bowel Syndrome During the First 2 Years of Life
ABSTRACTObjectives:Infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) require diligent nutritional support for adequate growth. Enteral independence is a primary goal, but must be balanced with ensuring sufficient nutrition. We aimed to describe growth trajectory in infants with SBS as function of nutritional intake during first 2 years of life.Methods:Infants with SBS were reviewed (2008–2016). z Scores for weight, height, and head circumference (HC) were recorded at birth, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Nutritional intake, serum liver enzyme, and bilirubin levels were assessed at all time points. Pearson correlation coefficient...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research

Can Basic Characteristics Estimate Body Composition in Early Infancy?
ABSTRACTObjectives:Increasing evidence demonstrates that body composition in early life contributes to the programming of health later in life in both full-term and preterm infants. Given the important role of body composition, the increased availability of easy, noninvasive, and accurate techniques for its assessment has been recommended. The aim of the present study was to identify basic characteristics and anthropometric measurements that best correlate with body composition in infants.Methods:Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessed by air-displacement plethysmography were assessed either at birth or a...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research

Holder-Pasteurized Human Donor Milk: How Long Can It Be Preserved?
Conclusion:Pasteurized human donor milk can be stored safely for 8 months at −20°C, without compromising its macronutrient and energy content. This longer storage time will reduce disposal of expired donor milk and subsequently reduce costs. Objective: When own mother's milk falls short, pasteurized human donor milk is recommended as alternative feeding for preterm infants. Donor milk has to meet the highest safety standards, but its processing and storage is expensive. The recommended storage time of pasteurized donor milk is 3 months. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the frozen st...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research

Bovine Colostrum for Preterm Infants in the First Days of Life: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
ABSTRACTObjectives:Mother's own milk (MM) is the best nutrition for newborn preterm infants, but is often limited in supply just after birth. Pasteurized human donor milk (DM), and especially preterm infant formula (IF) are less optimal diets than MM. We hypothesized that it is feasible to use bovine colostrum (BC), the first milk from cows, as a supplement to MM, during the first weeks after preterm birth.Methods:In an open-label, randomized, controlled pilot safety trial, supplementation of MM with BC was compared with DM supplementation (Danish unit) or IF supplementation (Chinese unit). If MM was limited or lacking, BC...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of Sucralose and Acesulfame-Potassium in Breast Milk Following Ingestion of Diet Soda
Conclusions:Ace-K and sucralose transfer into breast milk following ingestion of a diet soda. Future research should measure concentrations after repeated exposure and determine whether chronic ingestion of sucralose and acesulfame-potassium via the breast milk has clinically relevant health consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine sucralose and acesulfame-potassium (ace-K) pharmacokinetics in breast milk following maternal ingestion of a diet soda. Methods: Thirty-four exclusively breast-feeding women (14 normal-weight, 20 obese) consumed 12 ounces of Diet Rite Cola, sweetened with 68-mg sucr...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Nutrition Source Type: research

Yield of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Children and Adolescent With Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis
Conclusions:EUS diagnosed CP (≥4 features) in 31% and biliary abnormality in 3% children with ARP. EUS is safe, sensitive, and useful for early diagnosis of CP in children with ARP. Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an established tool for evaluation of adults with acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) whereas data in pediatrics is limited. Our study assessed the role of EUS in identifying etiology including changes of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children and adolescents with ARP. Methods: Children with ARP (≥2 episodes of acute pancreatitis [AP]) were prospectively evaluated with a detailed clinical pr...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Pancreatology Source Type: research

Assessment of Liver Disease Progression in Cystic Fibrosis Using Transient Elastography
Conclusions:The present study shows that the slope of worsening of liver stiffness is greater in patients who will develop CFLD, suggesting that annual transient elastography may be useful to detect risk of severe liver disease at an earlier stage. Objectives: Cystic fibrosis–related liver disease (CFLD) can develop silently in early life and approximately 10% of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) become cirrhotic before adulthood. Clinical, biological, and ultrasound criteria used to define CFLD often reveal liver involvement at an advanced stage. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the progression...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Pancreatology Source Type: research

Reduction of Recurrence Risk of Pancreatitis in Cystic Fibrosis With Ivacaftor: Case Series
The effect of ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with recurrent pancreatitis is unknown. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of patients with CF taking ivacaftor who had a history of recurrent pancreatitis. During the first 3 months of therapy, only 1 of the 6 patients had an episode of pancreatitis, which was managed on an outpatient basis. Between 3 and 12 months on ivacaftor therapy, none of the patients had recurrence of pancreatitis or required hospitalization. The use of ivacaftor was associated with a reduced frequency and recurrence rate of pancreatitis in patients with CF. (Source: Journal ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Pancreatology Source Type: research

Use of Fully Covered Self-expanding Metal Biliary Stents in Pediatrics: A Case Series
Conclusions:FCSEMS therapy should be considered in appropriate pediatric patients when plastic biliary stents are not effective. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FCSEMS in the pediatric age group. Objectives: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is used to manage biliary pathology in pediatric patients. Plastic biliary stents have been used in this population for obstructive lesions and bile leaks; however, they are sometimes not effective due to migration, occlusion, or ineffective sealing. Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) have larger diameters making them m...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research

Splenic Rupture in Children With Portal Hypertension
Conclusions:Splenic rupture in patients with PHTN and splenomegaly seems to be rare. The reported splenic rupture cases were mostly related to falling (and not to participation in sports). There was general agreement among hepatologists about restricting high impact sports. There was variation in recommendations regarding the use of a spleen guard. The authors recommend use of spleen guards in children with splenomegaly from PHTN for physical activities with risk of fall or blunt abdominal trauma. Introduction: Massive splenomegaly from portal hypertension (PHTN) in children raises the specter of splenic rupture; howev...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research

Noninvasive Methods of Predicting Large Esophageal Varices in Children With Intrahepatic Portal Hypertension
Conclusions:The CPR, the risk score, and the platelet count/spleen size z score could be helpful in identifying cirrhotic children who may be eligible for endoscopy. Objective: Esophageal variceal bleeding is a severe complication of portal hypertension. The standard diagnostic screening test and therapeutic procedure for esophageal varices (EV) is endoscopy, which is invasive in pediatric patients. This study aimed to evaluate the role of noninvasive parameters as predictors of large varices in children with intrahepatic portal hypertension. Methods: Participants included in this cross-sectional study underwent a s...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research

Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Outcomes for Children Waitlisted for Pediatric Liver Transplantation
ABSTRACTObjective:African Americans and other minorities are known to face barriers to health care influencing their access to organ transplantation but it is not known whether these barriers exist among pediatric liver transplant waitlist candidates. We sought to determine whether outcomes on the waitlist (ie, mortality, deceased donor liver transplantation [DDLT], and living-donor liver transplantation [LDLT]) varied by race/ethnicity.Methods:National registry data were studied to estimate the race/ethnicity-specific risk of waitlist mortality, DDLT and LDLT in children ( (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research

Characteristics of Liver Disease in 100 Individuals With Joubert Syndrome Prospectively Evaluated at a Single Center
Conclusions:In JS, probable portal hypertension is associated with abnormal hepatic enzymes, as well as presence of kidney disease, coloboma, and/or mutation in TMEM67. These findings may allow early identification of JS patients who have or are more likely to develop liver disease. Background and Aims: Joubert Syndrome (JS) is a rare, inherited, ciliopathy defined by cerebellar and brainstem malformations and is variably associated with liver, kidney, and ocular dysfunction. This study characterizes the hepatic findings in JS and identifies factors associated with probable portal hypertension. Methods: Hundred indi...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research

Shortened 8 Weeks Course of Dual Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir Therapy in Adolescent Patients, With Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
Recently, sofosbuvir and the fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir were approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in adolescents, criteria being 12 years old and above or weighing at least 35 kg. Here we present the results of a pilot single cohort of 10 consecutive adolescent patients with chronic hepatitis C virus and treated with dual sofosbuvir/daclatasvir therapy for a response-tailored duration of 8 weeks for those who achieved very rapid virologic response (vRVR) and 12 weeks for those who did not. All patients achieved vRVR at week 2 and completed the shortened 8 weeks course. Al...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Hepatology Source Type: research

Cesarean Section on the Risk of Celiac Disease in the Offspring: The Teddy Study
Conclusion:C-section is not associated with increased risk for CDA or CD in the offspring. Objective: Cesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. Methods: From 2004 to 2010, infants from the general population who tested positive for HLA DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive,...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Gastroenterology: Celiac Disease Source Type: research

Adherence to a Gluten-free Diet: Assessment by Dietician Interview and Serology
We aimed to determine whether tissue transglutaminase (tTG) autoantibody positivity was associated with dietitian-assessed adherence to a gluten-free diet in pediatric patients with celiac disease and identify areas where adherence falters. We reviewed the records of children with celiac disease who had a standardized evaluation of adherence by a registered dietitian. A negative tTG value was not associated with good adherence (P = NS). Adherent and nonadherent children differed with respect to purposeful and accidental gluten exposure (P  (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Gastroenterology: Celiac Disease Source Type: research

Do Children and Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complete Clinical Disease Indices Similar to Physicians?
ABSTRACTObjectives:The degree to which children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) complete clinical disease activity indices in accordance with their physician is indefinite. Therefore, we investigated the agreement between patient- and physician-based clinical indices in children and adolescents with a previous diagnosis of IBD.Methods:In this cross-sectional study, IBD patients (8–18 years) were included prospectively. Patients completed a patient-based short Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (shPCDAI) for Crohn disease or the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) for ulcera...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research

Endoscopic and Histological Assessment of Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Over a 3-Year Follow-up Period
ABSTRACTObjectives:Discrepancies between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) endoscopic/histological extent are documented at diagnosis. It is unclear whether these differences persist through disease course, with potential impact on categorization and management. We aimed to analyze the progression of disease over a 3-year period.Methods:Patients younger than 17 years, diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 at Southampton Children's Hospital and followed-up for 3 years were eligible. Primary outcome was disease extent at diagnosis and follow-up. Data are presented as percentage of patients undergoing endoscopy. Paris classification...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research

Increased Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Population-based Cohort Study of Patients With Hirschsprung Disease
Conclusion:There is an increased risk of IBD in patients with HSCR, which should be considered in clinical practice. Objectives: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) has previously been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are no data to show how common this association is. The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of IBD in individuals with HSCR in a population-based cohort. Methods: This was a nationwide, population-based cohort study. The study exposure was HSCR and the study outcome was IBD. The cohort included all individuals with HSCR registered in the Swedish National Patient Register betw...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research

Every-other-day Dosing of Oral Viscous Budesonide Is not Effective in the Management of Eosinophlic Esophagitis
The objective of this study was to determine whether or not reducing the frequency of OVB administration would be effective in controlling esophageal eosinophilia in children and adolescents.Methods:Data were obtained by retrospective chart review of patients at Boston Children's Hospital diagnosed with EoE, based on endoscopic findings of>15 eosinophils per high power field (eos/HPF) on esophageal biopsies while on acid blockade. Patients with histologic evidence of response ( (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The Risk of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Differs Among Preterm Pigs Fed Formulas With Either Lactose or Maltodextrin
ABSTRACTObjectives:When breast milk is unavailable for preterm infants, formulas are needed that won’t increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Adding novel ingredients to formula to reduce NEC has not been effective clinically. Instead, we tested the prediction that NEC can be reduced by removing the maltodextrin now included in preterm formulas.Methods:The preterm pig model of spontaneous NEC was used to evaluate growth, health, and intestinal responses to 6 to 7 days of feeding formulas that were identical except for the source of carbohydrate; either 100% lactose or maltodextrin; colostrum was used a...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Prospective Study of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in School Children of South America
Conclusions:Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in school-aged children in Colombia and interfere with both daily activities and school attendance. The prevalence of AP, diarrhea, and vomiting found in the present study was similar to published prevalence of American children using similar methods. Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of abdominal pain (AP) in school children in Pasto (Colombia) and determine the effect of AP on their daily activities; and compare the prevalence of AP and other gastrointestinal symptoms between school children from Pasto and Chicago. Methods: Fourth- and...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Joint Hypermobility: A School-based Study
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of joint hypermobility (JH) among school children with and without functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). School children completed validated Rome III questionnaires to diagnose FGID. Each child diagnosed with an FGID was matched for age and sex with a healthy control. The prevalence of JH in both groups was compared. A total of 654 school children participated in the study. One hundred forty-eight (22.6%) children were diagnosed with an FGID. Data from 136 FGIDs and 136 healthy controls were analyzed. Joint laxity was assessed to establish the Beighton score (≥4...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communications: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Criteria of Pediatric Intestinal Myopathies
The authors aim to identify criteria for the diagnosis of intestinal visceral myopathy (IVM); results were compared with ultrastructural studies. Six IVM patients and 7 pediatric control cases (without gastrointestinal diseases) were studied. One case was a typical megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. The diagnostic path included: rectal suction biopsy, one-trocar transumbilical laparoscopic intestinal full-thickness biopsy technique. Pathological analysis included anti-alpha smooth muscle actin staining, and US study of intestinal biopsies. IVM histological examination demonstrated thinning of longit...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communications: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Reasoning Beyond the Potential Use of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition and Other Specified Diets in Children With Ulcerative Colitis
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily on the rise in Western and in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. Furthermore, nutrition is involved in several aspects of pediatric IBD, ranging from disease etiology to induction and maintenance of remission of disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been shown to induce remission, including in patients with isolated colonic disease, and leads to mucosal healing in Crohn disease. One hypothesis for the beneficial effec...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Omes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Primer for Clinicians
Recent advances in high-throughput laboratory technologies and bioinformatics tools are redefining how we view inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Instead of 2 diseases, we now see a diverse set of molecular subtypes. Large-scale investigation of the genome, exome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, microbiome, and epigenome are providing transformative insights into the pathophysiology of IBD, with the promise of accurately predicting prognosis and targeting therapy. Understanding these tools and their application is crucial to navigating the molecular era of IBD. This review aims to help the IBD clinician understand, app...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Topic of the Month Source Type: research

CFTR Protein Function Modulation Therapy Is Finally Targeting Cystic Fibrosis-related Gastrointestinal Disease
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Splenda in the Milk: Hitting the Sweet Spot
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - February 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Cecal Volvulus in Children: Is There Place for Colonoscopic Decompression?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Oral Cholic Acid Is Efficacious and Well Tolerated in Patients With Bile Acid Synthesis and Zellweger Spectrum Disorders
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Oral Cholic Acid in Zellweger Spectrum Disorders: A Word of Caution
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Serial Balloon Dilation to Relieve Gastric Outlet Obstruction Induced by the Ingestion of Toilet Cleaner
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Image of the Month Source Type: research

Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

The Role of Combination Therapy in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Clinical Report from the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
The treatment goal for children suffering from inflammatory bowel disease has been evolving with biologic therapies like anti-tumor necrosis factor agents assuming a more central role in treatment of more aggressive and extensive phenotype. Earlier introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents have shown to be more effective and may even alter the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease. Development of anti-drug antibodies, however, limits long-term usage and leads to dose adjustment in almost half of patients treated with these medications. One of the strategies to minimize the development of anti-drug antibodie...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Autoimmune Liver Disease: ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee Position Statement
Paediatric autoimmune liver disease is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, circulating autoantibodies, and increased levels of IgG, in the absence of a known etiology. Three conditions have a likely autoimmune pathogenesis: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. Two types of pediatric AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (AIH-1) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibodies (AIH-2). Pertinent issues addressing the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research

Wilson's Disease in Children: A Position Paper by the Hepatology Committee of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
ABSTRACTBackground:Clinical presentations of Wilson's disease (WD) in childhood ranges from asymptomatic liver disease to cirrhosis or acute liver failure, whereas neurological and psychiatric symptoms are rare. The basic diagnostic approach includes serum ceruloplasmin and 24-hour urinary copper excretion. Final diagnosis of WD can be established using a diagnostic scoring system based on symptoms, biochemical tests assessing copper metabolism, and molecular analysis of mutations in the ATP7B gene. Pharmacological treatment is life-long and aims at removal of copper excess by chelating agents as D-penicillamine, trientine...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection and Coinfections and Impaired Child Growth in the MAL-ED Cohort Study
ABSTRACTObjective:We evaluated the impact of subclinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection alone and in combination with other pathogens in the first 6 months of life on child growth.Methods:Nondiarrheal samples from 1684 children across 8 Multisite Birth Cohort Study, Malnutrition and Enteric Diseases (MAL-ED) sites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were tested monthly; more than 90% of children were followed-up twice weekly for the first 6 months of life.Results:Children with subclinical EAEC infection did not show altered growth between enrollment and 6 months. Conversely, EAEC coinfection with any ot...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - January 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Nutrition Source Type: research