Zinc Absorption from Milk Is Affected by Dilution but Not by Thermal Processing, and Milk Enhances Absorption of Zinc from High-Phytate Rice in Young Dutch Women [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18–25 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 20–25]: 1) a milk study (n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UH...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Talsma, E. F., Moretti, D., Ly, S. C., Dekkers, R., van den Heuvel, E. G., Fitri, A., Boelsma, E., Stomph, T. J., Zeder, C., Melse-Boonstra, A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Upregulation of Zinc Absorption Matches Increases in Physiologic Requirements for Zinc in Women Consuming High- or Moderate-Phytate Diets during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: Upregulation of zinc absorption in late pregnancy and early lactation matches increases in PRs of pregnant and lactating women, regardless of dietary phytate, which has implications for dietary zinc requirements of pregnant and lactating women. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hambidge, K. M., Miller, L. V., Mazariegos, M., Westcott, J., Solomons, N. W., Raboy, V., Kemp, J. F., Das, A., Goco, N., Hartwell, T., Wright, L., Krebs, N. F. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Magnesium Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Modulates Lipogenesis and Lipolysis via PPARA, JAK-STAT, and AMPK Pathways in Hepatocytes [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis. Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO4-containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Comp...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wei, C.-C., Wu, K., Gao, Y., Zhang, L.-H., Li, D.-D., Luo, Z. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Lactose Intolerance (LCT-13910C>T) Genotype Is Associated with Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Caucasians: A Mendelian Randomization Study [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
The objective was to determine the prevalence of genotypes predictive of LI in different ethnic groups living in Canada and to determine whether the LCT genotype is associated with plasma 25(OH)D concentrations. Methods: Blood samples were drawn from a total of 1495 men and women aged 20–29 y from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study for genotyping and plasma 25(OH)D analysis. Intakes of dairy were assessed by using a 196-item food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of LCT-13910C>T genotypes was compared by using 2 analysis. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we examined the association between L...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Alharbi, O., El-Sohemy, A. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research

Vitamin D Receptor and Megalin Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Change among African-American Urban Adults [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
Background: The link between longitudinal cognitive change and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and MEGALIN [or LDL receptor–related protein 2 (LRP2)] genes remains unclear, particularly among African-American (AA) adults. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for VDR [rs11568820 (Cdx-2:T/C), rs1544410 (BsmI:G/A), rs7975232 (ApaI:A/C), rs731236 (TaqI:G/A)] and LRP2 [rs3755166:G/A,rs2075252:C/T, rs2228171:C/T] genes with longitudinal cognitive performance change in various domains of cognition. Methods: Data from 1024 AA urban adult participants in the Hea...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Beydoun, M. A., Tajuddin, S. M., Dore, G. A., Canas, J.-A., Beydoun, H. A., Evans, M. K., Zonderman, A. B. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research

Dietary Human Milk Oligosaccharides but Not Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Increase Circulating Natural Killer Cell and Mesenteric Lymph Node Memory T Cell Populations in Noninfected and Rotavirus-Infected Neonatal Piglets [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs. Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity. Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Comstock, S. S., Li, M., Wang, M., Monaco, M. H., Kuhlenschmidt, T. B., Kuhlenschmidt, M. S., Donovan, S. M. Tags: Research Need: Role of Nutrition in Health Maintenance Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Dietary Methionine Restriction Regulates Liver Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Phosphorylation in Mice [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) during dietary amino acid insufficiency reduces protein synthesis and alters gene expression via the integrated stress response (ISR). Objective: We explored whether a Met-restricted (MR) diet activates the ISR to reduce body fat and regulate protein balance. Methods: Male and female mice aged 3–6 mo with either whole-body deletion of general control nonderepressible 2 (Gcn2) or liver-specific deletion of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk) alongside wild-type or floxed control mice were fed an obesogenic diet sufficient ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Pettit, A. P., Jonsson, W. O., Bargoud, A. R., Mirek, E. T., Peelor, F. F., Wang, Y., Gettys, T. W., Kimball, S. R., Miller, B. F., Hamilton, K. L., Wek, R. C., Anthony, T. G. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements [Issues and Opinions]
The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will the units of measurement used in nutrition labeling for some vitamins. For some food categories, the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACCs) will increase to reflect portions commonly consumed on a single occasion. These regulatory changes are now effective, and product label changes will be mandatory beginning 26 July 2018. This commentary considers the potential impact of these regulatory cha...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: McBurney, M. I., Hartunian-Sowa, S., Matusheski, N. V. Tags: Issues and Opinions Source Type: research

Preserving Mother Natures Best Food for Preterm Infants [Commentary]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Burrin, D. G. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Coverage and Utilization in Food Fortification Programs: Critical and Neglected Areas of Evaluation [Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact]
The need for evidence to inform nutrition program design and implementation has long been recognized, yet the generation and use of evidence for program decision making has lagged. The results of the coverage surveys reported in this supplement highlight some of the strengths and areas for improvement of current population-based (i.e., staple foods and condiments) and targeted (e.g., foods for infants and young children) fortification programs. Among other topics, the results identify a few striking successful fortification programs whereby the majority of the food vehicle used is fortifiable and fortified, and coverage is...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Neufeld, L. M., Baker, S., Garrett, G. S., Haddad, L. Tags: Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact Source Type: research

Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt Varies Greatly between Countries and by Residence Type and Socioeconomic Status within Countries: Results from 10 National Coverage Surveys [Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact]
Conclusions: Uganda has achieved USI. In other countries, access to iodized salt is inequitable. Quality control and regulatory enforcement of salt iodization remain challenging. Notable progress toward USI has been made in Ethiopia and India. Assessing progress toward USI only through household salt does not account for potentially iodized salt consumed through processed foods. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Knowles, J. M., Garrett, G. S., Gorstein, J., Kupka, R., Situma, R., Yadav, K., Yusufali, R., Pandav, C., Aaron, G. J., the Universal Salt Iodization Coverage Survey Team Tags: Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact Source Type: research

Coverage of Nutrition Interventions Intended for Infants and Young Children Varies Greatly across Programs: Results from Coverage Surveys in 5 Countries [Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact]
Conclusions: Variability in coverage was likely due to the program design, delivery model, quality of implementation, and product type. Measuring program coverage and understanding its determinants is essential for program improvement and to estimate the potential for impact of programs at scale. Use of the FACT can help overcome this evidence gap. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Leyvraz, M., Aaron, G. J., Poonawala, A., van Liere, M. J., Schofield, D., Myatt, M., Neufeld, L. M. Tags: Research Need: How the Food Environment and Supply Affects Dietary and Lifestyle Choices Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Source Type: research

Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries [Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact]
Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches are needed. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Aaron, G. J., Friesen, V. M., Jungjohann, S., Garrett, G. S., Neufeld, L. M., Myatt, M. Tags: Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact Source Type: research

Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs with the Use of the Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT): Background, Toolkit Development, and Supplement Overview [Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact]
Food fortification is a widely used approach to increase micronutrient intake in the diet. High coverage is essential for achieving impact. Data on coverage is limited in many countries, and tools to assess coverage of fortification programs have not been standardized. In 2013, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition developed the Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) to carry out coverage assessments in both population-based (i.e., staple foods and/or condiments) and targeted (e.g., infant and young child) fortification programs. The toolkit was designed to generate evidence on program coverage and the use o...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Friesen, V. M., Aaron, G. J., Myatt, M., Neufeld, L. M. Tags: Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact Source Type: research

Title page and TOC [Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Tags: Supplement-Assessing Coverage of Population-Based and Targeted Fortification Programs: Results and Implications for Program Improvement and Measuring Potential for Impact Source Type: research

Reply to DJ Beale [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Lin, X., Liu, S. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Inappropriate Inclusion of 3 Trials Leads to Misleading Results in Meta-Analysis of Cocoa Flavanol Intake and Cardiometabolic Health [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Beale, D. J. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Nonresponse and Underreporting Errors Increase over the Data Collection Week Based on Paradata from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Conclusions: Nonresponse and underreporting of food acquisition events tended to increase in the FoodAPS as data collection proceeded. This analysis of paradata available in the FoodAPS revealed these errors and suggests methodologic improvements for future food acquisition surveys. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hu, M., Gremel, G. W., Kirlin, J. A., West, B. T. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research

Promotion of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Increased Vitamin A Intakes and Reduced the Odds of Low Retinol-Binding Protein among Postpartum Kenyan Women [Community and International Nutrition]
We examined the effectiveness of the Mama SASHA (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) program to improve nutrition knowledge, diets, and nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women (PLW) in Western Kenya. Methods: Eight health facilities were allocated to the Mama SASHA intervention or comparison arms. PLW in intervention facilities received enhanced nutrition counseling at health clinics, were linked with community-based maternal support groups, and received vouchers for OFSP vine cuttings. Control PLW received clinic-based nutrition counseling only. A total of 505 women in early and midpregnancy, ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Girard, A. W., Grant, F., Watkinson, M., Okuku, H. S., Wanjala, R., Cole, D., Levin, C., Low, J. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

A Nutrition Education Program in Rural Bangladesh Was Associated with Improved Feeding Practices but Not with Child Growth [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: The program was successful in improving the quality of infant diet at 9 mo and timely CF initiation, but not EBF at 3 mo or LAZ. These findings support the case for implementing simple messages in all programs aimed at improving infant diet, especially in settings in which supplementing overall household diet may not be feasible. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Owais, A., Schwartz, B., Kleinbaum, D. G., Suchdev, P. S., Faruque, A. S. G., Das, S. K., Rahman, S., Stein, A. D. Tags: Research Need: Understanding Nutrition-related Behaviors Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Boys Are More Stunted than Girls from Early Infancy to 3 Years of Age in Rural Senegal [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Girls tend to have a lower risk of stunting than boys do in low-income countries. Objective: We evaluated differences in height status and complementary food (CF) intake between sexes from ages 2 to 39 mo in Senegal. Methods: Length and weight measurements were taken at ages 2–3, 4–5, 6–8, and 9–10 mo (n = 7319). Qualitative 24-h and 7-d food recalls were conducted in a subgroup (n = 2512). A smaller subsample was followed up to age 39 mo (n = 512). Height was measured, and intake of CF was noted. Boys and girls were compared in terms of height-for-age z score (HAZ) of WHO standards and ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bork, K. A., Diallo, A. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality. Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6–35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, a...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Arsenault, J. E., Brown, K. H. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Evaluation of Simulation Models that Estimate the Effect of Dietary Strategies on Nutritional Intake: A Systematic Review [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Based on the results of reviewed simulation dietary modeling studies, targeting a variety of foods rather than individual foods or nutrients theoretically appears most effective in estimating improvements in nutritional intake, particularly reducing intake of nutrients commonly consumed in excess. A combination of strategies could theoretically be used to deliver the best improvement in outcomes. Study quality was moderate to high. However, given the lack of dietary simulation reporting guidelines, future work could refine the quality tool to harmonize consistency in the reporting of subsequent dietary modelin...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Grieger, J. A., Johnson, B. J., Wycherley, T. P., Golley, R. K. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Plasma trans-Fatty Acid Concentrations Continue to Be Associated with Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations among US Adults after Reductions in trans-Fatty Acid Intake [Nutritional Epidemiology]
This study, which used a new analytical method for measuring plasma TFA concentrations, clarified the association between plasma TFA and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations before and after the US FDA enacted TFA food-labeling regulations in 2006. Methods: Data were selected from the NHANES of 1999–2000 and 2009–2010. Findings on 1383 and 2155 adults, respectively, aged ≥20 y, were evaluated. Multivariable linear regressions were used to examine the associations between plasma TFA concentration and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The outcome measures were serum concentrations of total cholestero...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Yang, Q., Zhang, Z., Loustalot, F., Vesper, H., Caudill, S. P., Ritchey, M., Gillespie, C., Merritt, R., Hong, Y., Bowman, B. A. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Circulating Vitamin K Is Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Those Treated for Hypertension in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC) [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: A role for vitamin K in coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been proposed because vitamin K–dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP), are present in vascular tissue. Observational studies found that low circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) was associated with increased CAC progression, especially in persons treated for hypertension. It is unknown whether hypertension treatment modifies this putative role of vitamin K in clinical CVD risk. Objective: We determined the association between vitamin K...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Shea, M. K., Booth, S. L., Weiner, D. E., Brinkley, T. E., Kanaya, A. M., Murphy, R. A., Simonsick, E. M., Wassel, C. L., Vermeer, C., Kritchevsky, S. B., for the Health ABC Study Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

The Inflammatory Potential of the Diet Is Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Different Subgroups of the General Population [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: The promotion of a healthy diet with anti-inflammatory properties may help to prevent depressive symptoms, particularly among men, smokers, or physically inactive individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0027242. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Adjibade, M., Andreeva, V. A., Lemogne, C., Touvier, M., Shivappa, N., Hebert, J. R., Wirth, M. D., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., Julia, C., Assmann, K. E., Kesse-Guyot, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Lean-Season Food Transfers Affect Childrens Diets and Household Food Security: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment in Malawi [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: During the lean season in food-insecure settings, where important declines in food insecurity, diet quality, and nutrition status are present, food transfers may have a protective effect on household food security and diets of young children. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gelli, A., Aberman, N.-L., Margolies, A., Santacroce, M., Baulch, B., Chirwa, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles, Research Need: How the Food Environment and Supply Affects Dietary and Lifestyle Choices Source Type: research

Ambient UVB Dose and Sun Enjoyment Are Important Predictors of Vitamin D Status in an Older Population [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: UVB-induced skin synthesis is considered the key source of vitamin D, yet exposure to UVB is poorly accounted for in epidemiological studies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with accurately measured ambient UVB dose, sun enjoyment, supplements, and other factors. Methods: An all-Irish cohort of community-dwelling participants aged>60 y [median age: 73; 67% female; median 25(OH)D: 54.5 nmol/L] was used. Participants from this large, cross-sectional study completed a questionnaire to provide information on demographic factors...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: OSullivan, F., Laird, E., Kelly, D., van Geffen, J., van Weele, M., McNulty, H., Hoey, L., Healy, M., McCarroll, K., Cunningham, C., Casey, M., Ward, M., Strain, J., Molloy, A. M., Zgaga, L. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ~2.6-fold. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02621294. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bandegan, A., Courtney-Martin, G., Rafii, M., Pencharz, P. B., Lemon, P. W. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Cruciferous Vegetable Intake Is Inversely Associated with Lung Cancer Risk among Current Nonsmoking Men in the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC) Study [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: This study suggests that cruciferous vegetable intake may be associated with a reduction in lung cancer risk among men who are currently nonsmokers. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mori, N., Shimazu, T., Sasazuki, S., Nozue, M., Mutoh, M., Sawada, N., Iwasaki, M., Yamaji, T., Inoue, M., Takachi, R., Sunami, A., Ishihara, J., Sobue, T., Tsugane, S. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Acute Peanut Consumption Alters Postprandial Lipids and Vascular Responses in Healthy Overweight or Obese Men [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: The inclusion of 85 g peanuts (3 ounces) as part of a high-fat meal improved the postprandial TG response and preserved endothelial function in healthy overweight or obese men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01405300. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Liu, X., Hill, A. M., West, S. G., Gabauer, R. M., McCrea, C. E., Fleming, J. A., Kris-Etherton, P. M. Tags: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Resistant Starch but Not Enzymatically Modified Waxy Maize Delays Development of Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: EMS did not delay the onset of diabetes in ZDF rats, whereas rats fed RS showed no signs of diabetes. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hedemann, M. S., Hermansen, K., Pedersen, S., Bach Knudsen, K. E. Tags: Diabetes Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Whole-Grain Intake, Reflected by Dietary Records and Biomarkers, Is Inversely Associated with Circulating Insulin and Other Cardiometabolic Markers in 8- to 11-Year-Old Children [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Whole-grain consumption seems to be cardioprotective in adults, but evidence in children is limited. Objective: We investigated whether intakes of total whole grain and dietary fiber as well as specific whole grains were associated with fat mass and cardiometabolic risk profile in children. Methods: We collected cross-sectional data on parental education, puberty, diet by 7-d records, and physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, fat mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure in 713 Danish children aged 8–11 y. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed f...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Damsgaard, C. T., Biltoft-Jensen, A., Tetens, I., Michaelsen, K. F., Lind, M. V., Astrup, A., Landberg, R. Tags: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
This study determined the effect of increasing doses of ingested protein on postexercise whole-body leucine balance in healthy, active children. Methods: Thirty-five children (26 boys, 9 girls; age range: 9–13 y; weight mean ± SD: 44.9 ± 10.6 kg) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet (0.95 g protein ⋅ kg–1 ⋅ d–1) before performing 20 min of cycling 3 times with a concurrent, primed, constant infusion of [13C]leucine. After exercise, participants consumed an isoenergetic beverage (140 kcal) containing variable amounts of bovine skim-milk protein and carbohydrates (sucrose) (0, 5, 10, and ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Volterman, K. A., Moore, D. R., Breithaupt, P., Godin, J.-P., Karagounis, L. G., Offord, E. A., Timmons, B. W. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Single High-Dose Vitamin A Supplementation to Neonatal Piglets Results in a Transient Dose Response in Extrahepatic Organs and Sustained Increases in Liver Stores [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Neonatal vitamin A (VA) supplementation is being evaluated as a public health policy for preventing infant mortality, but inconsistencies in mortality trials demand mechanistic work to determine biological plausibility. Objectives: We investigated the absorption, distribution, and storage of single large oral VA doses administered shortly after birth. Methods: Fifty pregnant sows (Sus scrofas domesticas) were fed a VA-free diet. Male and female newborn piglets (n = 313) were orally administered 0, 25,000, 50,000, or 200,000 IU VA in oil within 12 h of birth when mean ± SD weight was 1.56 ± 0.25 kg...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gannon, B. M., Davis, C. R., Nair, N., Grahn, M., Tanumihardjo, S. A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

A Novel Organic Selenium Compound Exerts Unique Regulation of Selenium Speciation, Selenogenome, and Selenoproteins in Broiler Chicks [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
This study sought to determine the regulation of the speciation of selenium, expression of selenogenome and selenocysteine biosynthesis and degradation-related genes, and production of selenoproteins by the 3 forms of selenium in the tissues of broiler chicks. Methods: Day-old male chicks (n = 6 cages/diet, 6 chicks/cage) were fed a selenium-deficient, corn and soy–based diet [base diet (BD), 0.05 mg Se/kg] or the BD + SeNa, SeY, or SeO at 0.2 mg Se/kg for 6 wk. Plasma, livers, and pectoral and thigh muscles were collected at weeks 3 and 6 to assay for total selenium, selenomethionine, selenocysteine, redox status, a...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zhao, L., Sun, L.-H., Huang, J.-Q., Briens, M., Qi, D.-S., Xu, S.-W., Lei, X. G. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

The Growth-Promoting Effect of Dietary Nucleotides in Fish Is Associated with an Intestinal Microbiota-Mediated Reduction in Energy Expenditure [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Nucleotides have been used as functional nutrients to improve the growth and health of animals, including fish. The mechanism involved in the growth-promotion effect of nucleotides is still unclear. Objective: We investigated the bioenergetic mechanism underlying the growth-promotion effect of nucleotides in zebrafish and the associated roles played by the intestinal microbiota. Methods: Larval zebrafish were fed a control or a 0.1% mixed nucleotides–supplemented diet for 2 wk. Standard metabolic rate, the minimal rate of energy expenditure by animals at rest, was evaluated by oxygen consumption with the ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Guo, X., Ran, C., Zhang, Z., He, S., Jin, M., Zhou, Z. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiome Are Differentially Affected in Mice Fed a Western-Style Diet or Drinking Water Supplemented with Fructose [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: The consumption of a WSD or high fructose intake differentially affects gut permeability and the microbiome. Whether these differences are related to the distinct clinical outcomes, whereby the WSD primarily promotes weight gain and high fructose intake causes barrier dysfunction, needs to be investigated in future studies. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Volynets, V., Louis, S., Pretz, D., Lang, L., Ostaff, M. J., Wehkamp, J., Bischoff, S. C. Tags: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles, Gut Microbiome Research Articles Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows. Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects o...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Urrutia, N. L., Harvatine, K. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Enrichment of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins with Apolipoprotein C-I Is Positively Associated with Their Delayed Plasma Clearance Independently of Other Transferable Apolipoproteins in Postmenopausal Overweight and Obese Women [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: The role of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) C-I in cardiometabolic risk in humans is unclear. However, in vitro studies showed a dual role for apoC-I, both protective and harmful, depending on the carrier lipoprotein. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein (TRL) apoC-I, not total or HDL apoC-I, is associated with delayed postprandial plasma clearance of TRLs, independently of apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE. Methods: This cross-sectional study examines the plasma clearance of a 13C-triolein–labeled high-fat meal (68% fat energy) in 20 postmenopausal overweight and obese women ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wassef, H., Bissonnette, S., Dufour, R., Davignon, J., Faraj, M. Tags: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Lipid Emulsion Added to a Liquid High-Carbohydrate Diet and Voluntary Running Exercise Reduce Lipogenesis and Ameliorate Early-Stage Hepatic Steatosis in Mice [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n–6 (-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains unclear how rapidly this condition develops and whether it can be prevented by LE with or without a running wheel for voluntary exercise (Exe). Objective: We investigated in an 8-d study whether mice develop steatosis and whether the administration of LE with or wit...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Huang, K.-H., Hao, L., Smith, P. B., Rogers, C. J., Patterson, A. D., Ross, A. C. Tags: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Modulator of Host Metabolism and Appetite [Critical Review]
The gut harbors an enormous diversity of microbes that are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. A growing body of evidence supports the role of this microbiota in influencing host appetite and food intake. Individual species within the gut microbiota are under selective pressure arising from nutrients available and other bacterial species present. Each bacterial species within the gut aims to increase its own fitness, habitat, and survival via specific fermentation of dietary nutrients and secretion of metabolites, many of which can influence host appetite and eating behavior by directly affe...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: van de Wouw, M., Schellekens, H., Dinan, T. G., Cryan, J. F. Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

Do Vulnerable Populations Consume Adequate Amounts of Dietary Protein? [Commentaries]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Manary, M. J., Callaghan, M. Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Protein Recommendations for Bodybuilders: In This Case, More May Indeed Be Better [Commentaries]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Paddon-Jones, D. Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Robert Proulx Heaney, MD (1927-2016) [Biographical Articles]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Weaver, C. M., Lappe, J. M. Tags: Biographical Articles Source Type: research

Avanelle Kirksey, PhD (1926-2016) [Biographical Articles]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Weaver, C. M., Hamaker, B. R. Tags: Biographical Articles Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 3, 2017 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Erratum for Ziaei et al. A prenatal multiple micronutrient supplement produces higher maternal vitamin B-12 concentrations and similar folate, ferritin, and zinc concentrations as the standard 60-mg iron plus 400-{mu}g folic acid supplement in rural Bangladeshi women. J Nutr 2016;146:2520-9. [Errata]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 3, 2017 Category: Nutrition Tags: Errata Source Type: research

The Dynamics of Gastric Emptying and Self-Reported Feelings of Satiation Are Better Predictors Than Gastrointestinal Hormones of the Effects of Lipid Emulsion Structure on Fat Digestion in Healthy Adults--A Bayesian Inference Approach [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Conclusions: This work indicates that evenly dispersed, stable, small-emulsion droplets within the stomach lead to prolonged gastric distension, longer ghrelin suppression, and accelerated fat sensing (cholecystokinin and PPY), triggering prolonged feelings of satiation. It suggests that the effects of emulsion instability and droplet size on energy consumption are best studied by assessing changes in gastric emptying and ratings of satiation rather than changes in venous hormone profiles. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01253005. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 3, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: Steingoetter, A., Buetikofer, S., Curcic, J., Menne, D., Rehfeld, J. F., Fried, M., Schwizer, W., Wooster, T. J. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research