Early Breastfeeding Problems Mediate the Negative Association between Maternal Obesity and Exclusive Breastfeeding at 1 and 2 Months Postpartum [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Early problems related to Insufficient Milk may partially explain the association between obesity and poor exclusive breastfeeding outcomes. Women who are obese, particularly those reporting breastfeeding problems that grouped in the Insufficient Milk factor in the early postpartum period, may benefit from additional breastfeeding support. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: O'Sullivan, E. J., Perrine, C. G., Rasmussen, K. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Higher Maternal Plasma n-3 PUFA and Lower n-6 PUFA Concentrations in Pregnancy Are Associated with Lower Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Suboptimal maternal diet during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardiovascular adaptations with persistent consequences in the offspring. Objective: We assessed the associations of maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations during pregnancy with childhood blood pressure. Methods: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4455 mothers and their children, we measured maternal second-trimester n–3 (-3) and n–6 (-6) PUFA concentrations in plasma glycerophospholipids and expressed n–3 and n–6 PUFAs as proportions of total PUFAs (wt%). Childhood blood pressure was measu...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Vidakovic, A. J., Gishti, O., Steenweg-de Graaff, J., Williams, M. A., Duijts, L., Felix, J. F., Hofman, A., Tiemeier, H., Jaddoe, V. W., Gaillard, R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Nutrient Profile of Foods Consumed Using the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in the SU.VI.MAX Cohort [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: The FSA NPS DI was prospectively associated with the onset of MetS in a middle-aged French population. The application of NPSs in public health initiatives may help the population make healthier food choices, which might reduce the risk of developing MetS. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Julia, C., Fezeu, L. K., Ducrot, P., Mejean, C., Peneau, S., Touvier, M., Hercberg, S., Kesse-Guyot, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

{alpha}-Tocopherol Stereoisomers in Human Plasma Are Affected by the Level and Form of the Vitamin E Supplement Used [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
This study aimed to determine the effect of RRR-α-tocopherol vs. all-rac-α-tocopherol intake on the percentage of the population meeting the vitamin E recommendation and on plasma α-tocopherol stereoisomer distribution. Methods: With the use of data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS), this study examined the percentage of the Irish population meeting the European Union (EU) RDA for vitamin E of 12 mg/d, correcting for a bioactivity difference in all-rac- vs. RRR-α-tocopherol, where 1 mg of all-rac-α-tocopherol is considered to be equivalent to 1:1.36 (0.74) mg in the EU RDA....
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zhao, Y., Monahan, F. J., McNulty, B. A., Brennan, L., Gibney, M. J., Gibney, E. R. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Growth Responses of Juvenile Red Drum Sciaenops ocellatus to Dietary Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Can Be Used to Calculate the Total Aromatic Amino Acid Requirement [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Conclusion: The TAAA requirement for maximum growth of juvenile red drum was estimated to be 2.10 ± 0.08 g/100 g dry diet. Moreover, Tyr can account for up to 60% of the TAAA requirement of juvenile red drum. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Castillo, S., Halligan, S., Gatlin, D. M. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Oral Vitamin D Supplements Increase Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Postmenopausal Women and Reduce Bone Calcium Flux Measured by 41Ca Skeletal Labeling [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: In healthy postmenopausal women, increasing serum 25(OH)D primarily affects calcium transfer from the central compartment to a fast exchanging compartment; it is possible that this represents transfer from the extracellular space to the surface of bone. A serum 25(OH)D concentration of ~40 μg/L achieves ~90% of the expected maximal effect on this transfer rate. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01053481. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Schild, A., Herter-Aeberli, I., Fattinger, K., Anderegg, S., Schulze-Konig, T., Vockenhuber, C., Synal, H.-A., Bischoff-Ferrari, H., Weber, P., von Eckardstein, A., Zimmermann, M. B. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast [Nutrition and Disease]
We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols;
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Basu, A., Betts, N. M., Leyva, M. J., Fu, D., Aston, C. E., Lyons, T. J. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Higher Plasma Phospholipid n-3 PUFAs, but Lower n-6 PUFAs, Are Associated with Lower Pulse Wave Velocity among Older Adults [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: Our results show a positive association between plasma n–6 PUFAs and arterial stiffness, and suggest that higher concentrations of plasma long-chain n–3 PUFAs are associated with less arterial stiffness and therein may be one of the mechanisms underlying the association between plasma n–3 PUFAs and lower CVD risk. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Reinders, I., Murphy, R. A., Song, X., Mitchell, G. F., Visser, M., Cotch, M. F., Garcia, M. E., Launer, L. J., Eiriksdottir, G., Gudnason, V., Harris, T. B., Brouwer, I. A. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Consumption of Yogurt, Low-Fat Milk, and Other Low-Fat Dairy Products Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in an Elderly Mediterranean Population [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: Higher consumption of low-fat dairy products, yogurt (total, low-fat, and whole-fat yogurt) and low-fat milk was associated with a reduced risk of MetS in individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk from a Mediterranean population. Conversely, higher consumption of cheese was related to a higher risk of MetS. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Babio, N., Becerra-Tomas, N., Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A., Corella, D., Estruch, R., Ros, E., Sayon-Orea, C., Fito, M., Serra-Majem, L., Aros, F., Lamuela-Raventos, R. M., Lapetra, J., Gomez-Gracia, E., Fiol, M., Diaz-Lopez, A., Sorli, J. V., Martinez, J. A. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Short-Term Curcumin Gavage Sensitizes Insulin Signaling in Dexamethasone-Treated C57BL/6 Mice [Nutrition and Disease]
In this study, we assessed the insulin sensitization effect of short-term curcumin gavage in a rapid dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance mouse model, in which the chronic anti-inflammatory function is eliminated. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received an intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (100 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline every day for 5 d, with or without simultaneous curcumin gavage (500 mg/kg body weight). On day 7, insulin tolerance tests were performed. After a booster dexamethasone injection and curcumin gavage on day 8, blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Tian, L., Zeng, K., Shao, W., Yang, B. B., Fantus, I. G., Weng, J., Jin, T. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Plasma Selenium Concentrations Are Sufficient and Associated with Protease Inhibitor Use in Treated HIV-Infected Adults [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Selenium is an essential constituent of selenoproteins, which play a substantial role in antioxidant defense and inflammatory cascades. Selenium deficiency is associated with disease states characterized by inflammation, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although HIV infection has been associated with low selenium, the role of selenium status in HIV-related CVD is unclear. Objectives: We sought to assess associations between plasma selenium and markers of inflammation, immune activation, and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to determine ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hileman, C. O., Dirajlal-Fargo, S., Lam, S. K., Kumar, J., Lacher, C., Combs, G. F., McComsey, G. A. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Dietary Almonds Increase Serum HDL Cholesterol in Coronary Artery Disease Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low. Objective: This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients. Methods: A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women, wer...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jamshed, H., Sultan, F. A. T., Iqbal, R., Gilani, A. H. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Oral Glutamine Supplementation Protects Female Mice from Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Genetic factors, a diet rich in fat and sugar, and an impaired intestinal barrier function are critical in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The nonessential amino acid glutamine (Gln) has been suggested to have protective effects on intestinal barrier function but also against the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. Objective: The effect of oral Gln supplementation on the development of Western-style diet (WSD)–induced NASH in mice was assessed. Methods: Female 6- to 8-wk-old C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a control (C) diet or a WSD alone or supplemented with 2.1 g ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sellmann, C., Jin, C. J., Degen, C., De Bandt, J.-P., Bergheim, I. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Citrulline and Nonessential Amino Acids Prevent Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: In our rat model, Cit and NEAAs effectively prevented fructose-induced NAFLD. On the basis of literature data and our findings, we propose that NEAAs may exert their effects specifically on the liver, whereas Cit presumably acts at both the hepatic and whole-body level, in part via improved peripheral Arg metabolism. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jegatheesan, P., Beutheu, S., Ventura, G., Nubret, E., Sarfati, G., Bergheim, I., De Bandt, J.-P. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: Daily intake of 50 g carbohydrate from honey, sucrose, or HFCS55 for 14 d resulted in similar effects on measures of glycemia, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. All 3 increased TG concentrations in both GT and IGT individuals and elevated glycemic and inflammatory responses in the latter. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01371266. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Raatz, S. K., Johnson, L. K., Picklo, M. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

L-Glutamate Enhances Barrier and Antioxidative Functions in Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
This study tested the hypothesis that Glu may enhance the barrier function of intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 (IPEC-1) cells by upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. Methods: IPEC-1 cells were cultured with or without Glu in the presence or absence of 1 mmol/L diquat (an oxidant) for indicated time points. Cell numbers, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mRNA, and protein abundance of glutamate transporter, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the abundance of tight junction proteins were determined. Results: Compared with 0 mmol/L Glu, 0.5-, 1-, and 2 mmol/L Glu stimulated (P
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jiao, N., Wu, Z., Ji, Y., Wang, B., Dai, Z., Wu, G. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Iron Absorption from an Intrinsically Labeled Lentil Meal Is Low but Upregulated in Women with Poor Iron Status [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
The objectives were to characterize the iron absorption from a test meal of intrinsically labeled 57Fe lentils prepared as dal, to compare the bioavailability of iron from 57Fe in dal with that observed for a reference dose of 58Fe as ferrous sulfate, and to assess associations between iron absorption and iron status indicators. Methods: This crossover study included 19 nonpregnant women (n = 6 anemic; hemoglobin:
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: DellaValle, D. M., Glahn, R. P., Shaff, J. E., O'Brien, K. O. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Low-Dose Creatine Supplementation Lowers Plasma Guanidinoacetate, but Not Plasma Homocysteine, in a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Creatine synthesis from guanidinoacetate consumes ~50% of s-adenosylmethionine (SAM)–derived methyl groups, accounting for an equivalent proportion of s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and total homocysteine (tHcys) synthesis. Dietary creatine inhibits the synthesis of guanidinoacetate, thereby lowering plasma tHcys in rats. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that creatine supplementation lowers plasma guanidinoacetate, increases blood SAM, lowers blood SAH, and lowers plasma tHcys. Methods: Bangladeshi adults were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 12 wk: placebo (n = 101), 3 g/d creatine (...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Peters, B. A., Hall, M. N., Liu, X., Parvez, F., Siddique, A. B., Shahriar, H., Uddin, M. N., Islam, T., Ilievski, V., Graziano, J. H., Gamble, M. V. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Dietary Whey and Casein Differentially Affect Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, Glucose Metabolism, and Taste Preference in Diet-Induced Obese Rats [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusion: Together, these data demonstrate that in obese rats, whey, casein, and their combination improve energy balance through differential effects on food intake, taste preference, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and gut hormone secretion. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Pezeshki, A., Fahim, A., Chelikani, P. K. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. Methods: A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydra...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Baum, J. I., Gray, M., Binns, A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

High True Ileal Digestibility but Not Postprandial Utilization of Nitrogen from Bovine Meat Protein in Humans Is Moderately Decreased by High-Temperature, Long-Duration Cooking [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: Cooking bovine meat at a high temperature for a long time can moderately decrease protein digestibility compared with cooking at a lower temperature for a short time and does not affect postprandial exogenous protein metabolism in young adults. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01685307. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Oberli, M., Marsset-Baglieri, A., Airinei, G., Sante-Lhoutellier, V., Khodorova, N., Remond, D., Foucault-Simonin, A., Piedcoq, J., Tome, D., Fromentin, G., Benamouzig, R., Gaudichon, C. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Maternal N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation during Early Pregnancy Enhances Embryonic Survival and Development through Modulation of the Endometrial Proteome in Gilts [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
Background: Early pregnancy loss is a major concern in humans and animals. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been found to enhance embryonic survival during early pregnancy in rats. However, little is known about the key factors in the endometrium involved in the improvement of embryonic implantation and development induced by maternal NCG supplementation. Objectives: Our objectives were to investigate whether NCG supplementation during early gestation enhanced embryonic survival and development in gilts and to uncover the related factors using the approach of endometrium proteome analysis with isobaric tags for relative and a...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zhu, J., Zeng, X., Peng, Q., Zeng, S., Zhao, H., Shen, H., Qiao, S. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research

The Dihydrofolate Reductase 19 bp Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Biomarkers of Folate Status in Healthy Young Adults, Irrespective of Folic Acid Intake [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Conclusion: In this cohort of healthy young individuals, the DHFR 19 bp deletion allele did not significantly affect circulating folate status, irrespective of folic acid intake. Our data rule out a strong functional effect from this polymorphism on blood folate concentrations. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ozaki, M., Molloy, A. M., Mills, J. L., Fan, R., Wang, Y., Gibney, E. R., Shane, B., Brody, L. C., Parle-McDermott, A. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

The Intestinal Transport of Bovine Milk Exosomes Is Mediated by Endocytosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Caco-2 Cells and Rat Small Intestinal IEC-6 Cells [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Conclusion: The uptake of bovine milk exosomes is mediated by endocytosis and depends on cell and exosome surface glycoproteins in human and rat intestinal cells. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wolf, T., Baier, S. R., Zempleni, J. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Dietary Lipids Inform the Gut and Brain about Meal Arrival via CD36-Mediated Signal Transduction [Recent Advances in Nutritional Sciences]
Sensing mechanisms for nutrients, in particular dietary fat, operate in the mouth, brain, and gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in regulating feeding behavior and energy balance. Critical to these regulatory mechanisms are the specialized receptors present on taste buds on the tongue, on neurons in specialized centers in the brain, and on epithelial and enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa. These receptors recognize nutrients and respond by inducing intracellular signals that trigger release of bioactive compounds that influence other organs and help coordinate the response to the meal. Components of die...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - October 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sundaresan, S., Abumrad, N. A. Tags: Recent Advances in Nutritional Sciences Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Prompts on Fourth-Grade Children's Dietary Recall Accuracy Depends on Retention Interval and Varies by Gender [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Background: Dietary recall accuracy is related to retention interval (RI) (i.e., time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), and possibly to prompts. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated their combined effect. Objective: The combined influence of RI and prompts on children’s recall accuracy was investigated in this study. Two RIs [short (prior-24-h recall obtained in afternoon) and long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] were crossed with 4 prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, lunch, etc.), open (no instructions), and reverse (recent-to-distant)], creating 8 c...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Baxter, S. D., Smith, A. F., Hitchcock, D. B., Guinn, C. H., Royer, J. A., Collins, K. L., Smith, A. L., Puryear, M. P., Vaadi, K. K., Finney, C. J., Miller, P. H. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research

Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation Affects the Social Behavior, Brain Fatty Acid Profile, and Sickness Response of Piglets [Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences]
Background: Maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is thought to affect development in the offspring. Objective: We assessed the impact of maternal dietary DHA on behavior, brain fatty acid (FA) profile, and sickness response of offspring in pigs, a pertinent model for human nutrition. Methods: Sows (n = 24) were fed a diet with DHA-rich fish oil (FO) (20 g/kg) or high–oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSF) (20 g/kg) from day 61 of gestation through lactation. At 4 wk of age, 4 piglets per litter were weaned and mixed with piglets from other litters. Behavior was observed in 4- to 8-wk-old piglets, and brain F...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Clouard, C., Souza, A. S., Gerrits, W. J., Hovenier, R., Lammers, A., Bolhuis, J. E. Tags: Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences Source Type: research

Food Liking Enhances the Plasma Response of 2-Arachidonoylglycerol and of Pancreatic Polypeptide upon Modified Sham Feeding in Humans [Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences]
Background: Food palatability increases food intake and may lead to overeating. The mechanisms behind this observation are still largely unknown. Objectives: The aims of this study were the following: 1) to elucidate the plasma responses of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and gastrointestinal peptides to a palatable (sweet), unpalatable (bitter), and sensory-acceptable (tasteless control) food, and 2) to verify whether some of these bioactive compounds can serve as plasma biomarkers of food liking in humans. Methods: Three puddings providing 60 kcal (35% from proteins, 62% from carbohydrates, and 3% from fats) but...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mennella, I., Ferracane, R., Zucco, F., Fogliano, V., Vitaglione, P. Tags: Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences Source Type: research

Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Huang, J., Barnidge, E., Kim, Y. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Daily Zinc but Not Multivitamin Supplementation Reduces Diarrhea and Upper Respiratory Infections in Tanzanian Infants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: Daily zinc supplementation of Tanzanian infants beginning at the age of 6 wk may lower the burden of diarrhea and acute upper respiratory infections, but provision of MVs using the regimen in this trial did not confer additional benefit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00421668. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: McDonald, C. M., Manji, K. P., Kisenge, R., Aboud, S., Spiegelman, D., Fawzi, W. W., Duggan, C. P. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Higher Intake of PUFAs Is Associated with Lower Total and Visceral Adiposity and Higher Lean Mass in a Racially Diverse Sample of Children [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Our results show that a higher self-reported intake of PUFAs and a higher ratio of PUFAs to SFAs are positively associated with LM and negatively associated with visceral adiposity and %BF in a healthy cohort of racially diverse children aged 7–12 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00726778. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Cardel, M., Lemas, D. J., Jackson, K. H., Friedman, J. E., Fernandez, J. R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Assmann, K. E., Lassale, C., Andreeva, V. A., Jeandel, C., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., Kesse-Guyot, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Amino Acid Intakes Are Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness and Central Blood Pressure in Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: These data provide evidence to suggest that intakes of several AAs are associated with cardiovascular benefits beyond blood pressure reduction in healthy women. The magnitude of the observed associations was similar to those previously reported for other lifestyle factors. Increasing intakes of these AAs could be an important and readily achievable way to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jennings, A., MacGregor, A., Welch, A., Chowienczyk, P., Spector, T., Cassidy, A. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary Intakes of Folic Acid and Methionine in Early Childhood Are Associated with Body Composition at School Age [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: In this population of children, early high folic acid intakes were associated with a lower body weight and BMI at the age of 6 y. In contrast, early higher methionine intakes were associated with unfavorable body composition at the age of 6 y. Future studies should investigate long-term consequences of these outcomes on health. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Braun, K. V., Voortman, T., Kiefte-de Jong, J. C., Jaddoe, V. W., Hofman, A., Franco, O. H., van den Hooven, E. H. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum Vitamin D Concentrations Are Not Associated with Insulin Resistance in Swiss Adults [Nutritional Epidemiology]
We examined the association between serum vitamin D metabolites and incident IR. Methods: This was a prospective, population-based study derived from the CoLaus (Cohorte Lausannoise) study including 3856 participants (aged 51.2 ± 10.4 y; 2217 women) free from diabetes or IR at baseline. IR was defined as a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index>2.6. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and at follow-up to calculate the HOMA index. The association of vitamin D metabolites with incident IR was analyzed by logistic regression, and the results were expressed for each independent variable as...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Marques-Vidal, P., Vollenweider, P., Guessous, I., Henry, H., Boulat, O., Waeber, G., Jornayvaz, F. R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary Fat and Fiber Intakes Are Not Associated with Patterns of Urinary Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Fiber and fat intakes were not strongly associated with patterns of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Our data suggest estrogen metabolism is not a major mechanism through which dietary fiber and fat may affect breast or other hormone-related cancer risks. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Oh, H., Smith-Warner, S. A., Tamimi, R. M., Wang, M., Xu, X., Hankinson, S. E., Fuhrman, B. J., Ziegler, R. G., Eliassen, A. H. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum Trans Fatty Acids Are Not Associated with Weight Gain or Linear Growth in School-Age Children [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Proportions of serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of TFA intake, were not associated with weight gain in children aged 6–14 y in low- and middle-income populations in Bogota. The proportion of trans palmitoleic acid was positively associated with linear growth in boys. Longer follow-up and studies in diverse cohorts with wider ranges of TFA intake are warranted. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Baylin, A., Perng, W., Mora-Plazas, M., Marin, C., Villamor, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary Fat Intake Is Differentially Associated with Risk of Paroxysmal Compared with Sustained Atrial Fibrillation in Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Dietary fat was not associated with risk of incident AF in women without established CVD or AF. High SFA and low MUFA intakes were associated with greater risk of persistent or chronic, but not paroxysmal, AF. Improving dietary fat quality may play a role in the prevention of sustained forms of AF. The Women’s Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000479. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chiuve, S. E., Sandhu, R. K., Moorthy, M. V., Glynn, R. J., Albert, C. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Early Protein Intake Is Associated with Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Young Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: Suboptimal nutrition during fetal life and early childhood may be important in early programming of health and disease. Preterm infants born with very low birth weight (VLBW;
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Matinolli, H.-M., Hovi, P., Mannisto, S., Sipola-Leppanen, M., Eriksson, J. G., Makitie, O., Jarvenpaa, A.-L., Andersson, S., Kajantie, E. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Campbell, W. W., Kim, J. E., Amankwaah, A. F., Gordon, S. L., Weinheimer-Haus, E. M. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Iodine Supplementation Decreases Hypercholesterolemia in Iodine-Deficient, Overweight Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that moderate to severe iodine deficiency in overweight women elevates serum TSH and produces a more atherogenic lipid profile and that iodine supplementation in this group reduces the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia. Thus, iodine prophylaxis may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in overweight adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01985204. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Herter-Aeberli, I., Cherkaoui, M., El Ansari, N., Rohner, R., Stinca, S., Chabaa, L., von Eckardstein, A., Aboussad, A., Zimmermann, M. B. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Soluble Dextrin Fibers Alter the Intestinal Microbiota and Reduce Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Male IL-10-Deficient Mice [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Prebiotic fibers stimulate the growth and activity of the gut microbiota. Interleukin 10–deficient (IL-10–/–) mice develop a colitis that is influenced by the gut microbial composition. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotic fibers on the intestinal microbiota and immune function in IL-10–/– mice. Methods: At 4 wk of age, male IL-10–/– mice (n = 8/group) were randomly assigned to 5 diets: unpurified diet with cellulose (4%; control), corn-derived hydroxypropylated new resistant starch (NRS) (2% NRS + 2% cellulose), soluble fiber ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Valcheva, R., Hotte, N., Gillevet, P., Sikaroodi, M., Thiessen, A., Madsen, K. L. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

{alpha}-Galacto-oligosaccharides Dose-Dependently Reduce Appetite and Decrease Inflammation in Overweight Adults [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: Consumption of α-GOSs for 14 d dose-dependently reduced appetite, food intake, and inflammation in overweight adults with no impact of α-GOS composition. Consequently, α-GOSs appear to promote long-term weight loss and mitigate metabolic disorders. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Morel, F. B., Dai, Q., Ni, J., Thomas, D., Parnet, P., Fanca-Berthon, P. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Six and 12 Weeks of Caloric Restriction Increases {beta} Cell Function and Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Concentrations in People with Type 2 Diabetes [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Caloric restriction alone has been shown to improve insulin action and fasting glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains uncertain. Objective: We sought to quantify the effect of caloric restriction on β cell function and glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Nine subjects (2 men, 7 women) with type 2 diabetes [BMI (in kg/m2): 40.6 ± 1.4; age: 58 ± 3 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.9% ± 0.2%] were studied using a triple-tracer mixed meal after withdrawal of oral diabetes therapy. The oral minimal model was used to measure β cell func...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sathananthan, M., Shah, M., Edens, K. L., Grothe, K. B., Piccinini, F., Farrugia, L. P., Micheletto, F., Man, C. D., Cobelli, C., Rizza, R. A., Camilleri, M., Vella, A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Silicon-Enriched Restructured Pork Affects the Lipoprotein Profile, VLDL Oxidation, and LDL Receptor Gene Expression in Aged Rats Fed an Atherogenic Diet [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon-enriched RP on lipemia, lipoprotein profile, and oxidation markers of aged rats fed high-fat, high-energy, cholesterol-enriched diets. Methods: RP samples similar to commercial sausages (16% protein and 22% fat, wt:wt) were prepared by mixing lean pork and lard alone or with silicon (1.3 g Si/kg fresh matter) under controlled conditions and then freeze-dried. Saturated fat–rich diets were designed by mixing 78.3% purified diet with 21.7% freeze-dried RP. Three groups composed of 8 aged male Wistar rats (1 y old) were fed for 8 wk a control RP (C) diet, a chol...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Garcimartin, A., Santos-Lopez, J. A., Bastida, S., Benedi, J., Sanchez-Muniz, F. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Jejunal Casein Feeding Is Followed by More Rapid Protein Digestion and Amino Acid Absorption When Compared with Gastric Feeding in Healthy Young Men [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Dietary protein is required to attenuate the loss of muscle mass and to support recovery during a period of hospitalization. Jejunal feeding is preferred over gastric feeding in patients who are intolerant of gastric feeding. However, the impact of gastric vs. jejunal feeding on postprandial dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics in vivo in humans remains largely unexplored. Objective: We compared the impact of gastric vs. jejunal feeding on subsequent dietary protein digestion and amino acid (AA) absorption in vivo in healthy young men. Methods: In a randomized crossover study design, 11 healthy y...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Luttikhold, J., van Norren, K., Buijs, N., Ankersmit, M., Heijboer, A. C., Gootjes, J., Rijna, H., van Leeuwen, P. A., van Loon, L. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. Objective: We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. Methods: A randomized, double-blind...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Holscher, H. D., Bauer, L. L., Gourineni, V., Pelkman, C. L., Fahey, G. C., Swanson, K. S. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Hepatic Uptake of Rectally Administered Butyrate Prevents an Increase in Systemic Butyrate Concentrations in Humans [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), fermentation products of undigested fibers, are considered beneficial for colonic health. High plasma concentrations are potentially harmful; therefore, information about systemic SCFA clearance is needed before therapeutic use of prebiotics or colonic SCFA administration. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rectal butyrate administration on SCFA interorgan exchange. Methods: Twelve patients (7 men; age: 66.4 ± 2.0 y; BMI 24.5 ± 1.4 kg/m2) undergoing upper abdominal surgery participated in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. Du...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: van der Beek, C. M., Bloemen, J. G., van den Broek, M. A., Lenaerts, K., Venema, K., Buurman, W. A., Dejong, C. H. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Postprandial Plasma Phospholipids in Men Are Influenced by the Source of Dietary Fat [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dairy fat and soy oil on circulating postprandial lipids in men. Methods: Men (40–60 y old, nonsmokers; n = 16) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume 2 breakfast meals of dairy-based or soy oil-based foods. The changes in the plasma lipidome during the 4-h postprandial period were analyzed with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and included 316 lipid species in 23 classes and subclasses, representing sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and sterols. Results: Nonparametric Friedman tests showed significant changes in mul...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Meikle, P. J., Barlow, C. K., Mellett, N. A., Mundra, P. A., Bonham, M. P., Larsen, A., Cameron-Smith, D., Sinclair, A., Nestel, P. J., Wong, G. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research