Reproducibility of the Online Food4Me Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Dietary Intakes across Europe [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: The online Food4Me FFQ was shown to be reproducible across 7 European countries when administered within a 1-mo period to a large number of participants. The results support the utility of the online Food4Me FFQ as a reproducible tool across multiple European populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530139. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Marshall, S. J., Livingstone, K. M., Celis-Morales, C., Forster, H., Fallaize, R., ODonovan, C. B., Woolhead, C., Marsaux, C. F., Macready, A. L., Navas-Carretero, S., San-Cristobal, R., Kolossa, S., Tsirigoti, L., Lambrinou, C. P., Moschonis, G., Godlews Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults [Nutritional Epidemiology]
The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24–55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, re...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hall, M. N., Howe, C. G., Liu, X., Caudill, M. A., Malysheva, O., Ilievski, V., Lomax-Luu, A. M., Parvez, F., Siddique, A. B., Shahriar, H., Uddin, M. N., Islam, T., Graziano, J. H., Gamble, M. V. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population during 2007-2010 [Nutritional Epidemiology]
We describe patterns for total 25(OH)D and individual metabolites in persons aged ≥1 y stratified by race-ethnicity and grouped by demographic, intake, physiologic, and lifestyle variables. Methods: We measured 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2], and C3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 [C3-epi-25(OH)D3] in serum samples (n = 15,652) from the 2007–2010 cross-sectional NHANES [total 25(OH)D = 25(OH)D3 + 25(OH)D2]. Results: Concentrations (median, detection rate) of 25(OH)D3 (63.6 nmol/L, 100%) and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (3.40 nmol/L, 86%) were generally detectable; 25(OH)D2 was detectable in 19% ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Schleicher, R. L., Sternberg, M. R., Looker, A. C., Yetley, E. A., Lacher, D. A., Sempos, C. T., Taylor, C. L., Durazo-Arvizu, R. A., Maw, K. L., Chaudhary-Webb, M., Johnson, C. L., Pfeiffer, C. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Three 24-Hour Recalls in Comparison with One Improve the Estimates of Energy and Nutrient Intakes in an Urban Mexican Population [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: We conclude that the adjusting-by-variance method using 3 d of 24HR allows for a more accurate estimation of usual intake, dietary adequacy, and prevalence of inadequacy, thereby reducing the measurement error that could compromise the results and conclusions of surveys. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Shamah-Levy, T., Rodriguez-Ramirez, S., Gaona-Pineda, E. B., Cuevas-Nasu, L., Carriquiry, A. L., Rivera, J. A. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Low Serum Vitamin B-12 Concentrations Are Prevalent in a Cohort of Pregnant Canadian Women [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: Among Canadian women of reproductive age, 5% and 20% have serum vitamin B-12 concentrations indicative of deficiency (271 nmol/L), and no women had elevated tHcy (>13 μmol/L). Maternal dietary vitamin B-12 intake during pregnancy was either weakly associated or not associated with maternal and cord blood vitamin B-12 (r2 = 0.17–0.24, P
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Visentin, C. E., Masih, S. P., Plumptre, L., Schroder, T. H., Sohn, K.-J., Ly, A., Lausman, A. Y., Berger, H., Croxford, R., Lamers, Y., Kim, Y.-I., O'Connor, D. L. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Lean Seafood Intake Reduces Postprandial C-peptide and Lactate Concentrations in Healthy Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial with a Crossover Design [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: Even though the diets did not alter serum insulin and glucose concentrations, intake of the lean seafood compared with the nonseafood diet reduced postprandial concentrations of C-peptide and lactate and the TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio in healthy adults in a manner that may affect the long-term development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01708681. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Aadland, E. K., Graff, I. E., Lavigne, C., Eng, O., Paquette, M., Holthe, A., Mellgren, G., Madsen, L., Jacques, H., Liaset, B. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. Objective: A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. Methods: We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)–enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain tr...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Abe, S., Ezaki, O., Suzuki, M. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Common Variants in Cholesterol Synthesis- and Transport-Related Genes Associate with Circulating Cholesterol Responses to Intakes of Conventional Dairy Products in Healthy Individuals [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: Genetic variations in ABCG5, CYP7A1, and DHCR7 may contribute to differing responses of serum cholesterol to dairy intake among healthy adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01444326. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Abdullah, M. M., Cyr, A., Lepine, M.-C., Eck, P. K., Couture, P., Lamarche, B., Jones, P. J. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Consumption of Quercetin and Quercetin-Containing Apple and Cherry Extracts Affects Blood Glucose Concentration, Hepatic Metabolism, and Gene Expression Patterns in Obese C57BL/6J High Fat-Fed Mice [Nutrition and Disease]
The objective of this study was to determine whether mice fed polyphenol-rich apple peel extract (AE), cherry extract (CE), and quercetin, a phytochemical abundant in fruits including apples and cherries, would modulate the harmful effects of adiposity on blood glucose regulation, endocrine concentrations, and hepatic metabolism in HF-fed C57BL/6J male mice. Methods: Groups of 8-wk-old mice (n = 8 each) were fed 5 diets for 10 wk, including low-fat (LF; 10% of total energy) and HF (60% of total energy) control diets and 3 HF diets containing polyphenol-rich AE, CE, and quercetin (0.2% wt:wt). Also, an in vitro study used ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Snyder, S. M., Zhao, B., Luo, T., Kaiser, C., Cavender, G., Hamilton-Reeves, J., Sullivan, D. K., Shay, N. F. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Relatively Low {beta}-Cell Responsiveness Contributes to the Association of BMI with Circulating Glucose Concentrations Measured under Free-Living Conditions among Pregnant African American Women [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: The association of BMI with high circulating glucose in free-living pregnant African American women is at least partially attributable to lower β-cell responsiveness. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chandler-Laney, P. C., Shepard, D. N., Schneider, C. R., Flagg, L. A., Granger, W. M., Mancuso, M. S., Biggio, J. R., Gower, B. A. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. Objective: We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. Methods: With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jonvik, K. L., Nyakayiru, J., Pinckaers, P. J., Senden, J. M., van Loon, L. J., Verdijk, L. B. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Ruminal Infusions of Cobalt EDTA Modify Milk Fatty Acid Composition via Decreases in Fatty Acid Desaturation and Altered Gene Expression in the Mammary Gland of Lactating Cows [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Intravenous or ruminal infusion of lithium salt of cobalt EDTA (Co-EDTA) or cobalt-acetate alters milk fat composition in cattle, but the mechanisms involved are not known. Objective: The present study evaluated the effect of ruminal Co-EDTA infusion on milk FA composition, mammary lipid metabolism, and mammary lipogenic gene expression. Methods: For the experiment, 4 cows in midlactation and fitted with rumen cannulae were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Co-EDTA was administered in the rumen to supply 0, 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 g Co/d over an 18-d interval with a 10-d washout between experimental peri...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Leskinen, H., Viitala, S., Mutikainen, M., Kairenius, P., Tapio, I., Taponen, J., Bernard, L., Vilkki, J., Shingfield, K. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. Objective: We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Methods: Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Petry, N., Rohner, F., Gahutu, J. B., Campion, B., Boy, E., Tugirimana, P. L., Zimmerman, M. B., Zwahlen, C., Wirth, J. P., Moretti, D. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Glycine Regulates Expression and Distribution of Claudin-7 and ZO-3 Proteins in Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
This study tested the hypothesis that glycine may regulate the expression and distribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins, thereby contributing to intestinal mucosal barrier function. Methods: Enterocytes isolated from the jejunum of a healthy newborn pig were propagated to establish a stable cell line. The cells were cultured with 0.05 mmol glycine/L (control; concentration in the small intestinal lumen of low-birth-weight piglets) or 0.25 or 1.0 mmol glycine/L for the indicated periods of time. Epithelial barrier integrity and expression and localization of TJ proteins were analyzed by using monolayer transepithelial e...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Li, W., Sun, K., Ji, Y., Wu, Z., Wang, W., Dai, Z., Wu, G. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Nicotinamide Riboside Is a Major NAD+ Precursor Vitamin in Cow Milk [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
Conclusions: NR is a major NAD+ precursor vitamin in cow milk. Control of S. aureus may be important to preserve the NAD+ precursor vitamin concentration of milk. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Trammell, S. A., Yu, L., Redpath, P., Migaud, M. E., Brenner, C. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research

Nondigestible Fructans Alter Gastrointestinal Barrier Function, Gene Expression, Histomorphology, and the Microbiota Profiles of Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
Background: Obesity is associated with compromised intestinal barrier function and shifts in gastrointestinal microbiota that may contribute to inflammation. Fiber provides benefits, but impacts of fiber type are not understood. Objective: We aimed to determine the impact of cellulose compared with fructans on the fecal microbiota and gastrointestinal physiology in obese mice. Methods: Eighteen-wk-old male diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group; 40.5 g) were fed high-fat diets (45% kcal fat) containing 5% cellulose (control), 10% cellulose, 10% short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), or 10% inulin for 4 wk. Ceca...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Liu, T.-W., Cephas, K. D., Holscher, H. D., Kerr, K. R., Mangian, H. F., Tappenden, K. A., Swanson, K. S. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research

Microbial-Derived Metabolites Reflect an Altered Intestinal Microbiota during Catch-Up Growth in Undernourished Neonatal Mice [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]
Conclusion: Microbial-derived metabolites and intestinal microbiota remain altered during catch-up growth in undernourished neonatal mice. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Preidis, G. A., Ajami, N. J., Wong, M. C., Bessard, B. C., Conner, M. E., Petrosino, J. F. Tags: Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Source Type: research

Folic Acid Supplementation in Postpolypectomy Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial Increases Tissue Folate Concentrations and Reduces Aberrant DNA Biomarkers in Colonic Tissues Adjacent to the Former Polyp Site [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: Low folate status is associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. Optimal folate status may be genoprotective by preventing uracil misincorporation into DNA and DNA hypomethylation. Adenomatous polyps have low folate status compared with normal colonic mucosa, and they are surrounded by histologically normal mucosa that also is of low folate status. Objective: In a randomized controlled trial conducted at a single Dublin hospital between April 2002 and March 2004, we assessed the effect of folic acid supplementation on tissue folate, uracil misincorporation into DNA, and global DNA hypomethyl...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: OReilly, S. L., McGlynn, A. P., McNulty, H., Reynolds, J., Wasson, G. R., Molloy, A. M., Strain, J., Weir, D. G., Ward, M., McKerr, G., Scott, J. M., Downes, C. S. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Research Approaches and Methods for Evaluating the Protein Quality of Human Foods Proposed by an FAO Expert Working Group in 2014 [Issues and Opinions]
The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) has been adopted for assessing protein quality in human foods since 1991, and the shortcomings of using the PDCAAS have been recognized since its adoption. The 2011 FAO Expert Consultation recognized that the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was superior to the PDCAAS for determining protein quality. However, there were insufficient human data on amino acid digestibility before adopting the DIAAS. More human data were needed before DIAAS could be implemented. In 2014, FAO convened an expert working group to propose and agree on research protocol...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Lee, W. T., Weisell, R., Albert, J., Tome, D., Kurpad, A. V., Uauy, R. Tags: Issues and Opinions Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Protective Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome [Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV]
Several studies provide evidence supporting a beneficial effect from the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review summarizes the current scientific evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials on the relation between the MedDiet and T2DM and MetS and the possible mechanisms underlying the reported associations. A recent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies showed that greater adherence to the MedDiet was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of diabetes. The MedDiet has also been found to be beneficial ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Salas-Salvado, J., Guasch-Ferre, M., Lee, C.-H., Estruch, R., Clish, C. B., Ros, E. Tags: Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV Source Type: research

Intervention Trials with the Mediterranean Diet in Cardiovascular Prevention: Understanding Potential Mechanisms through Metabolomic Profiling [Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV]
Large observational epidemiologic studies and randomized trials support the benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mechanisms postulated to mediate these benefits include the reduction of low-grade inflammation, increased adiponectin concentrations, decreased blood coagulation, enhanced endothelial function, lower oxidative stress, lower concentrations of oxidized LDL, and improved apolipoprotein profiles. However, the metabolic pathways through which the Mediterranean diet influences CVD risk remain largely unknown. Investigating specific mechanisms in the context of a large intervent...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A., Ruiz-Canela, M., Hruby, A., Liang, L., Trichopoulou, A., Hu, F. B. Tags: Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV Source Type: research

Future Perspectives of Personalized Weight Loss Interventions Based on Nutrigenetic, Epigenetic, and Metagenomic Data [Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV]
As obesity has become a major global public health challenge, a large number of studies have analyzed different strategies aimed at inducing a negative energy balance and, consequently, body weight loss. However, most existing weight loss programs are generally unsuccessful, so several interventions have been carried out to identify physiologic and behavioral factors concerning this variability in order to implement more personalized treatment. Nowadays, an individualized approach is being proposed through so-called personalized nutrition, whereby not only the phenotype but also the genotype is used for customized nutritio...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Goni, L., Cuervo, M., Milagro, F. I., Martinez, J. A. Tags: Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV Source Type: research

An Increase in Plasma Homovanillic Acid with Cocoa Extract Consumption Is Associated with the Alleviation of Depressive Symptoms in Overweight or Obese Adults on an Energy Restricted Diet in a Randomized Controlled Trial [Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV]
Background: Obesity has been associated with various health disorders, including psychological alterations. Cocoa consumption and weight management may produce a beneficial effect on these problems. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cocoa extract supplementation as part of an energy-restricted diet on psychological status and peripheral dopaminergic activity in overweight or obese middle-aged subjects. Methods: In a 4-wk, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention, 22 men and 25 women [mean ± SD age: 57 ± 5 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 30....
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ibero-Baraibar, I., Perez-Cornago, A., Ramirez, M. J., Martinez, J. A., Zulet, M. A. Tags: Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV Source Type: research

Supplementation with {alpha}-Lipoic Acid Alone or in Combination with Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates the Inflammatory Status of Healthy Overweight or Obese Women Consuming an Energy-Restricted Diet [Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV]
Background: The proinflammatory state induced by obesity plays an important role in obesity-related metabolic complications. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with α-lipoic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), separately or in combination, could improve inflammatory and cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy overweight or obese women consuming an energy-restricted diet. Methods: Within the context of the Effects of Lipoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Human Obesity (OBEPALIP) study, Caucasian women (n = 73) aged 20–50 y with a BMI (in kg/m2) between 27.5 ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Huerta, A. E., Prieto-Hontoria, P. L., Sainz, N., Martinez, J. A., Moreno-Aliaga, M. J. Tags: Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV Source Type: research

Title page and TOC [Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Tags: Supplement-Frontiers in Personalized and Community Nutrition: 9th Meeting on Nutrition Updates at UNAV Source Type: research

Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)--Zinc Review [Supplement: Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Expert Panel Reviews, Part 3]
Zinc is required for multiple metabolic processes as a structural, regulatory, or catalytic ion. Cellular, tissue, and whole-body zinc homeostasis is tightly controlled to sustain metabolic functions over a wide range of zinc intakes, making it difficult to assess zinc insufficiency or excess. The BOND (Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development) Zinc Expert Panel recommends 3 measurements for estimating zinc status: dietary zinc intake, plasma zinc concentration (PZC), and height-for-age of growing infants and children. The amount of dietary zinc potentially available for absorption, which requires an estimate of dietary zin...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: King, J. C., Brown, K. H., Gibson, R. S., Krebs, N. F., Lowe, N. M., Siekmann, J. H., Raiten, D. J. Tags: Supplement: Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Expert Panel Reviews, Part 3 Source Type: research

Title page [Supplement: Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Expert Panel Reviews, Part 3]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Tags: Supplement: Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Expert Panel Reviews, Part 3 Source Type: research

The Emerging Issue of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Foods [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Taylor, C. L., Roseland, J. M., Coates, P. M., Pehrsson, P. R. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Conclusions: This study, to our knowledge, offers a novel approach to the description of the complex physiological interrelations between adiponectin, leptin, and osteocalcin and the musculoskeletal system. There may be benefits to jointly targeting both systems to improve bone health. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Solis-Trapala, I., Schoenmakers, I., Goldberg, G. R., Prentice, A., Ward, K. A. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research

Salt Promotes Passive Overconsumption of Dietary Fat in Humans [Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences]
Background: Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated. Objectives: Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this w...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bolhuis, D. P., Costanzo, A., Newman, L. P., Keast, R. S. Tags: Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences Source Type: research

Regulatory T Cell Depletion Abolishes the Protective Effect of Dietary Galacto-Oligosaccharides on Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma in Mice [Nutritional Immunology]
Background: In a murine model for house dust mite (HDM)–induced asthma, dietary galacto-oligosaccharides have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms. Previously, CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced by nondigestible oligosaccharides were found to protect against allergy development. Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of anti–CD25-induced Treg depletion in a murine HDM-induced asthma model and to study the contribution of Tregs in the protective effect of dietary intervention with galacto-oligosaccharides. Methods: Male BALB/c mice (aged 6–8 wk) were intranasally sensit...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Verheijden, K. A., Braber, S., Leusink-Muis, T., Thijssen, S., Boon, L., Kraneveld, A. D., Garssen, J., Folkerts, G., Willemsen, L. E. Tags: Nutritional Immunology Source Type: research

The Form of Choline in the Maternal Diet Affects Immune Development in Suckled Rat Offspring [Nutritional Immunology]
Background: Lipid-soluble phosphatidylcholine (PC) and aqueous free choline are absorbed and metabolized differently, but the metabolic effects of feeding these 2 forms of choline have not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: We sought to compare the effects of PC and free choline in the maternal diet on the development of the offspring’s immune system. Methods: During lactation, Sprague-Dawley dams (n = 10) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diet groups containing the same concentration of total choline (1 g/kg diet) as free choline (choline bitartrate) or PC (egg lecithin). The splenocytes of pups aged 21 d were ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Lewis, E. D., Richard, C., Goruk, S., Dellschaft, N. S., Curtis, J. M., Jacobs, R. L., Field, C. J. Tags: Nutritional Immunology Source Type: research

Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Plus Malaria and Diarrhea Treatment Increase Infant Development Scores in a Cluster-Randomized Trial in Burkina Faso [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Adequate nutrition is necessary for the rapid brain development that occurs during infancy. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the provision of small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) plus malaria and diarrhea treatment positively affects infant development. We also tested the effect of various doses of zinc provided in SQ-LNSs or in a tablet. Methods: In a partially masked, cluster-randomized controlled trial, communities in rural Burkina Faso were stratified by selected characteristics and then randomly assigned within strata to the intervention (IC; 25 communities, 2435 children) o...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Prado, E. L., Abbeddou, S., Yakes Jimenez, E., Some, J. W., Ouedraogo, Z. P., Vosti, S. A., Dewey, K. G., Brown, K. H., Hess, S. Y., Ouedraogo, J.-B. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Early Childhood Nutrition Is Positively Associated with Adolescent Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Child and Parents Study (APCAPS) [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: India’s Integrated Child Development Scheme, which provides supplementary nutrition and other public health services to>91 million women and children aged
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Nandi, A., Ashok, A., Kinra, S., Behrman, J. R., Laxminarayan, R. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Prepregnancy Low to Moderate Alcohol Intake Is Not Associated with Risk of Spontaneous Abortion or Stillbirth [Nutritional Epidemiology]
This study aimed to assess prepregnancy alcohol intake and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Methods: Our prospective cohort study included 27,580 pregnancies reported by 17,929 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. Alcohol intake was assessed in 1989 and 1991 and every 4 y thereafter with the use of a validated questionnaire. Women were classified into 5 categories of consumption: 0, 0.1–1.9, 2–4.9, 5–9.9, and ≥10 g/d (1 serving = ~12 g). Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously (spontaneous abortion after gestation of
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gaskins, A. J., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Williams, P. L., Toth, T. L., Missmer, S. A., Chavarro, J. E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Higher Childhood Red Meat Intake Frequency Is Associated with Earlier Age at Menarche [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Early age at menarche is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Red meat consumption in adolescence predicts breast cancer risk, but it is unknown whether it is also related to earlier menarche. Objective: We studied the association between intake of red meat at ages 5–12 y and age at menarche in a prospective study. Methods: We assessed usual diets with a food-frequency questionnaire in a group of 456 girls aged 8.4 ± 1.7 y and followed them for a median 5.6 y in Bogotá, Colombia. Girls were asked periodically about the occurrence and date of menarche. Median age at menarche was esti...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jansen, E. C., Marin, C., Mora-Plazas, M., Villamor, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk in French Middle-Aged Adults in a Prospective Study [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Consistent with mechanistic data, findings from this study indicated that proinflammatory diets are associated with increased prostate cancer risk and, in low-to-moderate alcohol drinkers, with increased overall and breast cancer risk. The SU.VI.MAX trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Graffouillere, L., Deschasaux, M., Mariotti, F., Neufcourt, L., Shivappa, N., Hebert, J. R., Wirth, M. D., Latino-Martel, P., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., Julia, C., Kesse-Guyot, E., Touvier, M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Free Sugars and Total Fat Are Important Characteristics of a Dietary Pattern Associated with Adiposity across Childhood and Adolescence [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: An energy-dense DP high in %E from total fat and free sugars is associated with greater adiposity in childhood and adolescence. This appears to confirm the role of both fat and sugar and provides a basis for food-based dietary guidelines to prevent obesity in children. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ambrosini, G. L., Johns, D. J., Northstone, K., Emmett, P. M., Jebb, S. A. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Intake of Total Polyphenols and Some Classes of Polyphenols Is Inversely Associated with Diabetes in Elderly People at High Cardiovascular Disease Risk [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: A high intake of total polyphenols, total flavonoids (specifically flavanones and dihydroflavonols), and stilbenes is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes in elderly persons at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Tresserra-Rimbau, A., Guasch-Ferre, M., Salas-Salvado, J., Toledo, E., Corella, D., Castaner, O., Guo, X., Gomez-Gracia, E., Lapetra, J., Aros, F., Fiol, M., Ros, E., Serra-Majem, L., Pinto, X., Fito, M., Babio, N., Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A., Sorli, J. V., Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: An inverse association between the omega-3 index and depressive symptoms was observed among participants with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers. These data suggest that oxidative stress status may identify those who might benefit from -3 FA consumption to improve depressive symptoms. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bigornia, S. J., Harris, W. S., Falcon, L. M., Ordovas, J. M., Lai, C.-Q., Tucker, K. L. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sun-Exposed Skin Color Is Associated with Changes in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Children [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: UVB light from the sun increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, but this relation may depend on skin pigmentation among different racial/ethnic groups. Objective: We used quantitative measures of exposed (facultative) and unexposed (constitutive) skin color to examine relations between serum 25(OH)D concentration, tanning, race/ethnicity, and constitutive skin color over the summer, following winter vitamin D supplementation. Methods: The subjects (n = 426, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 y, 51% female) were racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (57% non-white/Caucasian) enrolled in a 6-mo v...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sawicki, C. M., Van Rompay, M. I., Au, L. E., Gordon, C. M., Sacheck, J. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating Sodium and Potassium Intakes and Their Ratio in the American Diet: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: The dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) is shown to be more strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related mortality than either sodium or potassium intake alone. Objective: The aim was to estimate the Na:K in the diet of US adults. Methods: Among US adults from the 2011–2012 NHANES (≥20 y; 2393 men and 2337 women), the National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate sodium and potassium intakes, Na:K, and the percentage of individuals with Na:K
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bailey, R. L., Parker, E. A., Rhodes, D. G., Goldman, J. D., Clemens, J. C., Moshfegh, A. J., Thuppal, S. V., Weaver, C. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Fermentable Carbohydrates Differentially Affect Colon Tumor Formation in Azoxymethane-Induced Male Fischer 344 Rats [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: The role of fermentation compared with the source or type of the fermentable material in colon tumorigenesis remains an issue in refining the definition of dietary fiber (DF). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation and source-specific effects of various carbohydrates in a medium-term colon tumorigenesis model. Methods: Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n = 36/group) to receive either AIN-93G (control) or diets containing fructooligosaccharides, wheat bran (WB), oat bran (OB), polydextrose, or high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), each adjusted to...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Raju, J., Roberts, J., Chen, Q., Aziz, S. A., Caldwell, D., Bird, R. P., Scoggan, K. A., Brooks, S. P. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Inflammatory Potential during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Fetal Growth and Breastfeeding Failure: Results from Project Viva [Nutrition and Disease]
The objective of this study was to examine associations of maternal prenatal dietary inflammatory index (DII), a composite measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with markers of maternal systemic inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We studied 1808 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre–birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We calculated the DII from first- and second-trimester food-frequency questionnaires by standardizing the dietary intakes of participants to global means, which were multiplied by the inflammatory effect score and summed. We examined associations of DII with maternal plasma C-...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sen, S., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Shivappa, N., Wirth, M. D., Hebert, J. R., Gold, D. R., Gillman, M. W., Oken, E. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

High-Molecular-Weight {beta}-Glucan Decreases Serum Cholesterol Differentially Based on the CYP7A1 rs3808607 Polymorphism in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Adults [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: The HMW β-glucan rather than LMW β-glucan reduced circulating TC effectively in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. The cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan may also be determined by the genetic characteristics of an individual. These data show that individuals carrying the CYP7A1 SNP rs3808607-G allele are more responsive to the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan with HMW than TT carriers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01408719. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wang, Y., Harding, S. V., Eck, P., Thandapilly, S. J., Gamel, T. H., Abdel-Aal, E.-S. M., Crow, G. H., Tosh, S. M., Jones, P. J., Ames, N. P. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Short-Term Vitamin B-6 Restriction Does Not Affect Plasma Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biomarkers Lanthionine and Homolanthionine in Healthy Men and Women [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the mechanism is unknown. The synthesis of the vasodilator hydrogen sulfide occurs through side reactions of the transsulfuration enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine -lyase, with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. Two proposed hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, lanthionine and homolanthionine, are produced concurrently. Objective: To determine whether hydrogen sulfide production is reduced by vitamin B-6 deficiency, we examined the relations between plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolant...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: DeRatt, B. N., Ralat, M. A., Gregory, J. F. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

The Microbiome, Intestinal Function, and Arginine Metabolism of Healthy Indian Women Are Different from Those of American and Jamaican Women [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
The objective of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiota of nonpregnant American, Indian, and Jamaican women and characterize the relations between the gut microbiota, gut function, and citrulline and arginine metabolism. Methods: Thirty healthy American, Indian, and Jamaican women (n = 10/group), aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y, were infused intravenously with [guanidino-15N2]arginine, [5,5-2H2]citrulline, and [15N2]ornithine and given oral [U-13C6]arginine in the fasting and postprandial states. Fecal bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: In the fasting state, Indian...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Kao, C. C., Cope, J. L., Hsu, J. W., Dwarkanath, P., Karnes, J. M., Luna, R. A., Hollister, E. B., Thame, M. M., Kurpad, A. V., Jahoor, F. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Soy Protein Compared with Milk Protein in a Western Diet Increases Gut Microbial Diversity and Reduces Serum Lipids in Golden Syrian Hamsters [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
This study investigated the effect of soy compared with dairy protein on the gut microbiota of hamsters to determine whether changes in microbiota could account for soy protein's lipid lowering properties. Methods: Thirty-two 6- to 8-wk-old, male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a Western diet containing 22% (%wt) milk protein isolate (MPI) as the single protein source for 3 wk followed by 6 wk of one of 4 diets containing either [22% protein (%wt)]: MPI, soy protein concentrate (SPC), partially hydrolyzed soy protein isolate (SPI1), or intact soy protein isolate. Serum lipids, hepatic gene expression, and gut microbial po...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Butteiger, D. N., Hibberd, A. A., McGraw, N. J., Napawan, N., Hall-Porter, J. M., Krul, E. S. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Folic Acid Supplementation of Female Mice, with or without Vitamin B-12, before and during Pregnancy and Lactation Programs Adiposity and Vascular Health in Adult Male Offspring [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal supplemental folic acid, with or without vitamin B-12, on adiposity, glucose homeostasis, and vascular health in adult male offspring mice. Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (M-CON, 2 mg folic acid/kg, 50 μg vitamin B-12/kg) or a folic acid–supplemented diet with [10 mg folic acid/kg, 50 μg vitamin B-12/kg (SFA+B12)] or without [10 mg folic acid/kg, no vitamin B-12 (SFA-B12)] vitamin B-12 for 6 wk before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned onto a control diet (16% energy from fat) or a wes...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - March 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Aleliunas, R. E., Aljaadi, A. M., Laher, I., Glier, M. B., Green, T. J., Murphy, M., Miller, J. W., Devlin, A. M. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research