Title page and TOC [Supplement: Do We Need Preconception Nutrition Interventions to Improve Birth Outcomes beyond the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects? Current Knowledge and Future Directions]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Tags: Supplement: Do We Need Preconception Nutrition Interventions to Improve Birth Outcomes beyond the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects? Current Knowledge and Future Directions Source Type: research

Development of Intrinsically Labeled Eggs and Poultry Meat for Use in Human Metabolic Research [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Background: Stable isotope amino acids are regularly used as tracers to examine whole-body and muscle protein metabolism in humans. To accurately assess in vivo dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics, the amino acid tracer is required to be incorporated within the dietary protein food source (i.e., intrinsically labeled protein). Objective: We assessed the practicality of producing eggs and poultry meat intrinsically labeled with l-[5,5,5-2H3]leucine through noninvasive oral tracer administration. Methods: A specifically formulated diet containing 0.52% leucine was supplemented with 0.3% l-[5,5,5-2H3]leucine and...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: van Vliet, S., Beals, J. W., Parel, J. T., Hanna, C. D., Utterback, P. L., Dilger, A. C., Ulanov, A. V., Li, Z., Paluska, S. A., Moore, D. R., Parsons, C. M., Burd, N. A. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research

Postnatal Iron Deficiency Alters Brain Development in Piglets [Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences]
The objective was to assess the impact of ID on brain development in piglets. Methods: Male and female Yorkshire piglets were reared from postnatal day (PD) 2 until PD 29 or 30 by using milk replacer adequate [control (CON)] or deficient (100 compared with 10 mg/kg) in iron and subjected to MRI to assess brain macrostructure, microstructure, and metabolites in the dorsal hippocampi and intervening space. After MRI, brains were collected for histology. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and liver iron were measured to determine iron status. Results: Hematocrit and hemoglobin in ID piglets were less than CON after PD 14 (P
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Leyshon, B. J., Radlowski, E. C., Mudd, A. T., Steelman, A. J., Johnson, R. W. Tags: Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences Source Type: research

Postprandial Inflammatory Responses and Free Fatty Acids in Plasma of Adults Who Consumed a Moderately High-Fat Breakfast with and without Blueberry Powder in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial [Nutritional Immunology]
Background: Saturated fatty acids (FAs) released from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. Certain plant polyphenols inhibit TLR-mediated signaling pathways. Objective: We determined whether plasma free FAs (FFAs) after a moderately high-fat (MHF, 40% kcal from fat) breakfast modulate the inflammatory status of postprandial blood, and whether blueberry intake suppresses FFA-induced inflammatory responses in healthy humans. Methods: Twenty-three volunteers with a mean ± SEM age and body mass index (in kg/m2) o...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ono-Moore, K. D., Snodgrass, R. G., Huang, S., Singh, S., Freytag, T. L., Burnett, D. J., Bonnel, E. L., Woodhouse, L. R., Zunino, S. J., Peerson, J. M., Lee, J. Y., Rutledge, J. C., Hwang, D. H. Tags: Nutritional Immunology Source Type: research

Maternal Health Literacy Is Associated with Early Childhood Nutritional Status in India [Community and International Nutrition]
This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12–23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents’ ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and sev...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Johri, M., Subramanian, S., Kone, G. K., Dudeja, S., Chandra, D., Minoyan, N., Sylvestre, M.-P., Pahwa, S. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Stein, A. D., Lundeen, E. A., Martorell, R., Suchdev, P. S., Mehta, N. K., Richter, L. M., Norris, S. A. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Diversity Is Positively Associated with Deviation from Expected Height in Rural Nepal [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: Increasing dietary diversity for children reduces the risk of stunting and improves growth after growth faltering. Future efforts should be directed at enabling families in food-insecure areas to feed their children a more diverse diet. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Busert, L. K., Neuman, M., Rehfuess, E. A., Dulal, S., Harthan, J., Chaube, S. S., Bhandari, B., Costello, H., Costello, A., Manandhar, D. S., Saville, N. M. Tags: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

The Alternative Healthy Eating Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Fatal and Nonfatal Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Chinese Adult Population [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Indexes to quantify adherence to recommended dietary patterns have been developed for Western populations, but it is unclear whether these indexes can predict acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Asian populations. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)–2010 and risk of AMI and to evaluate potential mediation by traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese population. Methods: A nested case-control study in 751 incident cases of AMI (564 nonfatal and 288 fatal) and 1443 matched controls was conducted within the prospective Singapore ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Neelakantan, N., Naidoo, N., Koh, W.-P., Yuan, J.-M., van Dam, R. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Nurses Health Study [Nutritional Epidemiology]
We examined the cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and telomere length in 4780 women from the NHS. Coffee consumption information was obtained from validated food-frequency questionnaires, and relative telomere length was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain ORs when the telomere length outcome was dichotomized at the median. Linear regression was used for tests of trend with coffee consumption and telomere length as continuous variables. Results: Higher total coffee consumption was significa...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Liu, J. J., Crous-Bou, M., Giovannucci, E., De Vivo, I. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Whole Blood {omega}-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Indigenous Mexican Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Long-chain -3 (n–3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. The association between n–3 PUFAs and cardiovascular disease may vary across different populations, and there is limited information on Hispanic individuals with mixed Amerindian and European origin. Objective: We evaluated the cross-sectional relations between whole blood n–3 PUFAs and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Mexican women living in Mexico and assessed whether this relation was different in women who spoke an indigenous language compared with women who did not. Methods: In 2012&ndas...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Monge, A., Harris, W. S., Ortiz-Panozo, E., Yunes, E., Cantu-Brito, C., Catzin-Kuhlmann, A., Lopez-Ridaura, R., Lajous, M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

A Model-Based Approach to Identify Classes and Respective Cutoffs of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Although roughly classifying EBIA as in previous studies, the current approach suggests that, in terms of raw score, households endorsing only one item of the scale would be better classified by being placed in the same stratum as those remaining negative on all items. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Reichenheim, M. E., Interlenghi, G. S., Moraes, C. L., Segall-Correa, A. M., Perez-Escamilla, R., Salles-Costa, R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles, Research Need: How the Food Environment and Supply Affects Dietary and Lifestyle Choices Source Type: research

Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status [Nutritional Epidemiology]
This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school clas...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Larson, N. I., Miller, J. M., Watts, A. W., Story, M. T., Neumark-Sztainer, D. R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

Greater Adherence to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Physical Function Impairment in the Nurses Health Study [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Physical function is integral to healthy aging, in particular as a core component of mobility and independent living in older adults, and is a strong predictor of mortality. Limited research has examined the role of diet, which may be an important strategy to prevent or delay a decline in physical function with aging. Objective: We prospectively examined the association between the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), a measure of diet quality, with incident impairment in physical function among 54,762 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Methods: Physical function was measured by the Medical Outc...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hagan, K. A., Chiuve, S. E., Stampfer, M. J., Katz, J. N., Grodstein, F. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles Source Type: research

L-Arginine Supplementation Alleviates Postprandial Endothelial Dysfunction When Baseline Fasting Plasma Arginine Concentration Is Low: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Overweight Adults with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, is induced transiently by a high-fat meal. High doses of free l-arginine supplements reduce fasting endothelial dysfunction. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a low dose of a sustained-release (SR) l-arginine supplement on postprandial endothelial function in healthy overweight adults with cardiometabolic risk factors and to investigate whether this effect may vary by baseline arginine status. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover, placebo-controlled trial (4-wk treatment, 4-wk washout), we compared the ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Deveaux, A., Pham, I., West, S. G., Andre, E., Lantoine-Adam, F., Bunouf, P., Sadi, S., Hermier, D., Mathe, V., Fouillet, H., Huneau, J.-F., Benamouzig, R., Mariotti, F. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

A Slow- Compared with a Fast-Release Form of Oral Arginine Increases Its Utilization for Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Overweight Adults with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Randomized Controlled Study [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Oral l-arginine supplements can have a beneficial effect on nitric oxide (NO)-related functions when subjects have cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective: The study was designed to determine the utilization for NO synthesis of oral l-arginine as a function of the cardiometabolic risk and the speed of absorption by comparing immediate-release arginine (IR-Arg), as in supplements, and sustained-release arginine (SR-Arg), which mimics the slow release of dietary arginine. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, 2-period crossover, controlled trial (1 wk of treatment,>2 wk of washout), using [15N-15N-(gu...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Deveaux, A., Fouillet, H., Petzke, K. J., Hermier, D., Andre, E., Bunouf, P., Lantoine-Adam, F., Benamouzig, R., Mathe, V., Huneau, J.-F., Mariotti, F. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

A Diet Rich in Docosahexaenoic Acid Restores Liver Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations in Mice Homozygous for the Human Apolipoprotein E {varepsilon}4 Allele [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: These findings in transgenic mice suggest that a long-term diet rich in DHA suppresses the APOE4-specific disturbances in hepatic transport and concentration of AA and DHA and also reduces hepatic total FA concentrations, regardless of genotype. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chouinard-Watkins, R., Pincon, A., Coulombe, J.-D., Spencer, R., Massenavette, L., Plourde, M. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Physical Activity Performed in the Evening Increases the Overnight Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Presleep Protein Ingestion in Older Men [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: The age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass is partly attributed to anabolic resistance to food intake. Dietary protein ingestion before sleep could be used as a nutritional strategy to compensate for anabolic resistance. Objective: The present study assessed whether physical activity performed in the evening can augment the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to presleep protein ingestion in older men. Methods: In a parallel group design, 23 healthy older men (mean ± SEM age: 71 ± 1 y) were randomly assigned to ingest 40 g protein intrinsically labeled with l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine and...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Holwerda, A. M., Kouw, I. W., Trommelen, J., Halson, S. L., Wodzig, W. K., Verdijk, L. B., van Loon, L. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Soluble Corn Fiber Increases Calcium Absorption Associated with Shifts in the Gut Microbiome: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial in Free-Living Pubertal Females [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Soluble corn fiber (SCF; 12 g fiber/d) is shown to increase calcium absorption efficiency, associated with shifts in the gut microbiota in adolescent males and females who participated in a controlled feeding study. Objective: We evaluated the dose response of 0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d delivered by PROMITOR SCF 85 (85% fiber) on calcium absorption, biochemical bone properties, and the fecal microbiome in free-living adolescents. Methods: Healthy adolescent females (n = 28; aged 11–14 y) randomly assigned into a 3-phase, double-blind, crossover study consumed SCF for 4 wk at each dose (0, 10, and 20 g fiber/...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Whisner, C. M., Martin, B. R., Nakatsu, C. H., Story, J. A., MacDonald-Clarke, C. J., McCabe, L. D., McCabe, G. P., Weaver, C. M. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

13C Natural Abundance of Serum Retinol Is a Novel Biomarker for Evaluating Provitamin A Carotenoid-Biofortified Maize Consumption in Male Mongolian Gerbils [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Crops such as maize, sorghum, and millet are being biofortified with provitamin A carotenoids to ensure adequate vitamin A (VA) intakes. VA assessment can be challenging because serum retinol concentrations are homeostatically controlled and more sensitive techniques are resource-intensive. Objectives: We investigated changes in serum retinol relative differences of isotope amount ratios of 13C/12C (13C) caused by natural 13C fractionation in C3 compared with C4 plants as a biomarker to detect provitamin A efficacy from biofortified (orange) maize and high-carotene carrots. Methods: The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 m...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gannon, B. M., Pungarcher, I., Mourao, L., Davis, C. R., Simon, P., Pixley, K. V., Tanumihardjo, S. A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Membrane Disordering by Eicosapentaenoic Acid in B Lymphomas Is Reduced by Elongation to Docosapentaenoic Acid as Revealed with Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Model Membranes [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Conclusions: The results establish that 25 μmol EPA and DHA/L equally disrupt membrane order and do not promote B lymphoma growth. The data open a new area of investigation, which is how EPA’s conversion to DPA substantially moderates its influence on membrane properties. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 30, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Harris, M., Kinnun, J. J., Kosaraju, R., Leng, X., Wassall, S. R., Shaikh, S. R. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Fractional Zinc Absorption for Men, Women, and Adolescents Is Overestimated in the Current Dietary Reference Intakes [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Conclusions: These data suggest that zinc absorption is overestimated for men, women, and adolescents in the current DRI. Upward adjustments of the DRI for these groups are recommended. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Armah, S. M. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research

Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Objectives: Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Methods: Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association betw...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Taillie, L. S., Wang, D., Popkin, B. M. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Urbanicity Gradients Are Associated with the Household- and Individual-Level Double Burden of Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: The nutrition transition is advancing throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the nutritional risk across urbanicity gradients associated with this transition is not clear. Objectives: We aimed to determine 1) the extent to which overweight and anemia in women of childbearing age (WCBA) and stunting in preschool-age children (PSC) are spatially correlated within countries of SSA; and 2) the association of urbanicity with the individual-level nutritional double burden (i.e., concurrent overweight and anemia within an individual WCBA), the household-level double burden (i.e., overweight WCBA and stunted PSC...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jones, A. D., Acharya, Y., Galway, L. P. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Macronutrient Intakes in Infancy Are Associated with Sleep Duration in Toddlerhood [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the macronutrient composition of the diet is associated with sleep duration in young children. Future research should further study the causality of this association and explore the underlying mechanisms. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Kocevska, D., Voortman, T., Dashti, H. S., van den Hooven, E. H., Ghassabian, A., Rijlaarsdam, J., Schneider, N., Feskens, E. J., Jaddoe, V. W., Tiemeier, H., Franco, O. H. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Alternative Pathway Analyses Indicate Bidirectional Relations between Depressive Symptoms, Diet Quality, and Central Adiposity in a Sample of Urban US Adults [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Temporality between socioeconomic status (SES), depressive symptoms (DS), dietary quality (DQ), and central adiposity (CA) is underexplored. Objectives: Alternative pathways linking SES to DQ, DS, and CA were tested and models compared, stratified by race and sex. Methods: With the use of data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (baseline age: 30–64 y; 2 visits; mean follow-up: 4.9 y), 12 structural equation models (SM) were conducted and compared. Time-dependent factors included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression [CES-D total score, baseline or vis...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Beydoun, M. A., Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M. T., Shaked, D., Dore, G. A., Beydoun, H. A., Rostant, O. S., Evans, M. K., Zonderman, A. B. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multivitamin Use and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: In this long-term prospective study in initially healthy men, multivitamin use for ≥20 y was associated with a lower risk of major CVD events. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Rautiainen, S., Rist, P. M., Glynn, R. J., Buring, J. E., Gaziano, J. M., Sesso, H. D. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Plasma Riboflavin and Vitamin B-6, but Not Homocysteine, Folate, or Vitamin B-12, Are Inversely Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Varese Cohort [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: One-carbon metabolism—important for DNA stability and integrity—may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies addressing this issue have yielded inconsistent results. Objective: We prospectively investigated associations between breast cancer and plasma folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine in women recruited to the Varese (Italy) cohort of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Methods: We performed a nested case-control study on women aged 35–65 y at recruitment with a median body mass index of 25.3 ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Agnoli, C., Grioni, S., Krogh, V., Pala, V., Allione, A., Matullo, G., Di Gaetano, C., Tagliabue, G., Pedraglio, S., Garrone, G., Cancarini, I., Cavalleri, A., Sieri, S. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: These findings suggest that diets that are more Paleolithic- or Mediterranean-like may be associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Whalen, K. A., McCullough, M. L., Flanders, W. D., Hartman, T. J., Judd, S., Bostick, R. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Delayed Introduction of Parenteral Phosphorus Is Associated with Hypercalcemia in Extremely Preterm Infants [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Conclusion: Early introduction of phosphorus in PN solutions is associated with reduced incidence of whole blood iCa abnormalities in the first week of life and should be considered for ELBW infants. Ongoing evaluation of optimal mineral provision to this population after birth should be performed. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hair, A. B., Chetta, K. E., Bruno, A. M., Hawthorne, K. M., Abrams, S. A. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Estimation of the Prevalence of Inadequate and Excessive Iodine Intakes in School-Age Children from the Adjusted Distribution of Urinary Iodine Concentrations from Population Surveys [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: The urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a biomarker of iodine intake, is used to assess population iodine status by deriving the median UIC, but this does not quantify the percentage of individuals with habitually deficient or excess iodine intakes. Individuals with a UIC
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zimmermann, M. B., Hussein, I., Al Ghannami, S., El Badawi, S., Al Hamad, N. M., Abbas Hajj, B., Al-Thani, M., Al-Thani, A. A., Winichagoon, P., Pongcharoen, T., van der Haar, F., Qing-Zhen, J., Dold, S., Andersson, M., Carriquiry, A. L. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Addition of Orange Pomace to Orange Juice Attenuates the Increases in Peak Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Sequential Meal Ingestion in Men with Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk [Nutrition and Disease]
This study aims to evaluate the effects of orange beverages with differing fiber concentrations on postprandial glycemic responses (secondary outcome measure) after a sequential breakfast and lunch challenge in men with increased cardiometabolic risk. Methods: Thirty-six men (aged 30–65 y; body mass index 25–30 kg/m2: fasting triacylglycerol or total cholesterol concentrations: 0.8–2.2 or 6.0–8.0 mmol/L, respectively) were provided with a high-fat mixed breakfast and were randomly assigned to consume 240 mL Tropicana (PepsiCo, Inc.) pure premium orange juice without pulp (OJ), OJ with 5.5 g added or...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Dong, H., Rendeiro, C., Kristek, A., Sargent, L. J., Saunders, C., Harkness, L., Rowland, I., Jackson, K. G., Spencer, J. P., Lovegrove, J. A. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Distinct Adipose Depots from Mice Differentially Respond to a High-Fat, High-Salt Diet [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: Collectively, these findings highlight the role of distinct adipose depots in mice in the development of obesity and emphasize the importance of selecting specific depots to study the effects of therapeutic interventions on adipose tissue function. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: DeClercq, V. C., Goldsby, J. S., McMurray, D. N., Chapkin, R. S. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Alters Fetal Iron Distribution and Elevates Hepatic Hepcidin in a Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disabilities, and gestational iron deficiency (ID) selectively worsens learning and neuroanatomical and growth impairments in PAE. It is unknown why ID worsens outcomes in alcohol-exposed offspring. Objective: We hypothesized that PAE alters maternal-fetal iron distribution or its regulation. Methods: Nulliparous, 10-wk-old, Long-Evans rats were mated and then fed iron-sufficient (100 mg Fe/kg) or iron-deficient (≤4 mg Fe/kg) diets. On gestational days 13.5–19.5, dams received either 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (PAE) or isocaloric maltodextrin ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Huebner, S. M., Blohowiak, S. E., Kling, P. J., Smith, S. M. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. Objective: We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Dong, X.-L., Li, C.-M., Cao, S.-S., Zhou, L.-P., Wong, M.-S. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Iron Supplementation Affects Hematologic Biomarker Concentrations and Pregnancy Outcomes among Iron-Deficient Tanzanian Women [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusion: Iron supplementation decreases the risk of maternal anemia and increases the likelihood of infant survival among iron-deficient Tanzanian pregnant women. Interventions to promote increased duration and adherence to iron supplements may also provide greater health benefits. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Abioye, A. I., Aboud, S., Premji, Z., Etheredge, A. J., Gunaratna, N. S., Sudfeld, C. R., Mongi, R., Meloney, L., Darling, A. M., Noor, R. A., Spiegelman, D., Duggan, C., Fawzi, W. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

A Postnatal Diet Containing Phospholipids, Processed to Yield Large, Phospholipid-Coated Lipid Droplets, Affects Specific Cognitive Behaviors in Healthy Male Mice [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Infant cognitive development can be positively influenced by breastfeeding rather than formula feeding. The composition of breast milk, especially lipid quality, and the duration of breastfeeding have been linked to this effect. Objective: We investigated whether the physical properties and composition of lipid droplets in milk may contribute to cognitive development. Methods: From postnatal day (P) 16 to P44, healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed either a control or a concept rodent diet, in which the dietary lipid droplets were large and coated with milk phospholipids, resembling more closely the physical...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Schipper, L., van Dijk, G., Broersen, L. M., Loos, M., Bartke, N., Scheurink, A. J., van der Beek, E. M. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Dietary Genistein Prevents Denervation-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Male Rodents via Effects on Estrogen Receptor-{alpha} [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: Genistein has high estrogenic activity. Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of estrogen or hormone replacement therapy on muscle mass and muscle atrophy. Objective: We investigated the preventive effects and underlying mechanisms of genistein on muscle atrophy. Methods: In Expt. 1, male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing no genistein [control (CON)] or 0.05% genistein (GEN; wt:wt diet) for 24 d. On day 14, the sciatic nerve in the left hind leg was severed, and the right hind leg was sham-treated. In Expt. 2, male C57BL6J mice were subcutaneously administered a vehicle (Veh group) or the estrogen...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 31, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Aoyama, S., Jia, H., Nakazawa, K., Yamamura, J., Saito, K., Kato, H. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Comments on Early Breastfeeding Problems Mediate the Negative Association between Maternal Obesity and Exclusive Breastfeeding at 1 and 2 Months Postpartum [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zanardo, V. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to NV Dhurandhar et al. [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Subar, A. F., Freedman, L. S., Kirkpatrick, S. I., Boushey, C., Potischman, N., Guenther, P. M., Krebs-Smith, S. M. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

We Agree That Self-Reported Energy Intake Should Not Be Used as a Basis for Conclusions about Energy Intake in Scientific Research [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Dhurandhar, N. V., Brown, A. W., Thomas, D., Allison, D. B., for the Energy Balance Measurement Working Group Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Thymol and Carvacrol Affect Hybrid Tilapia through the Combination of Direct Stimulation and an Intestinal Microbiota-Mediated Effect: Insights from a Germ-Free Zebrafish Model [Nutritional Immunology]
Background: Essential oils (EOs) are commonly used as animal feed additives. Information is lacking on the mechanisms driving the beneficial effects of EOs in animals, especially the role played by the intestinal microbiota of the host. Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of direct effects of EOs on the physiology and immune system of tilapia and indirect effects mediated by the intestinal microbiota by using a germ-free zebrafish model. Methods: Juvenile hybrid tilapia were fed a control diet or 1 of 4 treatment diets containing 60–800 mg Next Enhance 150 (NE) (an EO product...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ran, C., Hu, J., Liu, W., Liu, Z., He, S., Dan, B. C. T., Diem, N. N., Ooi, E. L., Zhou, Z. Tags: Nutritional Immunology Source Type: research

Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Breast Milk Are Low and Are Not Associated with Reported Household Hunger, Recent Animal-Source Food, or Vitamin B-12 Intake in Women in Rural Kenya [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in regions in which animal-source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: We measured vitamin B-12 in breast milk and examined its associations with household hunger, recent animal-source food consumption, and vitamin B-12 intake. Methods: In a cross-sectional substudy nested within a cluster-randomized trial assessing water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition interventions in Kenya, we sampled 286 women 1–6 mo postpartum. Mothers hand-exp...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Williams, A. M., Chantry, C. J., Young, S. L., Achando, B. S., Allen, L. H., Arnold, B. F., Colford, J. M., Dentz, H. N., Hampel, D., Kiprotich, M. C., Lin, A., Null, C. A., Nyambane, G. M., Shahab-Ferdows, S., Stewart, C. P. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mosites, E., Thumbi, S. M., Otiang, E., McElwain, T. F., Njenga, M., Rabinowitz, P. M., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Neuhouser, M. L., May, S., Palmer, G. H., Walson, J. L. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

A 2-Year Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition Program Targeted to Mothers of Young Children in Burkina Faso Reduces Underweight among Mothers and Increases Their Empowerment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial [Community and International Nutrition]
We examined impacts of Helen Keller International’s 2-y enhanced-homestead food production (E-HFP) program in Burkina Faso on the secondary impact measures of mothers’ nutrition and empowerment. Methods: We used a cluster-randomized controlled trial whereby 55 villages with 1767 mothers of young children were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1) control, 2) E-HFP with the behavior change communication (BCC) strategy implemented by older women leaders, or 3) E-HFP with BCC implemented by health committee members. Data for the treatment groups were pooled for this analysis because no differences were found between t...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Olney, D. K., Bliznashka, L., Pedehombga, A., Dillon, A., Ruel, M. T., Heckert, J. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

An Increase in Dietary Quality Is Associated with Favorable Plasma Biomarkers of the Brain-Adipose Axis in Apparently Healthy US Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: The associations between long-term dietary quality and biomarkers of the brain-adipose axis have not been examined. Objective: We evaluated both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary quality and several biomarkers involved in the brain-adipose axis. Methods: In the Nurses’ Health Study II, 831 women [baseline mean age: 45 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 24.6] were randomly selected from women who provided 2 fasting blood samples in 1996–1999 and 2010–2011 to measure plasma concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin, insulin, retinol bindi...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Huang, T., Tobias, D. K., Hruby, A., Rifai, N., Tworoger, S. S., Hu, F. B. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary Cholesterol Increases the Risk whereas PUFAs Reduce the Risk of Active Tuberculosis in Singapore Chinese [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Dietary intake of cholesterol may increase the risk of active tuberculosis, whereas marine n–3 and n–6 FAs may reduce the risk of active tuberculosis in the Chinese population. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Soh, A. Z., Chee, C. B., Wang, Y.-T., Yuan, J.-M., Koh, W.-P. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men [Nutritional Epidemiology]
We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. Methods: The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18–22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chiu, Y.-H., Gaskins, A. J., Williams, P. L., Mendiola, J., Jorgensen, N., Levine, H., Hauser, R., Swan, S. H., Chavarro, J. E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

High Dietary Acid Load Score Is Associated with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Men: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Diet-induced metabolic acidosis has been linked to cardiometabolic abnormalities in Westerners, but the evidence on this issue is scarce in Asians. Objective: The present study prospectively examined the association between dietary acid load and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Japanese adults. Methods: Study participants were 27,809 men and 36,851 women, aged 45–75 y, who completed a dietary questionnaire of the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective Study and had no previous history of T2D. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated 147-item food-frequency questionnaire. ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 1, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Akter, S., Kurotani, K., Kashino, I., Goto, A., Mizoue, T., Noda, M., Sawada, N., Tsugane, S., for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Group Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research