Calendar of Events
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - September 3, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Reply to KT Sibhatu
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Erratum to Kashi et al. Multiple Micronutrient Supplements Are More Cost-effective than Iron and Folic Acid: Modeling Results from 3 High-Burden Asian Countries. J Nutr 2019;149(7):1222 –9
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Corrigendum to van Erp et al. Pigs Ferment Enzymatically Digestible Starch when it Is Substituted for Resistant Starch. J Nutr 2019;149(8):1346 –53
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Calendar of Events
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Farm-Level Agricultural Biodiversity Is Not the Principal Contributor to Diverse and Micronutrient-Rich Diets, nor to Overall Food Consumption in Smallholder Farm Households
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - August 2, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Novel Automated System Yields Reproducible Temporal Feeding Patterns in Laboratory Rodents
ABSTRACTBackgroundThe impact of temporal feeding patterns remains a major unanswered question in nutritional science. Progress has been hampered by the absence of a reliable method to impose temporal feeding in laboratory rodents, without the confounding influence of food-hoarding behavior.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to develop and validate a reliable method for supplying crushed diets to laboratory rodents in consistent, relevant feeding patterns for prolonged periods.MethodsWe programmed our experimental feeding station to deliver a standard diet [StD; Atwater Fuel Energy (AFE) 13.9% fat] or high-fat diet (HFD; AF...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 9, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Diet Quality Is Associated with Microbial Diversity and Host Health
Increasing evidence strongly indicates that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host health by regulating host metabolism, modulating innate and adaptive immune responses, maintaining gut membrane integrity, and protecting against pathogen invasion. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 29, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary β-Cryptoxanthin Inhibits High-Refined Carbohydrate Diet–Induced Fatty Liver via Differential Protective Mechanisms Depending on Carotenoid Cleavage Enzymes in Male Mice
ABSTRACTBackgroundβ-Cryptoxanthin (BCX), a provitamin A carotenoid shown to protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), can be cleaved by β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (BCO1) to generate vitamin A, and by β-carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2) to produce bioactive apo-carotenoids. BCO1/BCO2 polymorph isms have been associated with variations in plasma carotenoid amounts in both humans and animals.ObjectivesWe investigated whether BCX feeding inhibits high refined-carbohydrate diet (HRCD)-induced NAFLD, dependent or independent of BCO1/BCO2.MethodsSix-week-old male wild-type (WT) and...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 18, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Joint Analysis of Metabolite Markers of Fish Intake and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Swedish Adults
ABSTRACTBackgroundThere is conflicting evidence regarding the association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence, possibly owing to measurement errors in self-reported intake and coexposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) present in fish.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify plasma metabolites associated with fish intake and to assess their association with T2D risk, independently of POPs, in Swedish adults.MethodsIn a case-control study nested in the Swedish V ästerbotten Intervention Programme, fasting plasma samples from 421 matched T2D case-control pairs of men and women aged 30&n...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 18, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Fecal Microbial Diversity and Structure Are Associated with Diet Quality in the Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study
ConclusionDiet quality was strongly associated with fecal microbial alpha diversity and beta diversity and several genera previously associated with human health. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Anthropometry before Day 46 and Growth Velocity before 6 Months of Guatemalan Breastfed Infants Are Associated with Subclinical Mastitis and Milk Cytokines, Minerals, and Trace Elements
ABSTRACTBackgroundSubclinical mastitis (SCM) is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland, but its association with human milk composition and infant growth is not well described.ObjectivesWe investigated whether SCM, milk cytokines, and/or estimated intakes of milk minerals and trace elements were associated with infant anthropometry or growth velocity before 6 mo.MethodsBreast milk was collected fromMam-Mayan mothers (n = 114) at both early (2–46 d) and established (4–6 mo) lactation. Concentrations of 9 elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) a...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Does Hepatic Carbohydrate Availability Influence Postexercise Compensation in Energy Intake?
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Self-Reported Measures of Discretionary Salt Use Accurately Estimated Sodium Intake Overall but not in Certain Subgroups of US Adults from 3 Geographic Regions in the Salt Sources Study
ABSTRACTBackgroundExcess sodium intake can increase blood pressure, and high blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Accurate population sodium intake estimates are essential for monitoring progress toward reduction, but data are limited on the amount of sodium consumed from discretionary salt.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare measured sodium intake from salt added at the table with that estimated according to the Healthy People 2020 (HP 2020) methodology.MethodsData were analyzed from the 2014 Salt Sources Study, a cross-sectional convenience sample of 450 white, black, Asian, and Hi...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 10, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Stabilizes Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Pregnant Women in Lombok, Indonesia
In this study, we selected 108 sets of paired baseline and postsupplementation samples (MMN  = 54 and IFA = 54). Maternal mtDNA-CN was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in baseline and postsupplementation specimens. The association between supplementation type and change in mtDNA-CN was performed using rank-based estimation for linear models.ResultsIn both groups, maternal mtDNA-CN at postsupplementation was significantly elevated compared with baseline (P 
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 9, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Antenatal Micronutrients and the Mitochondrial Genome: A Glimpse of Future Nutritional Investigation
Antenatal micronutrient deficiency is a common threat to maternal health and pregnancy outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (1). Although effects of nutrient-dense dietary interventions during pregnancy remain to be clarified (2), large trials in undernourished regions, such as South Asia, indicate that antenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation, beyond iron –folic acid alone, can attenuate, if not eliminate, nutrient deficiencies (3), and reduce risks of low birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality (4,5). These effects have been broadly affirmed across low-income regions of the world (6). Wh...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 9, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Steady Growth in Early Infancy Is Associated with Greater Anthropometry in Indian Children Born Low Birth Weight at Term
ConclusionsThe explanation for the effects of delayed growth and length of the period in which trajectories are set is unclear; however, sustained and delayed growth in early infancy appears to be beneficial for these LBW children at least in the short-term. The trial was registered atclinicaltrials.gov as BT/PR7489/PID/20/285/2006. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 8, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Affects Lipid Metabolism via Changing Gut Microflora and Enhancing Propionate Production in Weaned Pigs
ConclusionsGSP affected lipid metabolism in weaned pigs, which is associated with changed gut microbiota and enhanced microbial propionate production. These findings provide potential mechanisms for GSP intake to improve lipid metabolism. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 8, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Low-Fat Dietary Pattern among Postmenopausal Women Influences Long-Term Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, and Diabetes Outcomes
ConclusionsReduction in dietary fat with corresponding increase in vegetables, fruit, and grains led to benefits related to breast cancer, CHD, and diabetes, without adverse effects, among healthy postmenopausal US women.This trial was registered atclinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 8, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Is a Single 24-hour Dietary Recall per Person Sufficient to Estimate the Population Distribution of Usual Dietary Intake?
Self-reporting dietary assessment instruments are prone to various types of measurement errors that should be taken into account when analyzing nutritional data (1). The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Dietary Assessment Primer provides a good overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the various dietary assessment instruments currently in use (2). Statistical modeling can only partially address potential measurement errors. Instruments for dietary assessment need to be appropriate to the study design and research question. In the following, we will discuss issues encountered when undertaking statistical modeling of ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A New Statistical Method for Estimating Usual Intakes of Nearly-Daily Consumed Foods and Nutrients Through Use of Only One 24-hour Dietary Recall
ConclusionsThe 1-d method is a viable statistical method for estimating usual intakes of nearly-daily consumed dietary components when the variance ratio is unbiased. Results are sensitive to variance ratio selection, so researchers should still collect replicate data where possible. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Including 60 mg Elemental Iron in a Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Blunts the Increase in Serum Zinc after 12 Weeks of Daily Supplementation in Predominantly Anemic, Nonpregnant Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age
ABSTRACTBackgroundMultiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation may result in interaction effects due to competing absorptive pathways of trace elements.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MMN supplementation with or without iron on serum zinc, selenium, and copper concentrations in Cambodian women.MethodsIn a 2  × 2 factorial double-blind randomized 12-wk trial, predominantly anemic, nonpregnant women (aged 18–45 y) received daily 60 mg of iron (Fe;n = 201); 14 other micronutrients including zinc (15 mg), selenium (65 μg), and copper (2 mg), but no iron (MMN;n...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Lactobacillus acidophilus Exerts Neuroprotective Effects in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury
ABSTRACTBackgroundTraumatic brain injury (TBI) causes dysbiosis and intestinal barrier disruption, which further exacerbate brain damage via an inflammatory pathway. Gut microbiota remodeling byLactobacillus acidophilus (LA) is a potential intervention.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of LA in TBI and elucidated underlying mechanisms.MethodsC57BL/6 male mice (aged 8 –9 wk) were subjected to weight-drop impact and gavaged with saline (TBI + vehicle) or LA (1 × 1010 CFU) (TBI  + LA) on the day of injury and each day after for 1, 3, or 7 d....
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Household Food Insecurity is Associated with Higher Adiposity among US Schoolchildren Ages 10 –15 Years: The Healthy Communities Study
ConclusionsHousehold food insecurity was associated with higher child adiposity-related outcomes and several nutrition behaviors, particularly among older children, 10 –15 y old. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Basal and Postprandial Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Rates Do Not Differ between Lean and Obese Middle-Aged Men
ABSTRACTBackgroundExcess lipid availability has been associated with the development of anabolic resistance. As such, obesity may be accompanied by impairments in muscle protein metabolism.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates are lower in obese than in lean men.MethodsTwelve obese men [mean  ± SEM age: 48 ± 2 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 37.0  ± 1.5; body fat: 32 ± 2%] and 12 age-matched lean controls (age: 43 ± 3 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.4; body fat: 21 ± 1%) received primed c...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Behavior Change Interventions Delivered through Interpersonal Communication, Agricultural Activities, Community Mobilization, and Mass Media Increase Complementary Feeding Practices and Reduce Child Stunting in Ethiopia
ABSTRACTBackgroundAppropriate infant and young child feeding practices are critical for optimal child growth and development, but in Ethiopia, complementary feeding (CF) practices are very poor. Alive& Thrive (A&T) provided intensive behavior change interventions through 4 platforms: interpersonal communication (IPC), nutrition-sensitive agricultural activities (AG), community mobilization (CM), and mass media (MM).ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of A&T intensive compared with nonintensive interventions (standard nutrition counseling and agricultural extension service and less intensi...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 5, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Early-Life Iron Deficiency Alters Glucose Transporter-1 Expression in the Adult Rodent Hippocampus
ABSTRACTBackgroundEarly-life iron deficiency (ID) impairs hippocampal energy production. Whether there are changes in glucose transporter (GLUT) expression is not known.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate whether early-life ID and the treatment iron dose alter brain regional GLUT expression in adult rats and mice.MethodsIn Study 1, ID was induced in male and female Sprague Dawley rat pups by feeding dams a 3-mg/kg iron diet during gestation and the first postnatal week, followed by treatment using low-iron [3 –10 mg/kg; formerly iron-deficient (FID)-10 group], standard-iron (40-mg/kg; FID-40 group), or ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Combination of Healthy Diet and Healthy Body Weight Is Associated with Lower Risk of Nuclear Cataract in the Blue Mountains Eye Study
ABSTRACTBackgroundGreater adherence to dietary guidelines has previously been found to be associated with decreased risk of visual impairment. However, whether or not this association extends to age-related cataract, 1 of the leading causes of visual impairment, is unknown.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to assess the association between adherence to dietary guidelines, using total diet score, and incidence of age-related cataract.MethodsOf 3654 baseline participants of the population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort (1992 –1994), 2334 (75.8% survivors) and 1952 (76.7% survivors) were examined after 5 and 10...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Edible Mushrooms Reduce Atherosclerosis in Ldlr −/− Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
ABSTRACTBackgroundCommonly consumed mushrooms, portobello (PBM) and shiitake (SHM), are abundant in nutrients, soluble dietary fibers, and bioactive compounds that have been implicated as beneficial in reducing inflammation, improving lipid profiles, and ameliorating heart disease and atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the arteries.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine effects of PBM and SHM in preventing atherosclerosis and associated inflammation in an animal model.MethodsFour-week-old Ldlr −/− male mice were divided into 5 dietary groups for 16 wk: a low-fat control (LF-C, 11 kcal% fat), h...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Pigs Ferment Enzymatically Digestible Starch when it Is Substituted for Resistant Starch
ABSTRACTBackgroundFeeding behavior is controlled by satiety mechanisms, which are affected by the extent of starch digestion, and thus resistant starch (RS) intake. Alterations in feeding behavior to changes in RS intake may depend on the adaptation of processes involved when shifting from starch digestion to fermentation or vice versa.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate how growing pigs adapt their feeding behavior in response to increasing and decreasing dietary RS concentrations.MethodsThirty-six groups of 6 pigs (25.4  ± 2.8 kg; Hypor Libra × Hypor Maxter; male:female, 1:...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Intake of Vegetables and Fruits Through Young Adulthood Is Associated with Better Cognitive Function in Midlife in the US General Population
ABSTRACTBackgroundVegetables and fruits (VF) may differentially affect cognitive functions, presumably due to their various nutrient contents, but evidence from epidemiologic studies is limited.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine the long-term association between VF intakes, including VF subgroups, in young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife.MethodsA biracial cohort of 3231 men and women aged 18 –30 y at baseline in 1985–1986 were followed up for 25 y in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Diet was measured at baseline, and in examination years 7 and 20. Cognitive fun...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

High-Amylose Wheat Lowers the Postprandial Glycemic Response to Bread in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial
ABSTRACTBackgroundConventional wheat-based foods contain high concentrations of readily digestible starch that commonly give these foods a high postprandial glycemic response and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine if bread made from high-amylose wheat (HAW) and enriched in resistant starch dampens postprandial glycemia compared with bread made from conventional low-amylose wheat (LAW).MethodsThis single-center, randomized, double-blinded, crossover controlled study involved 7 consecutive weekly visits. On separate mornings, 20 hea...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Conceptualizations of Child Development Benefit from Inclusion of the Nurturing Care Framework
Over 250 million children under age 5 y in low- and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, resulting in long-term negative consequences that undermine subsequent health, well-being, and productivity (1). The loss of developmental potential is a global crisis that has led to calls for action from leaders of international agencies (2) and recommendations for the Nurturing Care Framework to serve as a model for the care and services that promote young children's healthy growth and development. The Nurturing Care Framework includes policies, programs, and services that create an enab...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Early Life Child Micronutrient Status, Maternal Reasoning, and a Nurturing Household Environment have Persistent Influences on Child Cognitive Development at Age 5 years: Results from MAL-ED
ConclusionsA nurturing home context in terms of a healthy/clean environment and household wealth, provision of adequate micronutrients, maternal education, and cognitive reasoning have a strong and persistent influence on child cognitive development. Efforts addressing aspects of poverty around micronutrient status, nurturing caregiving, and enabling home environments are likely to have lasting positive impacts on child cognitive development. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 4, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

The Degree of Aminoacidemia after Dairy Protein Ingestion Does Not Modulate the Postexercise Anabolic Response in Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
ABSTRACTBackgroundResistance exercise and dietary protein stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS). The rate at which proteins are digested and absorbed into circulation alters peak plasma amino acid concentrations and may modulate postexercise MPS. A novel mineral modified milk protein concentrate (mMPC), with identical amino acid composition to standard milk protein concentrate (MPC), was formulated to induce rapid aminoacidemia.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine whether rapid aminoacidemia and greater peak essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations induced by mMPC would stimulate greater postresistance exer...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Prediagnostic Proinflammatory Dietary Potential Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality among African-American Women with High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma
ConclusionsGreater inflammatory potential of prediagnostic diet may adversely impact prognosis among African-American women with high-grade serous carcinoma, and specifically among ever smokers. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Iron Consumption Is Not Consistently Associated with Fecundability among North American and Danish Pregnancy Planners
ABSTRACTBackgroundInfertility is an important public health problem with few known modifiable risk factors. Dietary factors including folic acid have been associated with improved fertility, but the association between iron and fertility is understudied. One study among US nurses found a 40% lower risk of ovulatory infertility with higher intake of nonheme iron and iron supplements.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the extent to which iron intake from diet and supplements reported on structured questionnaires is associated with fecundability.MethodsWe conducted parallel analyses that used data from 2 prospec...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Higher Mediterranean Diet Score, Including Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Central Nervous System Demyelination in a Case-Control Study of Australian Adults
ConclusionsA Mediterranean diet, including unprocessed red meat, was associated with reduced risk of FCD in this Australian adult population. The addition of unprocessed red meat to a Mediterranean diet may be beneficial for those at high risk of MS. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 27, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Nutrients in the US Diet: Naturally Occurring or Enriched/Fortified Food and Beverage Sources, Plus Dietary Supplements: NHANES 2009 –2012
ConclusionsFortification/enrichment constitutes a meaningful contribution to reducing the percentage of individuals with less than the EAR for their demographic. These data underscore the need to encourage better dietary patterns to improve the intake of nutrients at risk of low intake. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 27, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Past and Recent Salted Fish and Preserved Food Intakes Are Weakly Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk in Adults in Southern China
ConclusionsHard and soft salted fish have different risk profiles. Salted fish and other preserved foods were at most weak risk factors for NPC in all periods and may play a smaller role in NPC occurrence than previously thought. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 25, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Food insecurity is associated with anxiety, stress, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in a cohort of women with or at risk of HIV in the United States
We examined associations of FS with the outcomes through use of multivariable linear and logistic regression, including lagged associations with GAD outcomes.ResultsAfter adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors including HIV serostatus, current marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with increasingly higher GAD-7 scores, and with 1.41 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.80;P 
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 25, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Co-ingestion of Black Tea Reduces the Indispensable Amino Acid Digestibility of Hens ’ Egg in Indian Adults
ConclusionsTPP protein interactions reduced whole egg digestibility in healthy Indian adults but had minimal effect on spirulina protein digestibility. In populations who are at risk of dietary quality protein inadequacy, the consumption of tea during or after a meal can further increase the risk of inadequacy. This trial was registered at Clinical Trials Registry of India (http://ctri.nic.in) as CTRI/2018/03/012265. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 25, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration Is Elevated in Female Cynomolgus Macaques Fed a Western Compared with a Mediterranean Diet
ConclusionsThis study highlights the importance of dietary composition in mitochondrial bioenergetics and that diet can influence skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration independently of other factors such as macronutrient composition. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Egg Protein Prevents Hyperhomocysteinemia via Upregulation of Hepatic Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Activity in Folate-Restricted Rats
ABSTRACTBackgroundHyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Whole eggs contain several nutrients known to affect homocysteine regulation, including sulfur amino acids, choline, and B vitamins.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole eggs and egg components (i.e., egg protein and choline) with respect to1) homocysteine balance and2) the hepatic expression and activity of betaine-homocysteineS-methyltransferase (BHMT) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in a folate-restricted (FR) rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia.MethodsMale Sprague Dawley rats (n =&nb...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Vitamin C and Vitamin E Mitigate the Risk of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma from Meat-Derived Mutagen Exposure in Adults in a Case-Control Study
ABSTRACTBackgroundPrevious studies have found that meat-derived mutagens increase, and vitamin C or E decrease, the risk of pancreatic cancer.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine whether intake of vitamin C or E modulates the association between meat-derived mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.DesignWe conducted a case-control study in 1321 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and 1061 healthy controls (aged 28 –88 y). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Mutagen intake was assessed using a meat preparation questionn...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 17, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A School Meals Program Implemented at Scale in Ghana Increases Height-for-Age during Midchildhood in Girls and in Children from Poor Households: A Cluster Randomized Trial
ConclusionSchool meals can provide a platform to scale-up nutrition interventions in the early primary school years, with important benefits accruing for more disadvantaged children. This trial was registered atwww.isrctn.com as ISRCTN66918874. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 17, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality but Not with Cancer Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Japanese Adults
ConclusionOur findings suggest that a higher DII was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among Japanese adults. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 17, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Gail Grigsby Harrison, PhD (1943 –2015)
Gail Grigsby Harrison (pictured inFigure 1) was born on June 8, 1943 in Denver, CO, and passed away on September 5, 2015 in Los Angeles. At the time of her death, Gail was an Emeritus Professor in the Department of Community Health Sciences in the Fielding School of Public Health at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Gail's colleagues and students knew her as a visionary whose legacy will live on through the many people whose work she touched, especially the countless women, infants, and children who are better off today all over the world because of her tireless work on their behalf. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Osman Mahmoud Galal, MD, PhD (1931 –2016)
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Maternal Plasma Pyridoxal 5 ′-Phosphate Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Plasma Cystathionine Concentration across All Trimesters in Healthy Pregnant Women
ABSTRACTBackgroundVitamin B-6 (B-6), in the form of pyridoxal 5 ′phosphate (PLP), is critical for one-carbon metabolism reactions and cellular function. Plasma PLP concentration decreases throughout pregnancy, but the functional consequences of this have not been studied. Plasma cystathionine is a sensitive indicator of suboptimal B-6 status in healthy adults.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the relation between plasma PLP and cystathionine concentrations, and to assess longitudinal changes in plasma concentrations of metabolites of one-carbon metabolism, including total homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine,...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 16, 2019 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research