Calendar of Events
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Stevia Leaf to Stevia Sweetener: Exploring Its Science, Benefits, and Future Potential
AbstractSteviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted and purified from theStevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant, a member of theAsteraceae (Compositae) family that is native to South America, where it has been used for its sweet properties for hundreds of years. With continued increasing rates of obesity, diabetes, and other related comorbidities, in conjunction with global public policies calling for reductions in sugar intake as a means to help curb these issues, low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs, also known as high-potency sweeteners) such as stevia are gaining interest among consumers and food manufacturers. This appeal is...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Does Bariatric Surgery Affect Breast-Milk Composition?
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Nutritional Status Measures Are Correlated with Pupillary Responsiveness in Zambian Children
We examined associations between visual function —characterized by pupillary threshold or pupillary responsiveness—and nutritional status in Zambian children.MethodsWe used digital pupillometry to measure visual responses to calibrated light stimuli ( −2.9 to 0.1 log cd/m2) among dark-adapted children aged 4 –8 y (n = 542). We defined pupillary threshold as the first light stimulus at which pupil diameter decreased by ≥10% and considered a pupillary threshold ≥−0.9 log cd/m2 as impaired. Pupillary responsiveness was defined by absolute percentage of change in pupil diameter fro...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 19, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Higher Longitudinal Milk Intakes Are Associated with Increased Height in a Birth Cohort Followed for 17 Years
The objective of this study was to identify longitudinal associations between childhood and adolescent beverage intakes, nutrient adequacy, or energy intake and height in a birth cohort.MethodsData for participants through ages 2 –17 y (n = 717; 353 males, 364 females) recruited at birth for the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS) were used in the current cohort analyses. Beverage intakes (n = 708) were collected by beverage-frequency questionnaires at 3- to 6-mo intervals, whereas nutrient data (n = 652) were obtained from 3-d food diaries completed at 3- to 6-mo intervals through ag...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 19, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Relative Weight Gain Through Age 4 Years Is Associated with Increased Adiposity, and Higher Blood Pressure and Insulinemia at 4 –5 Years of Age in Mexican Children
AbstractBackgroundRapid early weight gain has been associated with increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic alterations, but evidence in low and middle-income countries is inconclusive.ObjectiveWe evaluated the relation between relative weight gain from 1 to 48 mo with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors at 4 –5 y of age, and determined if adiposity is a mediator for cardiometabolic alterations.MethodsWe studied 428 Mexican children with anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) information from birth to 5 y of age from POSGRAD (Prenatal Omega-3 fatty acid Supplementation and child GRowth And Development), o...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 19, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Computed Tomography Markers of Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease among Community-Dwelling Adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
We examined associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and subclinical ILD among middle-aged to older adults who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline.MethodsWe studied 6302 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who had baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations and computed tomography (CT) imaging spanning ≤ 10 y. Baseline cardiac CT scans (2000–2002) included partial lung fields. Some participants had follow-up cardiac CT scans at exams 2–5 and a full-lung CT scan at exam 5 (2010–2012), with a mean ± SD of 2.1 ± 1.0 scans. Subclinical ILD was defined quan...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 19, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Corrigendum
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 19, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Milk Powder Added to a School Meal Increases Cognitive Test Scores in Ghanaian Children
The objective was to determine whether consumption of 8.8 g milk protein/d given as milk powder with a multiple micronutrient –enriched porridge resulted in greater increases in linear growth and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) scores in Ghanaian schoolchildren when compared with 1 of 3 control groups.MethodsA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy children aged 6 –9 y was conducted comparing 8.8 g milk protein/d with 4.4 g milk protein/d or 4.4 g milk protein + 4.4 g rice protein/d (isonitrogenous, half of the protein from milk and half from rice) or...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 14, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Prenatal and Postnatal Supplementation with Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Reduces Anemia and Iron Deficiency in 18-Month-Old Bangladeshi Children: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Trial
AbstractBackgroundAnemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among young children are public health concerns in developing countries.ObjectiveWe evaluated the effects of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) and micronutrient powder (MNP) on anemia, ID, and IDA in 18-mo-old Bangladeshi children.MethodsWe enrolled 4011 pregnant women in a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with 4 arms —1) LNS-LNS: LNSs (including 20 mg Fe) for women daily during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and LNSs (including 9 mg Fe) for children daily from 6 to 24 mo of age (LNS-C);2) IFA-LNS: iron (60 mg) ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Partially Intact Protein-Based Diets
AbstractBackgroundCurrent recommendations for protein levels in infant formula are intended to ensure that growth matches or exceeds growth of breastfed infants, but may provide a surplus of amino acids (AAs). Recent infant studies with AA-based formulas support specific adjustment of the essential amino acid (EAA) composition allowing for potential lowering of total protein levels. With the use of a combination of intact protein and free EAAs, we designed a formula that meets these adjusted EAA requirements for infants.ObjectiveOur objective was to test whether this adjusted formula is safe and supports growth in a protei...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Lactating Canadian Women Consuming 1000 µg Folic Acid Daily Have High Circulating Serum Folic Acid Above a Threshold Concentration of Serum Total Folate
This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01112891. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Bariatric Surgery Does Not Appear to Affect Women's Breast-Milk Composition
ConclusionsBreast milk of women who have undergone BS appears to be adequate in energy, macronutrients, and vitamin A during the first 6 wk of lactation. This supports the conclusion that breast feeding should not be discouraged in this group of women. This trial was registered athttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02515214. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Leucine, Not Total Protein, Content of a Supplement Is the Primary Determinant of Muscle Protein Anabolic Responses in Healthy Older Women
AbstractBackgroundOlder adults show a blunted muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to postprandial hyperaminoacidemia relative to younger adults. Evidence suggests that this anabolic resistance can be overcome by consuming greater quantities of leucine.ObjectiveThe purpose of this trial was to determine whether the addition of leucine to a smaller dose (10 g) of milk proteins would, when compared with a larger dose (25 g) of whey protein isolate (WPI), result in similar increases in acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS).MethodsHealthy older (mean ± SD age: 69 ±&n...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Ammonia-Nitrogen Added to Low-Crude-Protein Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid –Nitrogen Increases the Net Release of Alanine, Citrulline, and Glutamate Post–Splanchnic Organ Metabolism in Growing Pigs
ConclusionDietary ammonia could be used as a nitrogen supplement to increase the synthesis of Ala, Cit, and Glu across splanchnic organs in pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA-nitrogen. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Food Overconsumption in Healthy Adults Triggers Early and Sustained Increases in Serum Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Changes in Cysteine Linked to Fat Gain
AbstractBackgroundPlasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. BCAAs predict future diabetes.ObjectiveWe investigated amino acid changes during food overconsumption.MethodsForty healthy men and women with a body mass index (mean  ± SEM) of 25.6 ± 0.6 were overfed by 1250 kcal/d for 28 d, increasing consumption of all macronutrients. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were assessed at baseline (day 0) and day 28. Fasting serum amino acids were measured at days 0, 3, and 28....
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Butter Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Functional Capacity: Is This Compensation for Its Adverse Effect on Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol?
Controversy over the dietary guidelines to reduce SFA intake rests heavily on the lack of evidence for a direct association between dietary SFAs and lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (1,2). Evidence that a lower intake of SFAs reduces CVD events has been reported, and can be explained, in part, by the lowering of serum LDL cholesterol (2), a causal risk factor for the development of CVD (3). Somewhat counterintuitively, the effects of SFAs on the putatively beneficial serum HDL cholesterol run in parallel to that of LDL cholesterol, but how these diet-induced changes in HDL cholesterol impact on CVD risk is less...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that a “Western/nonvegetarian” dietary pattern is associated with a metabolomic profile that is related to an adverse cardiometabolic profile in Asian Indians. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden in this high-risk group should focus on consuming a healthy plant-based diet. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 10, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) —Iron Review
AbstractThis is the fifth in the series of reviews developed as part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) program. The BOND Iron Expert Panel (I-EP) reviewed the extant knowledge regarding iron biology, public health implications, and the relative usefulness of currently available biomarkers of iron status from deficiency to overload. Approaches to assessing intake, including bioavailability, are also covered. The report also covers technical and laboratory considerations for the use of available biomarkers of iron status, and concludes with a description of research priorities along with a brief discussio...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 7, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid –Based Diets
AbstractBackgroundExcess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth.ObjectiveWith the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition.MethodsFemale piglets (3 –7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight−1&...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Calendar of Events
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Harmonizing the Calibrator and Microorganism Used in the Folate Microbiological Assay Increases the Comparability of Serum and Whole-Blood Folate Results in a CDC Round-Robin Study
ConclusionHarmonizing the calibrator and microorganism for the folate MBA has the potential to improve the among-laboratory comparability in future surveys. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Low Energy –Dense Diet in the Context of a Weight-Management Program Affects Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Women
AbstractBackgroundLow energy –dense (LED) foods reduce energy intake (EI); whether this effect is sustained over time and during weight loss is unknown.ObjectiveThis trial examined the effects of LED compared with high energy –dense (HED) meals on appetite, EI, and control over eating in the laboratory and during a weight-management program that encourages unrestricted intake of LED foods [Slimming World, UK (SW)] compared with a self-led Standard Care program [NHS weight-loss plan (SC)].MethodsOverweight and obese women [n = 96; mean ± SD age: 41.03 ± 12.61 y; mean ± SD...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Diversity Predicts the Adequacy of Micronutrient Intake in Pregnant Adolescent Girls and Women in Bangladesh, but Use of the 5-Group Cutoff Poorly Identifies Individuals with Inadequate Intake
ConclusionsThe WDDS-10 predicted MPA equally well for pregnant adolescent girls and women at population level. The MDD-W indicator performed poorly in classifying individuals with MPA>0.6. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Missingness of Height Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Africa between 1991 and 2016 Was Not Random but Is Unlikely to Have Major Implications for Biases in Estimating Stunting Prevalence or the Determinants of Child Height
This study examined differences between children with (92.7%) and without (7.3%) complete and biologically plausible height data available from the Demographic and Health Surveys.MethodsA total of 116 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1991 and 2016 from 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were merged. Differences between children with and without biologically plausible height data were examined with the use of chi-square tests,t tests, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression with survey cluster-level fixed effects.ResultsOf the whole sample, 97.9% of children had complete height data and 92.7% of c...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Established in Infancy Track to Mid-Childhood: The EU Childhood Obesity Project
ConclusionsDietary patterns are established between 1 and 2 y of age and track into mid-childhood. A dietary pattern characterized by added sugars, unhealthy fats, and poor consumption of fish and olive oil was the most stable throughout childhood. Further analyses will reveal whether those dietary patterns are associated with metabolic disease risk. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Maternal Serum Cobalamin at 18 Weeks of Pregnancy Predicts Infant Cobalamin Status at 6 Months —A Prospective, Observational Study
AbstractBackgroundAn adequate maternal cobalamin status is crucial for fetal and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnancy-induced physiologic changes make evaluation of maternal cobalamin status in pregnancy difficult.ObjectiveWe have investigated maternal cobalamin status during pregnancy in order to establish a maternal cobalamin concentration which secures an optimal infant cobalamin status during the first 6 mo of life.MethodsIn an observational, prospective study, markers of cobalamin status including serum cobalamin, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) were assessed in healthy pregnant wom...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Protein Intake at Breakfast Promotes a Positive Whole-Body Protein Balance in a Dose-Response Manner in Healthy Children: A Randomized Trial
AbstractBackgroundProtein ingestion promotes whole-body net protein balance (NB) in children, which is a prerequisite for growth. Determining how much protein is required at breakfast to promote a positive NB, which may be negative after the traditional overnight fast in children, has yet to be determined.ObjectiveWe determined the impact of incremental doses of milk protein at breakfast as well as the impact of daily dietary protein distribution on NB in children.MethodsA total of 28 children [14 boys, 14 girls; age range: 7 –11 y; body mass index (mean ± SD, in kg/m2): 16.0  ± 1.9]...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Diets Low in Saturated Fat with Different Unsaturated Fatty Acid Profiles Similarly Increase Serum-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux from THP-1 Macrophages in a Population with or at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial
The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of diets low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux and its association with the plasma lipophilic index and central obesity.MethodsThe present study is a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Participants [men:n = 50; women:n = 51; mean ± SE age: 49.5 ± 1.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 29.4  ± 0.4] at risk for or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to 5 isocaloric diets containing the treatment oils: c...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Cholecalciferol or 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Supplementation Does Not Affect Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Prefrail and Frail Older Adults
This study investigated the effect of daily supplementation with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on muscle strength and physical performance in older adults.MethodsThis was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 mo including 78 prefrail or frail (according to the Fried criteria), community-dwelling older adults (n = 43 men) aged ≥65 y, with a baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration between 20 and 50 nmol/L. Participants were supplemented daily with 10 µg 25(OH)D3, 20 µg vitamin D3, or a placebo capsule. Serum 25(OH)D was measured ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Infant Formula Feeding Increases Hepatic Cholesterol 7 α Hydroxylase (CYP7A1) Expression and Fecal Bile Acid Loss in Neonatal Piglets
AbstractBackgroundDuring the postnatal feeding period, formula-fed infants have higher cholesterol synthesis rates and lower circulating cholesterol concentrations than their breastfed counterparts. Although this disparity has been attributed to the uniformly low dietary cholesterol content of typical infant formulas, little is known of the underlying mechanisms associated with this altered cholesterol metabolism phenotype.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the molecular etiology of diet-associated changes in early-life cholesterol metabolism with the use of a postnatal piglet feeding model.MethodsTwo-day-old male and female W...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Selenium Supplementation Alters Hepatic Energy and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mice
AbstractBackgroundHuman and animal studies have raised concerns that supplemental selenium can increase the risk of metabolic disorders, but underlying mechanisms are unclear.ObjectiveWe used an integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis of liver to test for functional pathway and network responses to supplemental selenium in mice.MethodsMale mice (8-wk-old, C57BL/6J) fed a standard diet (0.41 ppm Se) were given selenium (Na2SeO4, 20 μmol/L) or vehicle (drinking water) for 16 wk. Livers were analyzed for selenium concentration, activity of selenoproteins, reduced glutathione (GSH) redox state, gene expression, and...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - May 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

An Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern Score Is Associated with Circulating Inflammatory Biomarkers in a Multi-Ethnic Population of Postmenopausal Women in the United States
AbstractBackgroundThe empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score has been associated with concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers in European Americans.ObjectiveWe used the EDIP score, a weighted sum of 18 food groups that characterizes dietary inflammatory potential based on circulating concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, to test the hypothesis that a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern is associated with inflammatory biomarker concentrations in a US multi-ethnic population.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we calculated EDIP scores using baseline food frequency questionnaire data from 31,47...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Iron Deficiency, Anemia, and Low Vitamin B-12 Serostatus in Middle Childhood Are Associated with Behavior Problems in Adolescent Boys: Results from the Bogot á School Children Cohort
AbstractBackgroundIron deficiency (ID) in infancy is related to subsequent behavior problems. The effects of micronutrient status in middle childhood are uncertain.ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to examine the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers in middle childhood with externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence.MethodsWe assessed whether ID (ferritin
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Cholecalciferol Supplementation Promotes Bone Turnover in Chinese Adults with Vitamin D Deficiency
AbstractBackgroundBone turnover markers (BTMs) are proposed as alternative indicators for bone mineral density in diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. However, little is known about the effects of vitamin D supplementation on BTMs in nonwhite populations.ObjectiveWe aimed to investigate the responses in BTMs after vitamin D supplementation in Asians.MethodsIn this secondary data analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 448 Chinese adults [mean  ± SD age: 31.9 ± 8.0 y; mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 22.1  ± 2.6; 69% were wo...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Consuming Lower-Protein Nutrition Bars with Added Leucine Elicits Postprandial Changes in Appetite Sensations in Healthy Women
AbstractBackgroundHigher-protein meals (>25 g protein/meal) have been associated with enhanced satiety but the role of amino acids is unclear. Leucine has been proposed to stimulate satiety in rodents but has not been assessed in humans.ObjectiveWe assessed the acute effects of lower-protein nutrition bars, enhanced with a leucine peptide (LP), on postprandial appetite sensations in combination with plasma leucine and peptide YY (PYY) in healthy women.MethodsUtilizing a double-blind randomized crossover design, 40 healthy women [28  ± 7.5 y; body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 23.5  ± 2.4]...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Clear Difference Emerges in Hormone Patterns Following a Standard Midday Meal in Young Women Who Regularly Eat or Skip Breakfast
ConclusionWe found differences between the Br-E and Br-S groups in circulating gut and adipose-derived hormones measured midday, indicating that the breakfast habit is associated with the hormonal milieu before and after a midday meal. The different patterns may be short-lived or may impact metabolism later in the day. This report is a secondary analysis of a trial registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01427556. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Red Raspberry Reduces Colorectal Inflammation and Carcinogenic Risk in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium –Induced Colitis
ConclusionRB supplementation reduced DAI score and the risk of CRC development during recurring colitis in mice, suggesting that RB is a possible dietary supplement for patients with ulcerative colitis and related gut inflammatory diseases. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Calendar of Events
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Food Photography Is Not an Accurate Measure of Energy Intake in Obese, Pregnant Women
AbstractBackgroundTo improve weight management in pregnant women, there is a need to deliver specific, data-based recommendations on energy intake.ObjectiveThis cross-sectional study evaluated the accuracy of an electronic reporting method to measure daily energy intake in pregnant women compared with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE).MethodsTwenty-three obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m2): 36.9  ± 1.3] pregnant women (aged 28.3 ±1.1 y) used a smartphone application to capture images of their food selection and plate waste in free-living conditions for ≥6 d in early (13&ndas...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Aspartame Consumption for 12 Weeks Does Not Affect Glycemia, Appetite, or Body Weight of Healthy, Lean Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsAspartame ingested at 2 doses for 12 wk had no effect on glycemia, appetite, or body weight among healthy, lean adults. These data do not support the view that aspartame is problematic for the management of glycemia, appetite, or body weight. This trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02999321. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Multi-Copper Ferroxidase –Deficient Mice Have Increased Brain Iron Concentrations and Learning and Memory Deficits
ConclusionMutation of both MCFs in mice induces iron accumulation in brain regions, oxidative damage, and learning and memory defects. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Peri-Urban, but Not Urban, Residence in Bolivia Is Associated with Higher Odds of Co-Occurrence of Overweight and Anemia among Young Children, and of Households with an Overweight Woman and Stunted Child
AbstractBackgroundUrban populations have grown globally alongside emerging simultaneous burdens of undernutrition and obesity. Yet, how heterogeneous urban environments are associated with this nutritional double burden is poorly understood.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine:1) the prevalence of the nutritional double burden and its components in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of Bolivia; and2) the association of residence in these areas with the nutritional double burden and its components.DesignWe surveyed 3946 randomly selected households from 2 metropolitan regions of Bolivia. Census data and remotely sensed imagery we...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Healthy Plant-Based Diets Are Associated with Lower Risk of All-Cause Mortality in US Adults
ConclusionsA nonlinear association between hPDI and all-cause mortality was observed. Healthy plant-based diet scores above the median were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in US adults. Future research exploring the impact of quality of plant-based diets on long-term health outcomes is necessary. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A Healthy Asian A Posteriori Dietary Pattern Correlates with A Priori Dietary Patterns and Is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Multiethnic Asian Population
ConclusionA healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Accretion of Fat-Free Mass Rather Than Fat Mass in Infancy Is Positively Associated with Linear Growth in Childhood
ConclusionsIn Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered atwww.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Test-Retest Reproducibility of Adult-Reported High School Diet Varies among Racially and Ethnically Diverse US Men and Women
ConclusionThese results show good 1-y reproducibility of assessed high school diet, as reported from memory in adulthood, by line item, food group, and dietary pattern, with noted differences by demographic characteristics. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Universal Salt Iodization Provides Sufficient Dietary Iodine to Achieve Adequate Iodine Nutrition during the First 1000 Days: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study
ConclusionsSalt iodization at ∼25 mg/kg that covers a high proportion of the total amount of salt consumed supplies sufficient dietary iodine to ensure adequate iodine nutrition in all population groups, although intakes may be borderline low during pregnancy. Large variations in salt iodine concentrations increase the risk fo r both low and high iodine intakes. Strict monitoring of the national salt iodization program is therefore essential for optimal iodine nutrition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02196337. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Polyphenols Have No Impact on Endothelial Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsIn participants with severe OSA and no overt cardiovascular disease, 1-mo GJP supplementation had no effect on endothelial function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01977924. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Saturated Fats from Butter but Not from Cheese Increase HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity from J774 Macrophages in Men and Women with Abdominal Obesity
ConclusionThese results provide evidence of a food matrix effect modulating the impact of dairy SFAs on HDL-mediated CEC with potential sex-related differences that deserve further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02106208. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research