Lumboperitoneal shunt in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a prospective controlled study
ConclusionsLPS is safe and effective in iNPH. An early surgical treatment is desirable to prevent clinical worsening. Post-surgery decrease of PWM hyperintensities may be a useful MRI marker surrogate for clinical effectiveness of LPS. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Painful legs and moving toes syndrome: treating movement to treat pain —a case report
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Longitudinal medication profile and cost savings in Parkinson ’s disease patients after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation
ConclusionSTN DBS led to LEDD reduction and antiparkinsonian medication cost savings in our South-East Asian cohort. Medication reduction with STN DBS in our cohort over the 10-year period was comparable to those reported in Western populations. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Persistent asymptomatic or mild symptomatic hyperCKemia due to mutations in ANO5 : the mildest end of the anoctaminopathies spectrum
ConclusionsRecessive mutations inANO5 are a frequent cause of undiagnosed asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic hyperCKemia. Patients with an apparent indolent phenotype may show muscle involvement in complementary tests (muscle biopsy and imaging), which may progress over time. Awareness of anoctaminopathy as the cause of nonspecific muscular complaints or of isolated hyperCKemia is essential to correctly diagnose affected patients. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exome sequencing in 38 patients with intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage
ConclusionsOur data support a role of sequence variants inPCNT,RNF213 andTHSD1 as susceptibility factors for cerebrovascular disease. The documented function in vascular wall integrity, the crucial localization of affected amino acids and gene/variant association tests suggestEDIL3 as a further valid candidate disease gene for UIA/aSAH. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A nerve conduction study predicts the prognosis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ConclusionsCMAP and SNAP amplitudes of the median nerve are considered to be independent prognostic factors of sporadic ALS. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Familial Creutzfeldt –Jakob disease homozygous to the E200K mutation: clinical characteristics and disease course
AbstractObjectiveTo characterize the demographic, clinical features and disease course of familial Creutzfeldt –Jakob disease (fCJD) patients homozygous to the E200K mutation.MethodsThe Israeli National CJD Database was screened for patients homozygous to the E200K mutation. Patients' demographic data, clinical presentation and neurological findings, tau  protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and EEG, were assessed.ResultsTen homozygous E200K patients were identified (80% males). Average age of onset was 47.5  ± 6.1 years (range 40–56) and the average age of death was 49...
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Characteristic muscle signatures assessed by quantitative MRI in patients with Bethlem myopathy
AbstractUsing MRI, the main aim was to (1) map the pattern of muscle involvement by assessing fat fraction and (2) investigate frequency of target and sandwich signs in 42 muscles of patients with Bethlem myopathy (BM). Fifteen BM patients were included. Results were compared to findings in 8 healthy controls and 50 patients with four other types of muscular dystrophies. All muscles, except one, showed higher fat fraction in BM patients vs healthy controls (p 
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Whole-body muscle MRI of patients with MATR3-associated distal myopathy reveals a distinct pattern of muscular involvement and highlights the value of whole-body examination
AbstractObjectiveMATR3-associated distal myopathy is a rare distal myopathy predominantly affecting lower legs as well as wrist- and finger extensors. Whilst most distal myopathies are clinically and genetically well characterized, diagnosis often remains challenging. Pattern-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches offer valuable additional information. However, a consistent pattern of muscular affection is missing for most distal myopathies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to establish a disease-specific pattern of muscular involvement in MATR3-associated distal myopathy using whole-body MRI.Methods15 pat...
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The IN-DEEP project “INtegrating and Deriving Evidence, Experiences, Preferences”: a web information model on magnetic resonance imaging for people with multiple sclerosis
ConclusionsThe website is a tool to address PwMS information needs on the role of MRI. It could be used by neurologists to facilitate communication with PwMS. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment expectations and patient-reported outcomes of nusinersen therapy in adult spinal muscular atrophy
ConclusionsThis study showed mainly positive treatment expectations and PROs in patients undergoing nusinersen treatment along with measurable functional improvement in adult SMA patients. Moreover, treatment expectations did not significantly influence outcome measures. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CNS penetration of potential anti-COVID-19 drugs
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - May 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Biomechanical response of the CNS is associated with frailty in NPH-suspected patients
AbstractFrailty is known to predict dementia. However, its link with neurodegenerative alterations of the central nervous system (CNS) is not well understood at present. We investigated the association between the biomechanical response of the CNS and frailty in older adults suspected of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) presenting with markers of multiple co-existing pathologies. The biomechanical response of the CNS was characterized by the CNS elastance coefficient inferred from phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and intracranial pressure monitoring during a lumbar infusion test. Frailty was assessed with an in...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multiple acyl-COA dehydrogenase deficiency in elderly carriers
We describe two patients in their seventies, referred for a nonspecific myopathy, which resulted to manifest carriers ofETFDH gene mutation. Treatment with riboflavin andl-carnitine improved the clinical picture and the biochemical profile. This condition should be included in the differential diagnosis of myopathies even at an old age. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sporadic inclusion body myositis: no specific cardiac involvement in cardiac magnetic resonance tomography
ConclusionCMR revealed subtle changes in cardiac geometry and tissue characterization in IBM patients when compared to a gender- and age-matched control group. Findings in CMR indicated a higher extent of diffuse myocardial fibrosis as well as smaller left ventricular stroke volumes. These alterations may be due to a higher prevalence of arterial hypertension in the IBM cohort. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The 2019 novel cornoavirus pneumonia with onset of oculomotor nerve palsy: a case study
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The changing face of neurosurgery for the older person
AbstractIncreased life expectancy and illness prevention and treatment have led to a growing population of older patients. These changes in patient population are apparent in neurosurgery; however, relatively little is reported about specific outcomes and prognostication in this group. This review summarises the challenges and management changes occurring in the treatment of three common neurosurgical pathologies; aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, head injury, and haemorrhagic stroke. A move towards less invasive neurosurgical techniques has implications on the risk –benefit profile of interventions. This creates ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Light therapy for multiple sclerosis-associated fatigue: a randomized, controlled phase II trial
AbstractBackgroundBright white light therapy (LT) can improve fatigue in several disease states but has not been studied in multiple sclerosis (MS).ObjectiveTo determine whether controlled home-based LT is feasible, tolerable, and well-adhered to in MS-associated fatigue.MethodsA randomized, controlled trial of twice-daily 1-h bright white LT (BWLT) (10,000  lx, active arm) versus dim red LT (DRLT) (
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Giovanni Mingazzini (1859 –1929)
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Levodopa challenge test: indications, protocol, and guide
AbstractA drug challenge test in Parkinson ’s disease, such as the levodopa challenge test (LCT), is an easy and generally safe procedure, which has been used by clinicians for various indications. The results of the test have significant implications in the management of patients, from preoperative evaluation for deep brain stimulation to providing the basis for medication adjustments to address motor or non-motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. This paper reviews the different indications and protocols commonly used in an acute LCT. Potential complications of the procedure and an overview of levodopa responsiveness a...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predicting onset of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis using genetic and non-genetic factors
ConclusionsThese results have the potential to advance prognostication for a person with MS using information available at or near onset, potentially improving care and quality of life for those who live with MS. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Utriculo-ocular pathway dysfunction is more frequent in vestibular migraine than probable vestibular migraine
ConclusionVM is associated with dysfunction of the utriculo-ocular pathway more frequently than PVM, suggesting that the pathophysiology of VM involves the utriculo-ocular pathway. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Guillain-Barr é syndrome following COVID-19: new infection, old complication?
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in early MS: contribution of white matter lesions, deep grey matter atrophy, and cortical atrophy
AbstractBackgroundCognitive impairment (CI) is a frequent and debilitating symptom in MS. To better understand the neural bases of CI in MS, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study aimed to identify and quantify related structural brain changes and to investigate their relation to each other.MethodsWe studied 51 patients with CI and 391 patients with cognitive preservation (CP). We analyzed three-dimensional T1-weighted and FLAIR scans at 3  Tesla. We determined mean cortical thickness as well as volumes of cortical grey matter (GM), deep GM including thalamus, cerebellar cortex, white matter, corpus callosum, and...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Moyamoya angiopathy: radiological follow-up findings in Finnish patients
ConclusionsA slow progression of MMA-related changes on MRI/MRA was found, being in line with our previous reports suggesting a rather benign course of the disease in the Finnish population. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Heritable and non-heritable uncommon causes of stroke
AbstractDespite intensive investigations, about 30% of stroke cases remains of undetermined origin. After exclusion of common causes of stroke, there is a number of rare heritable and non-heritable conditions, which often remain misdiagnosed, that should be additionally considered in the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. The identification of these diseases requires a complex work up including detailed clinical evaluation for the detection of systemic symptoms and signs, an adequate neuroimaging assessment and a careful family history collection. The task becomes more complicated by phenotype heterogeneity since stroke coul...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Imaging dopamine function and microglia in asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers
AbstractNeuroinflammation (microglial activation) and subclinical nigrostriatal dysfunction have been reported in subjects at risk of Parkinsonism. Eight non-manifesting carriers (NMCs) of LRRK2 G2019S mutation had11C-PK11195 and18F-DOPA PET to assess microglial activation and striatal dopamine system integrity, respectively. Comparisons were made with healthy controls. Five LRRK2-NMCs had subclinical reductions of putaminal18F-DOPA uptake. Three of them had significantly raised nigral11C-PK11195 binding bilaterally. These findings indicate that nigrostriatal dysfunction and neuroinflammation occur in LRRK2-NMCs. Studies i...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contributions to the study of spinocerebellar ataxia type 38 (SCA38)
ConclusionThe mentionedELOVL5 variant segregated with disease in this kindred. Downbeat nystagmus, intermittent heterotropia causing transient diplopia, vestibular impairment demonstrated by abnormal HIT, and sensory neuronopathy were part of the clinical picture in this series. DHA supplementation raised serum DHA percent in cases with diminished levels, and induced a clinical amelioration and a statistically significant reduction in SARA scores in the study group. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of these findings in SCA38, and to determine the response to prolonged DHA supplementation. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Asymptomatic adrenoleukodystrophy in elderly males
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spatial and egocentric mental rotation in patients with cervical dystonia
AbstractMental rotation has attracted the interest of cognitive research on dystonia, but at the moment, contrasting data are available on whether this complex cognitive ability is impaired in the disorder. Here, we assessed spatial and egocentric mental rotation in patients with cervical dystonia (CD). Patients with CD and healthy controls were required to perform a letter rotation task (spatial mental rotation) and to judge laterality of front-facing and back-facing human images (egocentric mental rotation). CD patients were selectively impaired on letter rotation, whereas they did not differ from controls when judging l...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuronal surface autoantibodies in dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractIntroductionNeuronal antibodies can cause encephalopathy syndromes often presenting with subacute cognitive impairment, sometimes resembling neurodegenerative dementias.MethodsWe searched Medline and Embase for studies reporting associations between neuronal surface antibodies in all-cause dementia versus controls. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted estimates across studies.ResultsSix studies were included, all reporting frequency of serum NMDAR antibodies in dementia with four also reporting frequency in atypical dementias. Both IgG [OR  = 8.09 (1.51; 56.85),p = 0.03...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy-chain levels reflect phenotypic heterogeneity and are an independent predictor of survival in motor neuron disease
This study provides supporting evidence of the role of pNfH as useful prognostic biomarker for MND patients. Neurofilament measurements should be considered in the future prognostic models and in clinical trials for bioma rker-based stratification, and to evaluate treatment response. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Visually-induced dizziness is associated with sensitivity and avoidance across all senses
ConclusionsOur findings support the idea that PPPD is a complex neurological condition that includes broad perceptual factors, and may suggest that some brains are predisposed to generalised cross-modal sensory-overload. This may give rise to vulnerability to severe PPPD should a vestibular insult occur. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multiple sclerosis and the risk of infection: considerations in the threat of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Etiologic distribution of dizziness and vertigo in a referral-based dizziness clinic in South Korea
This study aimed to determine the etiologic distribution of dizziness and vertigo in a referral-based dizziness clinic in South Korea. We analyzed the diagnoses of 21,166 consecutive dizzy patients (12,691 women, mean age  = 57.9 ± 15.7, age range = 3–97) seen from 2003 to 2019 using a registry and medical records. Overall, dizziness and vertigo were more common in women (60.0%, CI 0.59–0.61) than in men without a difference in age (57.7 ± 15.5 vs. 58.1 ± 16.1,p = 0.094). Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Longitudinal serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) concentration relates to cognitive function in multiple sclerosis patients
ConclusionOur longitudinal pilot study confirms that sNfL are related to cognitive abilities, confirming data of other authors from retrospective studies. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Parkinsonism as a late presentation of lymphomatosis cerebri following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for primary central nervous system lymphoma
AbstractPrimary central nervous system lymphoma is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising in the eyes, meninges, spinal cord, or brain. Treatment of primary CNS lymphoma with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation has been shown to have high rates of remission which is frequently sustained for multiple years. Recurrence of primary CNS lymphoma generally presents with one or multiple contrast enhancing lesions on MRI. In rare cases, lymphoma cells may proliferate diffusely within the brain parenchyma without mass formation, a pattern termed lymphomatosis cerebri. Lymphom...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Metabolomic changes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes
ConclusionsThe metabolic changes in FTLD are promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Further work is required to replicate these findings, examine longitudinal change, and test their utility in differentiating between FTLD syndromes that are pathologically distinct but phenotypically similar. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cortical myoclonus and epilepsy in a family with a new SLC20A2 mutation
AbstractIdiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or primary familial brain calcification is a rare genetic condition characterized by an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and the presence of bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellum and cerebral subcortical white matter. The syndrome is genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Causal mutations have been identified in four genes:SLC20A2,PDGFRB,PDGFB andXPR1. A variety of progressive neurological and psychiatric symptoms have been described, including cognitive impairment, movement disorders, bipolar disorder, chronic headaches and mig...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disease activity outcomes with different washout periods after switching from natalizumab to an alternative disease-modifying therapy
AbstractBackgroundWashout periods (WPs) are increasingly shortened due to concerns of disease rebound when patients on natalizumab are switched to alternative disease-modifying therapies (DMTs).ObjectiveTo characterize disease activity outcomes with different WPs when switching from natalizumab.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective review of patients switching from natalizumab in our MS clinics. Disease activity (relapse, new T2 lesions and/or gadolinium enhancing lesions) between different WPs (days): 0 –30, 31–60, and 61–180 were compared, during the first year after switching from natalizumab. To determi...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of key signs in persistent postural-perceptual dizziness
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of comorbidities and co-medication on disease onset and progression in a large German ALS patient group
ConclusionsOur results suggest stroke, lower BMI, and regular physical activity as risk factors for ALS. Strokes could be a possible trigger of the pathogenetic pathway of ALS and the lower BMI with consecutively lower rate of hyperlipidemia supports the hypothesis of premorbid hypermetabolism in ALS patients. Coexistence of coronary heart disease possibly has a negative influence on respiratory involvement. Contraceptives could be beneficial due to a protective effect of estrogen. Information on influencing factors can help to elucidate the pathogenesis of ALS or provide approaches for possible therapeutic options. (Sourc...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interhospital transfer vs. direct presentation of patients with a large vessel occlusion not eligible for IV thrombolysis
We examined the effect of direct presentation to a CSC on outcomes after EVT in patients not eligible for IVT.MethodsWe used data from the MR CLEAN Registry (2014 –2017). We included patients who were not treated with IVT and compared patients directly presented to a CSC to patients transferred from a primary stroke center. Outcomes included treatment times and 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores (mRS) adjusted for potential confounders.ResultsOf the 3637 patients, 680 (19%) did not receive IVT and were included in the analyses. Of these, 389 (57%) were directly presented to a CSC. The most common contraindications f...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Natural history of most common spinocerebellar ataxia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThis meta-analysis provides quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias based on patient numbers that exceed those of previous studies and confirms that disease progression is faster in SCA1, intermediate in SCA2 and SCA3 and slower in SCA6, with similar rates of disease progression in SCA2 and SCA3 between different populations, suggesting a possibility of international collaborative studies. Nevertheless, individual-patient data meta-analysis is needed to better understand the risk factors that influence disease progression and improve patient stratification in interventional...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinguish CIDP with autoantibody from that without autoantibody: pathogenesis, histopathology, and clinical features
AbstractChronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is considered to be an immune-mediated heterogeneous disease involving cellular and humoral immunity. In recent years, autoantibodies against nodal/paranodal protein neurofascin155 (NF155), neurofascin186 (NF186), contactin-1 (CNTN1), and contactin-associated protein 1 (CASPR1) have been identified in a small subset of patients with CIDP, which disrupt axo-glial interactions at nodes/paranodes. Although CIDP electrodiagnosis was made in patients with anti-nodal/paranodal component autoantibodies, macrophage-induced demyelination, the characteristic of...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diaphragmatic CMAP amplitude from phrenic nerve stimulation predicts functional decline in ALS
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate phrenic nerve motor amplitude (PhrenicAmp) as an independent predictor of functional decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also assessed both PhrenicAmp and forced vital capacity (FVC) as predictors of functional loss in patients with bulbar dysfunction.MethodsWe included consecutive ALS patients with PhrenicAmp and FVC at baseline. Participants were evaluated with the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) at inclusion and at, at least, one subsequent follow-up visit. The outcome measure of functional decline was the percentage reduction in ALSFRS-R from baseline. Bulbar d...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

GLP-1 receptor agonists in diabetes for stroke prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractBackgroundRandomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) have demonstrated varied efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists for cardiovascular outcomes. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GLP-1R agonists among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) for stroke prevention.MethodsWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs reporting the following outcomes among patients with Type 2 DM treated with GLP-1R agonists (vs. placebo): nonfatal or fatal strokes, all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Routine diagnostics for neural antibodies, clinical correlates, treatment and functional outcome
ConclusionsThis novel approach starting from routine diagnostics in a dedicated laboratory provides reliable and useful results with therapeutic implications. Counseling should consider clinical presentation, demographic features, and antibody titers of the individual patient. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oral therapies for treatment of relapsing –remitting multiple sclerosis in Austria: a 2-year comparison using an inverse probability weighting method
ConclusionsRelapse rates with treatment with FTY, DMF and TERI were similar. Patients treated with DMF showed less sustained disability progression for 12  weeks than FTY-treated patients. However, FTY and DMF treatment was associated with more likely EDSS regression for 12 and 24 weeks and a lower probability for treatment interruption as compared to TERI-treated patients. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

John Hilton (1805 –1878)
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research