Smoking at time of CIS increases the risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis
AbstractBackgroundCigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor that influences the disease course of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), there are conflicting results about the association between smoking and the risk of a subsequent MS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of clinically definite MS (CDMS) in smoking and non-smoking patients at time of a first demyelinating event.MethodsTwo hundred and fifty patients, aged 18 –50 years, were included in our prospective CIS cohort. At time of the first neurological symptoms, ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Is oral feeding compatible with an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome?
ConclusionOral feeding that implies a full and complex oral phase could probably be considered as a sign of consciousness. However, we actually do not know which components are necessary to consider the swallowing conscious as compared to reflex. We also discussed the importance of swallowing assessment and management in all patients with altered state of consciousness. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

In vivo assessment of retinal vessel pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ConclusionOur study reports retinal vessel pathology in ALS patients. These changes may be related to those observed in SBVs in skin and muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we report a thinning of the ONL in ALS, revealing a possible affection of rods and cones function in ALS. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association between marriage and outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke
ConclusionsMarital status was associated with all adverse stroke outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke, especially in those with middle-school education. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment of neuromyelitis optica with rituximab: a 2-year prospective multicenter study
ConclusionRituximab is clinically effective in active forms of NMO, although few patients are resistant to the treatment. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predicting functional outcomes of posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke in first 36  h of stroke onset
In conclusion, both the PC-ASPECTS and NIHSS help clinicians predict functional outcomes. PC-ASPECTS >  7 is a helpful discriminator for achieving favorable functional outcome prediction in posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Rotigotine plus intensive and goal-based rehabilitation versus Rotigotine alone in “de-novo” Parkinsonian subjects: a randomized controlled trial with 18-month follow-up
AbstractBackgroundDopamine Replacement Therapy (DRT) represents the most effective treatment for Parkinson ’s disease (PD). Nevertheless, several symptoms are unresponsive to treatment and its long-term use leads to serious side effects. To optimize the pharmacological management of PD, dopamine-agonists are often prescribed to “de-novo” patients. Moreover, several studies have shown the effectiven ess and the synergic effect of rehabilitation in treating PD.ObjectiveTo evaluate the synergism between DRT and rehabilitation in treating PD, by investigating the short and the long-term effectiveness of a mul...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The cortical blood –brain barrier in multiple sclerosis: a gateway to progression?
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness and baseline factors associated to fingolimod response in a real-world study on multiple sclerosis patients
AbstractBackgroundTreatment choice in multiple sclerosis (MS) is crucial for optimizing risk –benefit profile.ObjectiveTo assess fingolimod (FTY) effectiveness and identify baseline features associated to disease activity in a large Italian cohort of Relapsing –Remitting (RR) MS patients.MethodsThree-hundred sixty-seven RRMS patients starting FTY treatment at San Raffaele Hospital (Milan-Italy) underwent clinical and MRI evaluations for 2  years. Treatment response was assessed considering the proportion of patients with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) and recording the time to first relapse. Primar...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A 34-year longitudinal study on long-term cardiac outcomes in DM1 patients with normal ECG at baseline at an Italian clinical centre
AbstractCardiac conduction and/or rhythm abnormalities (CCRA) are the most frequent and life-threatening complications in DM1. In order to determine prevalence, incidence, characteristics, age of onset and predictors of CCRA, CCRA progression and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in DM1, we collected ECG/24hECG-Holter data from a yearly updated 34-year database of a cohort of 103 DM1 patients without cardiac abnormalities at baseline, followed for at least 1  year. Fifty-five patients developed CCRA [39 developed conduction abnormalities (CCA) and 16 rhythm abnormalities (CRA)], which progressed in 22. Nine had SCD. Risk and...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Wearable sensors for clinical applications in epilepsy, Parkinson ’s disease, and stroke: a mixed-methods systematic review
ConclusionsWearables may provide information of clinical features of interest in epilepsy, PD and stroke, but knowledge regarding the clinical utility for supporting clinical decision making remains to be established. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Telemedicine in general neurology: use of audiovisual consultation for on call back-up service in an acute care hospital
ConclusionsAudiovisual consultation seems to be a feasible and useful support in routine neurology back-up service of an acute care hospital. Better mobility of devices and flexibility of service is needed to improve availability and quality of this valuable tool. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MRI of the first event in pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
In conclusion, children with MOG seropositive ADS present disparate, yet characteristic imaging patterns. These patterns have been seen to correlate to the disease entity as well as to ag e of symptom onset. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Up-to-date knowledge about the association between multiple sclerosis and the reactivation of human endogenous retrovirus infections
AbstractBackgroundAlthough existing studies show that reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) plays a leading role in multiple sclerosis (MS) progression, the practitioners are yet to establish effective approaches for managing MS without jeopardizing the patients ’ immune systems.AimTo provide up-to-date knowledge on the specific roles played by the reactivation of the HERVs in the pathogenesis of MS.Materials and methodsA systematic review of 70 peer-reviewed journals accessed via PubMed was conducted. The searches generated more than 600 sources that were evaluated based on three step in and exclus...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anti-Sez6l2 antibody detected in a patient with immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia inhibits complex formation of GluR1 and Sez6l2
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Defining spasticity: a new approach considering current movement disorders terminology and botulinum toxin therapy
AbstractSpasticity is a symptom occurring in many neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage, traumatic brain injury, tumours and heredodegenerative diseases. It affects large numbers of patients and may cause major disability. So far, spasticity has merely been described as part of the upper motor neurone syndrome or defined in a narrowed neurophysiological sense. This consensus organised by IAB —Interdisciplinary Working Group Movement Disorders wants to provide a brief and practical new definition of spasticity—for the first time—based on its various forms of mus...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Frequency and predictors of post-stroke delirium in PRospective Observational POLIsh Study (PROPOLIS)
AbstractDelirium is the most common and serious neurobehavioral complication in acute hospital admissions. Some patients develop signs of delirium but do not meet all diagnostic criteria. Stroke is a major risk factor for delirium. The aim of this prospective study was to build a predictive model for delirium and subsyndromal post-stroke delirium. Patients with stroke were screened for delirium during the first 7  days after admission. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-V criteria. Baseline demographic, biochemical, stroke-related data, medications used, neurological deficit, and premorbid cognitive and functiona...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-associated encephalopathy: an under-recognised cause of acute encephalitis? Case series and literature review
We describe three further cases of encephalitis in the UK HAM cohort (n = 142), whereas the annual incidence of acute encephalitis in the general population is 0.07–12.6 per 100,000. Clinical features included reduced consciousness, fever/hypothermia, headaches, seizures, and focal neurology. Investigation showed: raised CSF protein; pleocytosis; raised CSF:periphe ral blood mononuclear cell HTLV-1 proviral load ratio; and MRI either normal or showing white matter changes in brain and cord. Four of the six previous case reports of encephalopathy in HTLV-infected patients also had HAM. Histopathology, report...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Repurposed drugs for use in Parkinson ’s disease
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bronislaw Onuf-Onufrowicz (1863 –1928)
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Riluzole and other prognostic factors in ALS: a population-based registry study in Italy
AbstractObjectiveIn this prospective population-based registry study on ALS survival, we investigated the role of riluzole treatment, together with other clinical factors, on the prognosis in incident ALS cases in Emilia Romagna Region (ERR), Italy.MethodsA registry for ALS has been collecting all incident cases in ERR since 2009. Detailed clinical data from all patients diagnosed with ALS between 1.1.2009 and 31.12.2014 have been analyzed for this study, with last follow up date set at 31.12.2015.ResultsDuring the 6  years of the study, there were 681 incident cases with a median tracheostomy-free survival of 40 ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Post-traumatic taste disorders: a case series
AbstractSince 1800s there are reports of post-traumatic anosmia, but few studies investigated post-traumatic gustatory deficit and adopted validated evaluation tests. Peripheral and/or central mechanisms may be involved in the genesis of post-traumatic gustatory dysfunction. Beyond a reduction/loss (hypogeusia/ageusia) of gustatory function following a trauma, qualitative taste changes (dysgeusia) may occur. Especially when persistent, taste deficits might be particularly relevant for patient ’s quality of life and activities of daily life, but knowledge on this topic is limited. Fifty-three consecutive patients with...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identifying neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multicenter study using highly specific criteria
ConclusionsOur study, providing definite information on the prevalence, characteristics and variables associated with neuropathic pain due to MS, shows that a more severe disease course is associated with a higher risk of neuropathic pain. Our findings might, therefore, provide a basis for improving the clinical management of this common MS complication. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Longitudinal predictors of caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population-based cohort of patient –caregiver dyads
ConclusionIn a patient cohort with relatively preserved cognitive function (65%), anxiety and depression at Time 1, as measured by the HADS, were the best predictors of caregiver burden at Time 3. This observation provides a mechanism by which caregiver burden can be identified by health-care professionals and a stepped care programme of intervention initiated. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Downbeat nystagmus and lower motor neuron disease: 14  years follow-up
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebellum and cognition in multiple sclerosis: the fall status matters
AbstractCerebellar volume has been linked with cognitive performances in MS; however, the association in terms of fall status has never been compared. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to compare cognitive performance with cerebellar volume between MS fallers and non-fallers. The cross-sectional study included 140 PwMS (96 women). MRI volumetric analysis was based on the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Volumes of the cerebellar gray and white matter were identified as the region of interest. Cognitive function included scores obtained from a computerized cognitive battery of tests. The sample was divide...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The MOVES (Motor tic, Obsessions and compulsions, Vocal tic Evaluation Survey): cross-cultural evaluation of the French version and additional psychometric assessment
DiscussionOur study provides evidence of the good psychometric properties of the French version of the MOVES. The cross-cultural adaptation of this specific instrument will allow investigators to include French-speaking persons with GTS aged 12  years and over in national and international collaboration research projects. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patient-centered integrated healthcare improves quality of life in Parkinson ’s disease patients: a randomized controlled trial
AbstractIntroductionImproving quality of life (QoL) is a key issue when dealing with Parkinson ’s disease (PD). Integrative care shows potential to achieve improvements in QoL. Here, we analyzed whether a community-based, open-label, integrated approach improves QoL in PD patients.MethodsPD patients were screened for eligibility and evaluated by a university-based PD specialist, a PD nurse, and a general neurologist at a local practice. Patients were randomly assigned to a control group (CG), receiving standard German neurological treatment including a baseline assessment and follow-up visit at 6  months, or an ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Insular multiple sclerosis lesions are associated with erectile dysfunction
This study intended to determine associations between EF deterioration during MS and cerebral MS-associated lesion sites. In 31 men with MS (mean age 38.2  ± 11.2 years), we evaluated MS-related EF deterioration by comparing scores of the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire (IIEF5) at the time of study and retrospectively, 3 months prior to MS diagnosis, by calculating score differences as DeltaIIEF5 (DeltaIIEF5 score 
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intranasal insulin in Alzheimer ’s dementia or mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review
ConclusionsIntranasal insulin improved story recall performance of apoe4 ( −) patients with AD or MCI. Other cognitive functions were not affected, but there were some positive results in functional status and daily activity. Since IN insulin is a safe intervention, future studies should be conducted with larger doses and after proper selection of patients and insulin ty pes. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Primary progressive aphasia: a clinical approach
AbstractThe primary progressive aphasias are a heterogeneous group of focal ‘language-led’ dementias that pose substantial challenges for diagnosis and management. Here we present a clinical approach to the progressive aphasias, based on our experience of these disorders and directed at non-specialists. We first outline a framework for assessing language, tailored to th e common presentations of progressive aphasia. We then consider the defining features of the canonical progressive nonfluent, semantic and logopenic aphasic syndromes, including ‘clinical pearls’ that we have found diagnostically use...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinct manifestation of cognitive deficits associate with different resting-state network disruptions in non-demented patients with Parkinson ’s disease
In this study, we examined five sub-domain scores according to Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) for the cogni tive evaluation and classification of 72 non-demented patients with PD. Twenty-eight patients were classified as PD with normal cognition (PD-NC). The remaining 44 were subdivided into the following 2 groups using a hierarchical cluster analysis: 20 with a predominant decrease in memory (PD with amn estic cognitive deficits: PD-A) and 24 with good memory who exhibited a decrease in other sub-domains (PD with non-amnestic cognitive deficits: PD-NA). We used an independent component analysis ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The long-term impact of early treatment of multiple sclerosis on the risk of disability pension
The objective of this retrospective, observational study was to estimate the long-term impact of early treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) on the risk of disability pension.MethodsOur cohort comprised patients with MS in Sweden, identified in a nationwide disease-specific register (the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry), who started treatment with a disease-modifying drug (DMD) between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2012. We analyzed the association between time from onset of MS to treatment initiation and full-time disability pension using survival analysis.ResultsOur sample comprised 2477 patients. Unadjusted Kapla...
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Phenotypic differences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in China and Germany
ConclusionsThe apparent discrepancies between German and Chinese ALS patients (age at onset, gender distribution, bulbar forms, cognitive dysfunction, risk factors) reveal a quite different clinical phenotype in China, maybe due to socioeconomic status, environmental factors or genetic background. The observed differences in phenotype need to be pursued by further epidemiological studies on environmental and genetic risk factors. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular events in Takayasu arteritis: a multicenter case-controlled study
ConclusionsStroke is a major cause of disability in TA patients. Internal carotid surgery may be performed with caution because of the risk of stroke after the procedure. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A systematic review of economic evaluations on stent-retriever thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke
ConclusionThis review shows that SRT added/not added to IV t-PA is likely to be cost-effective or even dominant, which is consistent with the opinion from several Health Technology Assessment bodies recommending SRT. However, our findings are supported by primary studies with substantial methodological heterogeneity. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

New MR perfusion features in primary central nervous system lymphomas: pattern and prognostic impact
ConclusionsOnly patient age was predictive for OS and PFS of PCNSL; MR perfusion parameters and features were not. Most PCNSL revealed the TSIC-shoulder, moderate size, peritumoral edema and rCBV increase. However, larger, solitary PCNSL additionally had a rCBV-sun pattern and more edema, maybe due to a centrifugal vessel proliferation, whereas smaller, multifocal PCNSL contain apparently more concentrated and less permeable blood vessels represented by higher rCBV, no TSIC-shoulder and less edema. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging in metachromatic leukodystrophy
AbstractObjectiveWe aimed to gain more insight into the pathomechanisms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), by comparing magnitude and direction of diffusion between patients and controls at diagnosis and during follow-up.MethodsFour late-infantile, 16 juvenile and 8 adult onset MLD patients [of which 13 considered eligible for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)] and 47 controls were examined using diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were quantified and compared between groups using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Di...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Glioblastoma as differential diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis
ConclusionsAn alternative diagnosis of glioblastoma should be considered in patients presenting initially as AE, especially in patients who do not fulfill the criteria for definite AE and in those with a poor clinical evolution despite initial improvement. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Closure of patent foramen ovale for cryptogenic stroke patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials
ConclusionsTDC plus anti-thrombotic drugs is superior than medical therapy alone for secondary prevention of stroke, especially for those with male gender and with substantial shunt size of foramen ovale. Though it may increase the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation, it would not bring higher risk of all-cause mortality, total adverse events and bleeding. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A common CHRNE mutation in Brazilian patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome
In conclusion, theCHRNE mutation c.130dupG leads to fairly benign natural course of the disease with relative homogeneity. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with polyneuropathies
AbstractBackgroundDistinct cytokine expression patterns have been reported in biomaterial of patients with polyneuropathies (PNP). We investigated gene expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with neuropathies of different etiologies.MethodsWe prospectively studied 97 patients with neuropathies and compared data between diagnostic subgroups and healthy controls. Gene expression of a panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was analyzed (interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF], IL-4, and IL-10) in PBMC samples...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Myasthenia gravis and infectious disease
AbstractBackground and purposeMyasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease with muscular weakness as the only symptom, and often with immunosuppressive treatment. All these aspects could have relevance for the risk of infections as well as their prophylactic and curative treatment.MethodsThis is a review article, where Web of Science has been searched for relevant key words and key word combinations. Full papers were selected first by title and then by abstract.Results and conclusionsMG can be triggered and worsened by infections. No virus or other pathogen has been proven to have a specific link to MG. Treatment with i...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lothar von Frankl-Hochwart (1862 –1914)
(Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of D-dimer levels for short-term or long-term outcomes in cryptogenic stroke patients
AbstractBackgroundD-dimer levels are used in several clinical settings, such as in predicting venous thrombosis, cardioembolic stroke and cancer status. In the present study, we investigated the associations between plasma D-dimer levels at admission, clinical characteristics and mortality at discharge in cryptogenic stroke patients. We also investigated whether D-dimer levels can predict long-term outcomes in those patients, including those with and without right-to-left shunt (RLS).MethodsAcute cryptogenic stroke patients (n = 295, 72 ± 13 years old) were consecutively enrolled and retrosp...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genotype –phenotype correlation and frequency of distribution in a cohort of Chinese Charcot–Marie–Tooth patients associated with GDAP1 mutations
AbstractMutations in ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated-protein 1 (GDAP1) have been associated with both subtypes of Charcot –Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease, autosomal recessive (CMT4A and AR-CMT2K) and autosomal dominant (AD-CMT2K). Over 80 different mutations have been identified so far. With the use of Sanger sequencing and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, we screened a cohort of 306 unrelated Chinese CMT patients and identified 8 variants in the GDAP1 gene in 4 families, 5 of which were novel (R41H, N201Kfs*5, Q38X, V215I and Q38R). Application of Bioinformatics tool and classification ...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Short- and long-term clinical outcomes of use of beta-interferon or glatiramer acetate for people with clinically isolated syndrome: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and network meta-analysis
ConclusionsMeta-analyses confirmed that IFN- β and GA delay time to CDMS compared to placebo. In the absence of evidence that early DMTs can reduce disability progression, future research is needed to better identify patients most likely to benefit from long-term DMTs. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Structural cerebellar correlates of cognitive functions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
AbstractSpinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebellum and characterized by a typical motor syndrome. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairment is now widely acknowledged as a feature of SCA2. Given the extensive connections between the cerebellum and associative cerebral areas, it is reasonable to hypothesize that cerebellar neurodegeneration associated with SCA2 may impact on the cerebellar modulation of the cerebral cortex, thus resulting in functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate and quantitatively map the pattern o...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis
AbstractFatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms affecting patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sustained cognitive effort induces cognitive fatigue, operationalized as subjective exhaustion and fatigue-related objective alertness decrements with time-on-task. During prolonged cognitive testing, MS patients show increased simple reaction times (RT) accompanied by lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the P300 event-related potential. Previous studies suggested a major role of structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal cortex including a frontal hypo-activation in fatigue pathogenesis....
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pathological examination of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in patients who underwent removal of lobar hemorrhages
AbstractCerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by amyloid- β (Aβ) deposition in the brain microvessels. CAA is also known to contribute not only to cortical microbleeds but also lobar hemorrhages. This retrospective study examined CAA pathologically in patients who underwent direct surgeries for lobar hemorrhage. Thirty-three patients with lobar hemorrhag e underwent open surgery with biopsy from 2007 to 2016 in our hospital. Cortical tissues over hematomas obtained surgically were pathologically examined using hematoxylin, eosin stain, and anti-Aβ antibody to diagnose CAA...
Source: Journal of Neurology - January 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research