Self-Controlled Practice to Achieve Neuro-Cognitive Engagement: Underlying Brain Processes to Enhance Cognitive-Motor Learning and Performance.
Authors: Jaquess KJ, Lu Y, Iso-Ahola SE, Zhang J, Gentili RJ, Hatfield BD Abstract While self-controlled practice has been shown to be an effective practice methodology, the neuro-cognitive correlates of its effectiveness are unclear. We investigated whether learners participating in self-controlled practice exhibit increased neuro-cognitive engagement compared to externally controlled practice. Two groups (self-controlled and yoked) of 16 participants practiced and performed a golf putting task over 3 days. Working memory engagement, central executive activity, and cortical activation were assessed via electroence...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - October 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Harnessing the Power of a Novel Program for Dynamic Balance Perturbation with Supported Body Weight.
This study investigated the sensitivity of our assessment tool under different BWS conditions and muscle responses during postural adjustments following perturbation at different directions. Fifteen neurologically intact participants performed self-initiated postural adjustments under conditions with: (1) no harness; (2) harness with no BWS; and (3) harness with 10% BWS. Postural adjustment time and muscle activities of the lower leg were measured. We observed significant increases in postural adjustment time in the harness with no BWS condition and differneces in lower leg muscles response to virtual perturbation. Our fin...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - October 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Critical Point to Step into a Hole is Similar in Young and Older Adults.
Authors: Dos Santos LO, Costa AADS, Batistela RA, Moraes R Abstract The avoidance of a hole in the pathway while walking has been systematically investigated; however, depending on the dimensions of the hole, the option to avoid it is infeasible, and it is necessary to use the so-called accommodation strategy to step into the hole. We investigated the critical point between the avoidance and accommodation strategies when dealing with a hole in the ground during locomotion of young and older adults. Young and older adults performed two tasks: verbal estimation and walking. We used holes of different lengths and cons...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Changes in Muscle Activity in Response to Assistive Force during Isometric Elbow Flexion.
In conclusion, higher assistive force may not yield a higher performance efficiency in human-assistive force interaction. PMID: 31571525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Motor Behavior)
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Analysis and Discrimination of Surface Electromyographic Features for Parkinson's Disease during Elbow Flexion Movements.
Authors: Yang CY, Chen RS, Huang YZ Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Early intervention/treatment relies on early diagnosis of PD. There is increasing interest in methods based on electromyography measurements of PD patients because of its noninvasiveness. Thus, this study was to investigate electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of the upper limb between PD patients and healthy control subjects using EMG, and to distinguish PD patients from healthy control subjects according to the EMG information using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Sixteen right...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle Activity during Single-Leg Hopping to Exhaustion.
This study described changes in leg muscle activation characteristics during exhaustive single-leg hopping. Twenty-seven healthy men performed trials (132 hops/min) to exhaustion, without a target height, to a target height with visual feedback and target height with tactile feedback. Mean muscle activation amplitude of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) decreased during the anticipatory period while duration of MG activity was maintained when hopping to a target height and contrasted the changes during hopping without a target height. Changes to MG activity were specific to whether the hopping height had been maintained or not...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Grip Force-Load Force Coupling Is Influenced by Altered Visual Feedback about Object Kinematics.
Authors: Grover FM, Schwab SM, Riley MA Abstract Recent evidence suggests that visual feedback influences the adjustment of grip force to the changing load force exerted by a grasped object as it is manipulated. The current project investigated how visual feedback of object kinematics affects the coupling of grip force to load force by scaling the apparent displacements of the object viewed in virtual reality. Participants moved the object to manually track a moving virtual target. The predictability of the changing load force exerted by the object was also manipulated by altering the nature of target trajectories ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Post-Movement Beta Rebound and Motor-Related Mu Suppression in Children.
Authors: Hao J, Feng W, Zhang L, Liao Y Abstract Age-related EEG activity change is a prominent feature that reflects the functional development of the brain. The current study investigated the beta and mu rhythms of 16 children (7.7 ± 1.5 years, 5 to 9.6 years) and 13 adults when a self-determining arm motion was performed. The results indicated that mu power was decreased during movement and returned to baseline level after the movement for both children and adults. However, although a decrease in beta power was observed for both children and adults during movement, the post-movement beta power rebound (PM...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Influence of Visually Dangerous Information on Imitation in Children.
This study investigated how children's imitation of physical actions was influenced by either visually neutral or visually dangerous information. Participants were presented with a series of pictures in which an agent was reaching towards either a neutral object or a dangerous object. Results showed that the imitation effect occurred when the agent was observed reaching and grasping a neutral object. However, this effect was not present when the agent's hand was observed reaching towards or grasping, the non-handle side of a dangerous object. These results suggest children can predict potential behavioral consequences and ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Cognitive Status of Older Adults: Do Reduced Time Constraints Enhance Sequence Learning?
Authors: Vieweg J, Leinen P, Verwey WB, Shea CH, Panzer S Abstract Research has indicated that older adults perform movement sequences more slowly than young adults. The purpose of the present experiment was to compare movement sequence learning in young and older adults when the time to perform the sequence was extended, and how the elderly's cognitive status (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) interacted with sequence learning. The task was to minimize the difference between a target sequence pattern and the sequence produced by elbow extension-flexion movements. On Day 1, participants (28 young adults; 28 old...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms Associated with the Benefits of Variable Practice in Motor Learning.
This study aimed ao investigating the association between the glutamate receptors, NMDA and AMPA, and constant and variable practice schedules. Seventy-eight male mice practiced the rotarod task in a constant or variable scheduling, in two consecutive days (acquisition phase). Learning tests were performed 24 h and 10 days after the end of the acquisition phase. Variable practice was more associated with the NMDA receptor and had a greater AMPA receptor expression than constant practice. The results suggest that the benefits of variable practice are result of both the greater dependency on the NMDA receptor a...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Evaluation of Lower Limb Neuromuscular System Observability and Estimability of Muscle Activity.
Authors: Song H, Hori Y Abstract In this work, we describe a method for estimating the muscle activity without drawing any assumptions regarding optimality principles in human motor control strategies; further, the method does not require any neural circuitry modeling which limits the neurophysiological terms and estimability of the method. We introduce the concept of system observability, which can reconstruct states from outputs and their derivatives based on system dynamics. Based on neuromuscular system observability, we estimate the muscle activity from joint torques and kinematics of multiple locomotive gaits...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Developmental Task Constraints on Kinematic Synergies during Catching in Children with Developmental Delays.
Authors: Parvinpour S, Shafizadeh M, Balali M, Abbasi A, Wheat J, Davids K Abstract The aim of this study was to examine effects of a task intervention on kinematic synergies in catching. Participants were young children (5.58 ± 0.52 years) with the lowest scores on two-hand catching, according to assessments with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) and were allocated into two groups. The constraints group took part in an 8-week intervention, whereas the control group experienced a typical physical education. Both groups were assessed with motor development and kinematic coord...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Dealing with Possible Baseline Inequalities Between Experimental Groups - The Case of Motor Learning.
Authors: Ziv G, Lidor R, Netz Y Abstract One important concept of experimental design is the random assignment of participants to experimental groups. This randomization process is used to prevent selection bias, as well as to provide a strong basis for a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent variable/s and the dependent variable/s. In small sample sizes, simple randomization may not provide equal groups at baseline for one or more of the variables, and therefore more restricted types of randomization, such as the stratified permuted-block randomization, can be used. A code was written to calculate ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Effects of Textured Insoles on Cortical Activity and Quiet Bipedal Standing With and Without Vision: An EEG Study.
Authors: Kenny RPW, Eaves DL, Martin D, Behmer LP, Dixon J Abstract Wearing textured insoles (TIs) can reduce static postural sway, but the neurophysiological mechanisms by which these changes occur are not well understood. To address this issue, cortical activity was investigated in this study using electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp locations, in 15 healthy young adults (5 females; mean age = 27 ± 4.09 years) during quiet bipedal standing, under different insole conditions (textured versus smooth), with and without vision. Compared to smooth insoles (SIs), TIs significantly...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Instruction Modes for Motor Control Skills Acquisition: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
The objective was to compare two different instruction modes used to teach patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) to perform a lumbar motor control task. The three intervention instruction modes used were: common verbal explanation of a motor task based on a motor control therapeutic exercise (MCTE-control group), MTCE instructed using motor imagery (MI) and MCTE instructed using tactile feedback (TF). The main outcome measure was lumbar motor control of the neutral position test. Forty-eight patients with CLBP were randomly allocated into three groups of 16 patients per group. The MI strategy was the most ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Does Object Height Affect the Dart Throwing Motion Angle during Seated Activities of Daily Living?
In this study, we compared DTM plane angles when performing different ADLs at three different heights and examined the relationship between DTM plane angles and limb position. We found that height had a significant effect on the DTM plane angles - the mean DTM plane angle was greater at the lower level compared to the mid and higher levels. A significant effect of shoulder orientation on mean DTM plane angles was shown in the sagittal and coronal planes. Our findings support the importance of training daily tasks at different heights during rehabilitation following wrist injuries, in order to explore a large range of DTM a...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Aging Affects the Ability to Process the Optic Flow Stimulations: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectrometry Study.
This study was to examine the effect of OF speeds on the brain activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and postural sway between younger and older adults. Eleven healthy younger adults (5M/6F, age 22 ± 1-year-old) and ten healthy older adults (4M/6F, age 71 ± 5-year-old) participated in this study. A virtual reality headset was used to provide the OF stimulus at different speeds. A forceplate was used to record the center-of-pressure to compute the amplitude of postural sway (peak-to-peak). Compared with younger adults, older adults showed significantly incre...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Highs and Lows in Motor Control Development.
Authors: Martel M, Fourneret P, Finos L, Schmitz C, Roy AC Abstract Motor control is classically described as relying on two components: anticipatory control (feedforward processing) and online control (feedback processing). Here we aimed to unveil the developmental steps of both feedback and feedforward control in 5-10 years old children, using a simple and ecological task. We manipulated object's weight in a reach-to-displace paradigm. When the weight was known before lifting it, anticipatory processes were quantifiable during the reaching phase. Conversely, an unknown weight triggered online corrections dur...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Age-related Assessment of Postural Control Development: A Cross-sectional Study in Children and Adolescents.
Authors: Micarelli A, Viziano A, Augimeri I, Micarelli B, Alessandrini M Abstract The aim of this study was to outline an age-dependent range of posturography measures obtained from healthy children. One hundred and fifty healthy 4-18-year-old children underwent video Head Impulse Test and static posturography testing. Surface, length and power spectra values were compared between each group of pupils and 32 healthy adults. As well as a significant (p 
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Cognitive Demands of Gait Retraining in Runners: An EEG Study.
Authors: Whittier T, Willy RW, Sandri Heidner G, Niland S, Melton C, Mizelle JC, Murray NP Abstract High impact forces during running have been associated with tibial stress injuries. Previous research has demonstrated increasing step rate will decrease impact forces during running. However, no research has determined the cognitive demand of gait retraining. The primary purpose was to determine the cognitive demand and effectiveness of field-based gait retraining. We hypothesized that in-field gait retraining would alter running mechanics without increasing cognitive workload as measured by EEG following learning. ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Textured Foot Orthotics on Dynamic Stability and Turning Performance in Parkinson's Disease.
Authors: Robb KA, Perry SD Abstract The purpose of this study was to facilitate sensory feedback, with textured foot orthotics, to evaluate dynamic stability and turning behavior in Parkinson's disease individuals. Seven participants with a diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, aged 55-80 years old, participated in this study. Participants completed three testing sessions; baseline, 4 weeks post-baseline, and 5 weeks post-baseline. Three experimental conditions were tested: footwear only (F), footwear + non-textured orthotic (FO), and footwear + textured ortho...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of tDCS on Fine Motor Control of Patients in Subacute and Chronic Post-Stroke Stages.
In this study, we wanted to delineate weather the application of tDCS in the subacute stage of recovery post-stroke is superior over the chronic stage. Anodal and sham tDCS was applied to the primary motor cortex of 13 stroke patients in balanced cross-over design during subacute and chronic stages of recovery. The Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test, evaluating the time required for performance of everyday motor tasks, was employed. The repeated-measure ANOVA showed significant influence of stimulation type, the test performance time relative to stimulation (during or after tDCS) with no overall influence of the stage of rec...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Reducing Proactive Interference in Motor Tasks.
In this study, we scrutinized whether proactive interference could be reduced by inhibiting the to-be-changed movement pattern by means of a physical movement constraint and verbal inhibition instructions, and whether any of the two interventions may be superior. Skilled typists typed short texts as fast and accurately as possible on a regular QWERTZ keyboard. After baseline measures, a new rule prohibiting the use of the left index finger was introduced. Subsequently, participants took part in either a verbal instruction or an additional motor restriction intervention phase. Results revealed that the original rule change ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

A Novel Approach to Enhancing Upper Extremity Coordination in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Authors: Gamez Corral AS, Manning R, Wang C, Cisneros A, Meeuwsen HJ, Boyle JB Abstract Recent studies examining children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have revealed kinematic markers highlighting deficits in the preparatory and online phases of upper extremity movements. In the following study, 12 children with high functioning ASD were first assessed (pre-test) on 15 trials of a reciprocal upper extremity Fitts Law target task by flexing and extending their right arm in the horizontal plane between two targets as fast and accurately as possible. Following the initial assessment, the children eithe...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Role of Visual Feedback about Motion of the Ground on Postural Sway.
Authors: Li R, Walter HJ, Stoffregen TA Abstract We asked whether body sway would be influenced by visual information about motion of the ground surface. On a ship at sea, standing participants performed a demanding visual search task or a simple visual inspection task. Display content was stationary relative to the ship or relative to the Earth. Participants faced the ship's bow or its port side. Performance on the visual search task was representative of terrestrial studies. Body sway was greater during viewing of the Earth Stationary displays than during viewing of the Ship Stationary displays. We discuss possib...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Force Sense to Active Joint Position Sense and Relationships between Active Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, Jumping and Muscle Strength.
Authors: Kaynak H, Altun M, Tok S Abstract We aimed to investigate the effect of external load on the joint position sense (JPS) accuracy and its relation to the target jump height. The present study also aimed to explore the relationship between force sense (FS) and maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Participants' MVIC levels were determined during the 45-degree knee extension task. Then, participants were asked to execute a knee JPS task with external load (EL-JPS) and with no-load (EL-JPS). To assess jumping accuracy participants were instructed to jump with their 50% of maximum jump height. Results...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Effect of Load Uncertainty on Neuromotor Control in Catching: Gender Differences and Short Foreperiods.
Authors: Berg WP, Hughes MR Abstract To reveal how the CNS copes with load uncertainty in catching, electromyography (EMG) was recorded in 15 females and 14 males while catching visually identical balls of known and unknown weights under varied (1-10 s) and constant (1 s) foreperiods (warning time). EMG integrals, which represented total muscle activity, were computed for three time intervals prior to the catch (anticipatory), and one interval after (compensatory). Load uncertainty caused the CNS to utilize an anticipatory strategy in several muscles, primarily during the ball-flight interval, charact...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Combining Action Observation and Motor Imagery Improves Eye-Hand Coordination during Novel Visuomotor Task Performance.
In this study, we compared the effectiveness of concurrent action observation and motor imagery (AO + MI), observing with the intent to imitate (active observation; AO), and passive observation (PO) training interventions for improving eye-hand coordination. Fifty participants were assigned to five groups [AO + MI, AO, PO, physical practice (PP); control] and performed a visuomotor rotation task, whilst eye movements were recorded. Each participant then performed 20 task trials in a training intervention before repeating the visuomotor rotation task in a post-test. As expected, PP produced the g...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Polar and Cartesian Structure in the Data of Fitts's (1954) Classic Experiments-with a Criterion for Distinguishing a Strong and a Weak Version of Fitts' Law.
Authors: Guiard Y Abstract The time T needed to reach a target of width W located at distance D varies as a logarithmic or power function of the quotient of D/W. The received, strong version of Fitts' law requires isochrony-the invariance of T across different D/W conditions with the same quotient-but there is room for a weaker, yet nontrivial version of Fitts' law where scale influences T without interacting with the crucial quotient. The data of Fitts's historic experiments are submitted to Cartesian/polar analysis. While tapping beautifully illustrates the strong, isochronous version of Fitts' law, contrary to a...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Effects of Attentional Focus Instructions and Task Difficulty in a Paced Fine Motor Skill.
Authors: Raisbeck LD, Yamada M, Diekfuss JA, Kuznetsov NA Abstract An external focus of attention is considered superior to an internal focus for learning and performance. However, findings specific to changing the task difficulty are inconsistent. The present study used a reciprocal aiming task to determine the effects of attentional focus on motor performance using speed-accuracy paradigm. We constrained timing to examine how internal and external focus of attention influenced accuracy when task difficulty changes. The results indicated greater accuracy on the right target and greater consistency on both targets ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Stroke on Joint Control during Reach-to-Grasp: A Preliminary Study.
Authors: Raj S, Dounskaia N, Clark WW, Sethi A Abstract We investigated changes in control of inter-segmental dynamics underlying upper extremity dyscoordination caused by stroke. Individuals with stroke and healthy individuals performed a natural reach-to-grasp movement. Kinetic analysis revealed that both groups rotated the shoulder by muscle torque and used interaction torque to rotate the elbow. However, individuals with stroke used interaction torque less than healthy individuals, actively suppressing a substantial portion of it. This resulted in inefficient use of active control and dyscoordination of the upp...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Planned Straight or Biased to Be So? The Influence of Visual Feedback on Reaching Movements.
Authors: Vaidyanathan N, Penny S, Berniker M Abstract Behavioral studies consistently find that subjects move their hand along straight paths despite considerations that suggest reaches should be curved. Literature on this topic makes it clear that the experimentally displayed feedback influences how subjects reach. Could the standard visual feedback, a displayed cursor, explain the lack of path curvature in experimental results? To address this question, we conducted three experiments to examine reach behavior in the absence of the standard visual feedback. In the first experiment, we found significant increases i...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Force Control of Ankle Dorsiflexors in Young Adults: Effects of Bilateral Control and Leg Dominance.
Authors: Yamaguchi A, Milosevic M, Sasaki A, Nakazawa K Abstract We investigated whether bilateral lower-limb control and leg dominance affect force control ability in 15 healthy young adults (9 males and 6 females, age =26.8 ± 4.1 years). Participants performed isometric ankle dorsiflexion force control tasks, matching a visual target (10% of maximal effort) as quickly and precisely as possible in ballistic and tonic tasks. Performance was evaluated using force error, force steadiness, amount of muscle activity of the tibialis anterior, and response time characteristics. Results showed no...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Influence of Visual Dependence on Inter-Segmental Coordination during Upright Stance in Cerebral Palsy.
Authors: Yu Y, Tucker CA, Lauer RT, Keshner EA Abstract The presence of visual dependence as an influential factor on the development of functional stability in ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) was studied in 22 adults with spastic bilateral CP, 11 of whom were considered visually dependent, and 18 healthy adults. Participants stood upright during pitch plane disturbances of the visual field and support surface. Intersegmental coordination behaviors were assessed by fitting trajectories of adjacent body segments to an ellipse. Mixed-model repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on ellipse orientation...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Foot Motion Character During Forward and Backward Walking With Shoes and Barefoot.
This study identified the differences in foot intersegment kinematics (forward walking (FW) vs. time-reversed BW) and plantar pressure parameters of 16 healthy habitually shod individuals walking FW and BW using flexible shoes (SH) and under barefoot conditions (BF). BW was found to have shorter stride length (SL) and higher stride frequency (SF) under BF conditions compared with SH, which indicates a better BW gait stability under BF conditions. Decreased HX/FF dorsiflexion at HO in BW induces less plantar aponeurosis tension which may inhibit the windlass mechanism compared to FW walking. Increased forefoot relative to h...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Tablet Use in Young Children is Associated with Advanced Fine Motor Skills.
Authors: Souto PHS, Santos JN, Leite HR, Hadders-Algra M, Guedes SC, Nobre JNP, Santos LR, Morais RLS Abstract To evaluate whether frequent interactive tablet-use at preschool age is associated with improved fine motor skills and to describe tablet-use in young children. Cross-sectional study with 78 children, aged 24-42 months: group 1 with previous frequent tablet-use exposure (n = 26), group 2 without previous tablet-use exposure (n = 52). Fine motor skills were evaluated with the Bayley-III. Socioeconomic data and home environment quality were similar in both groups. Fine moto...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of A Dual-Task Intervention in Postural Control and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents.
Authors: Bustillo-Casero P, Cebrian-Bou S, Cruz-Montecinos C, Pardo A, García-Massó X Abstract The aim was to assess dual- versus single-task training for motor performance and cognitive performance in adolescents. Two experiments were performed. In the first, 30 adolescents were randomized to three groups to determine the effect of dual-task difficulty on postural control: α-scaling and root mean square (RMS). In the second, 20 adolescents were randomized to two groups to determine the effect of dual-task practice to improve working memory. RMS in the post-test was lower than the pre-test in bo...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Table Tennis Experts Outperform Novices in a Demanding Cognitive-Motor Dual-Task Situation.
Authors: Schaefer S, Scornaienchi D Abstract Theories on motor skill acquisition predict that earlier learning stages require more attention, which should lead to higher cognitive-motor dual-task interference in novices as compared to experts. Expert and novice table tennis players returned balls from a ball machine while concurrently performing an auditory 3-back task (working memory). The groups did not differ in 3-back performance in the single task. Cognitive dual-task performance reductions were more pronounced in novices. A similar pattern emerged for the number of missed balls in table tennis, except that ex...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Iterative Spatial Updating During Forward Linear Walking Revealed Using a Continuous Pointing Task.
Authors: Burkitt JJ, Campos JL, Lyons JL Abstract The continuous pointing task uses target-directed pointing responses to determine how perceived distance traveled is estimated during forward linear walking movements. To more precisely examine the regulation of this online process, the current study measured upper extremity joint angles and step-cycle kinematics in full vision and no-vision continuous pointing movements. Results show perceptual under-estimation of traveled distance in no-vision trials compared to full vision trials. Additionally, parsing of the shoulder plane of elevation trajectories revealed disc...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Movement Control Strategies in a Dynamic Balance Task in Children With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder.
This study shows that the more efficient movement strategy is seen in the majority of the TD children and only in a small number of children with DCD, even after practice. PMID: 30961441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Motor Behavior)
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Absence of Ankle Stiffening While Standing in Focus and Cognitive Task Conditions in Older Adults.
Authors: Richer N, Ly K, Fortier N, Lajoie Y Abstract Research suggests that an external focus or cognitive task may improve postural control. Removing attention from movement production may promote automaticity, or the tasks may promote ankle stiffening. To investigate these two theories, twenty older adults stood while performing baseline standing, internal focus, external focus, and two cognitive tasks. Changes in postural control occurred in external focus and cognitive task conditions compared to baseline and internal focus, while no change occurred in cocontraction indices. This suggests that an external focu...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Altered Arm-Body Coordination with Triggered Pointing Responses as Influenced by Task Predictability.
Authors: Prout EC, Huntley AH, Zettel JL Abstract Reaching movements generate reaction forces that affect postural stability, requiring sophisticated coordination between body and arm movement to maintain balance. In voluntary movement, this coordination involves feedforward shifts of posture, and such anticipatory postural muscle activity also accompanies the rapid modulation of an ongoing point to suddenly a shifting target (double-step). However, it is unknown if this early postural activity depends on target-shift predictability and whether arm and body motion are similar coordinated to voluntary movement. Body...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Contralateral Transfer of the Phenomenon of Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement in Unilateral Index Finger Tapping.
Authors: Hansen EA, Bak S, Knudsen L, Seiferheld BE, Stevenson AJT, Emanuelsen A Abstract These hypotheses were tested: (1) Freely chosen frequency in unilateral index finger tapping is correlated between the two index fingers, and (2) A 3-min bout of unilateral index finger tapping followed by 10 min rest results in an increase of the freely chosen tapping frequency performed by the contralateral index finger in a second bout. Thirty-two adults participated. Freely chosen tapping frequencies from first bouts were 167.2 ± 79.0 and 161.5 ± 69.4 taps/min for the domina...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Relationship Between Balance Recovery From a Forward Fall and Lower-Limb Rate of Torque Development.
Authors: Ochi A, Ohko H, Hayashi T, Osawa T, Sugiyama Y, Nakamura S, Ibuki S, Ichihashi N Abstract The authors examined the relationship between the maximum recoverable lean angle via the tether-release method with early- or late-phase rate of torque development (RTD) and maximum torque of lower-limb muscle groups in 56 young healthy adults. Maximal isometric torque and RTD at the hip, knee, and ankle were recorded. The RTD at 50-ms intervals up to 250 ms from force onset was calculated. The results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis, early RTD for hip flexion, and knee flexion were chosen as predict...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Attention Is Required to Coordinate Reaching and Postural Stability during Upper Limb Movements Generated While Standing.
Authors: Dierijck J, Kennefick M, Smirl J, Dalton BH, van Donkelaar P Abstract In the present study we investigated how attention contributes to the interaction between reach planning and execution, and postural control. Reaching movements were generated while standing and were performed either in isolation or in conjunction with a secondary reaction time (RT) task. In addition, to better understand how online movement control is affected by this interaction, the reaching movements could be unexpectedly perturbed medial-laterally. Postural kinetic, arm kinematic and RT, and secondary RT measures were used to charac...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Motor Behavior Concepts in the Study of Balance: A Scoping Review.
Authors: Aloraini SM, Gelley G, Glazebrook C, Sibley KM, Singer J, Passmore S Abstract Previous research suggests that using Fitts' law; attentional focus or challenge point framework (CPF) is beneficial in balance control studies. A scoping review was conducted to examine studies that utilized these motor behavior concepts during balance control tasks. An extensive literature search was performed up to January 2018. Two independent reviewers conducted a study selection process followed by data extraction of the search results. Forty-six studies were identified, with 2 studies related to CPF, 12 studies related to ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Sensory Deprivation on Maximal Force Abilities from Local to Non-local Digits.
Authors: Reschechtko S, Wang H, Alendry K, Benson C, Hahn B, Zhang W Abstract The present study investigates the effect of sensory deprivation of the index and middle finger on motor function of all digits during maximal voluntary force production tasks. A total of 27 subjects performed maximal isometric pressing tasks by using different instructed finger combinations. Subjects completed the same tasks in two visits: a control visit when they had normal sensory feedback in all fingers, and an anesthesia visit when digital nerve blocks were performed on their right index and middle fingers. We evaluated three aspect...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Fencing Training on Motor Performance and Asymmetry Vary With Handedness.
In this study, we investigated effects of fencing training on motor performance and asymmetry with respect to handedness. We compared fencing performance of left- and right-handed fencers in both training and combat conditions. In the combat condition, left-handers won seven out of twelve matches consisted of twelve bouts each. They also showed a significantly longer hit detection time, a measure indicating better quality of fencing attack. In the training condition, left-handed fencers completed fencing board tests significantly faster than right-handers. These findings provide additional factor of superior motor performa...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Plantarflexor Muscle Fatigue on Blind Navigation Precision and Gait Parameters.
The objective was to evaluate the impact of bilateral and unilateral fatigue of the plantarflexor muscles on blind navigation. Thirty-eight young adults walked 8-m without vision before fatigue (pre-fatigue), then fatigued either one or both of their plantarflexor muscles by performing isometric contractions. After each fatigue, two blind navigation trials were performed (post-fatigue trials 1 and 2). Results revealed no effect of bilateral muscle fatigue on navigation precision and gait parameters. Unilateral muscle fatigue led to longer linear distance travelled during post-fatigue trial 2 compared to pre-fatigue and to ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research