Effect of Self-Controlled Practice on Neuro-Cortical Dynamics During the Processing of Visual Performance Feedback.
Authors: Jaquess KJ, Lu Y, Ginsberg A, Kahl S, Lu C, Ritland B, Gentili RJ, Hatfield BD Abstract Evidence has accumulated that learners participating in self-controlled practice can both acquire skills and process task-relevant information more effectively than those participating in externally controlled practice. However, the impact of self-controlled practice on neuro-cognitive information processing during visual performance-related feedback has received limited investigation. We expected that individuals participating in self-controlled practice would exhibit elevated neuro-cognitive information processing, as...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Does Hand-Dominance Matter in Non-Standard Visuomotor Transformations?
Authors: Jones BD, Van Gemmert AWA, Dalecki M Abstract Previous nonstandard visuomotor transformation studies using variations of eye-hand coupling and decoupling tasks focused on dominant hand use. The present study expanded this work by including the non-dominant hand. Twenty-four right-hand dominant adults (M = 21 yrs.; 12 females) slid their index finger along a vertical or horizontal touchscreen to move a cursor that was always displayed in the vertical plane. In four different action-perception conditions, the finger and cursor moved either in the same plane and direction or in the other plane a...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

A Motor Learning Approach to Reducing Fall-Related Injuries.
In conclusion, safe landing strategies may provide a complimentary approach to reduce fall-related injuries. PMID: 32883190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Motor Behavior)
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Finger Force Matching and Verbal Reports: Testing Predictions of the Iso-Perceptual Manifold Concept.
Authors: Cuadra C, Gilmore R, Latash ML Abstract We used force matching and verbal reports of finger force to explore a prediction of the iso-perceptual manifold concept, which assumes that stable percepts are associated with a manifold in the afferent-efferent space. Young subjects produced various force magnitudes with the index finger, middle finger, or both fingers together. Further, they reported the force level using a verbal scale and by matching the force with fingers of the contralateral hand. Force matching, but not verbal reports, showed larger variable errors for individual fingers in the two-finger tas...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Shank Vibration on Lean After-Effect.
Authors: Young DR, Layne CS Abstract Postural adaptability is related to central sensory integration and reweighting efficiency. Incline-interventions lead to lean after-effect (LAE), but it is not fully known how sensory reweighting may affect the magnitude and duration of LAE. We tasked fifteen young and healthy subjects with performing incline-interventions under conditions designed to perturb proprioception during or after the incline-intervention. We found that support surface configuration affected responses to tendon vibration. Additionally, vibration during an incline-intervention did not inhibit LAE, but v...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Interpersonal Synchronization Processes in Discrete and Continuous Tasks.
Authors: Ezzina S, Scotti M, Roume C, Pla S, Blain H, Delignières D Abstract Three frameworks have been proposed to account for interpersonal synchronization: The information processing approach argues that synchronization is achieved by mutual adaptation, the coordination dynamics perspective supposes a continuous coupling between systems, and complexity matching suggests a global, multi-scale interaction. We hypothesized that the relevancy of these models was related to the nature of the performed tasks. 10 dyads performed synchronized tapping and synchronized forearm oscillations, in two conditions: full ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Influence of Countermovements on Inter-Segmental Coordination and Mechanical Energy Transfer during Vertical Jumping.
Authors: Frayne DH, Zettel JL, Beach TAC, Brown SHM Abstract Inter-segmental coordination patterns and mechanical energy transfer were compared between vertical jumping tasks which possess different countermovement characteristics. Thirteen participants completed squat (SJ), countermovement (CMJ) and drop (DVJ) vertical jumps. Inter-segmental coordination patterns became more out-of-phase with increases in countermovement velocity (DVJ > CMJ > SJ), at the ankle, hip and lumbar spine (all p 
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Do Tangential Finger Forces Utilize Mechanical Advantage During Moment of Force production?
This study investigated the beneficial effects of the utilization of mechanical advantage (MA) of finger tangential forces during the moment production. Subjects produced the resistive moment of force against the external torque while the moment arms of the tangential forces were systematically changed. We observed a relatively large contribution to the net moment by the tangential forces with the increased moment arms, whereas the vector sum of normal and tangential forces decreased. The indices of multi-finger coordination for the stabilization of the moment of forces and force direction increased with the moment arms. T...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Eye-Head-Trunk Coordination While Walking and Turning in a Simulated Grocery Shopping Task.
Authors: Kim K, Fricke M, Bock O Abstract Previous studies argued that body turns are executed in an ordered sequence: the eyes turn first, followed by the head and then by the trunk. The purpose of this study was to find out whether this sequence holds even if body turns are not explicitly instructed, but nevertheless are necessary to reach an instructed distal goal. We asked participants to shop for grocery products in a simulated supermarket. To retrieve each product, they had to walk down and aisle, and then turn left or right into a corridor that led towards the target shelf. The need to make a turn was never ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - September 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Modified Strain Index: A Composite Measure of Injury Risk for Signers.
Authors: Roman G, Peterson DS, Ofori E, Vidt ME Abstract Up to 81% of individuals who are fluent in sign language (signers) report pain. Non-native signers (with non-signing, non-deaf parents) report greater pain than natives (≥1 signing, deaf parent). The goal of this study was to develop a composite measure of injury risk (the modified Strain Index for signers) based on previously identified biomechanics unique to signers and examine scores across sub-groups of natives and non-natives. Non-natives were hypothesized to have greater pain and higher composite scores than natives. Ten natives and 15 non-natives us...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Reading the Future from Body Movements -Anticipation in Handball.
Authors: Cocić D, Vaci N, Prieger R, Bilalić M Abstract In speed-based sports that require fast reactions, the most accurate predictions are made once the players have seen the ball trajectory. However, waiting for the ball trajectory does not leave enough time for appropriate reactions. Expert athletes use kinematic information which they extract from the opponent's movements to anticipate the ball trajectory. Temporal occlusion, where only a part of the full movement sequence is presented, has often been used to research anticipation in sports. Unlike many previous studies, we chose occlusion points in video-st...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Task Demand Changes Motor Control Strategies in Vertical Jumping.
Authors: Cushion EJ, Warmenhoven J, North JS, Cleather DJ Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the motor control strategies employed to control the degrees of freedom when performing a lower limb task with constraints applied at the hip, knee, and ankle. Thirty-five individuals performed vertical jumping tasks: hip flexed, no knee bend, and plantar flexed. Joint moment data from the hip, knee, and ankle were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). In all PCA performed, a minimum of two and maximum of six principal components (PC) were required to describe the movements. Similar reductions in...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - August 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic Investigation of the Effect of Skill Level and Social Inhibition on Simulated Handgun Shooting.
We examined effects of Social Inhibition (SI), and Skill Level (SL) on simulated handgun shooting performance. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was also recorded in order to measure task-related changes in cortical activity. Participants consisted of Novice (NSL) and Experienced (ESL) shooters who were randomly assigned to shoot while in the presence of an audience (Hi SI) or alone (Low SI). The results revealed that NSL were less accurate than ESL in all conditions as was predicted. Shooting accuracy was predicted by alpha and beta amplitude, indicating different roles for attention and anxiety. Prefrontal alpha amplitude was s...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Algorithm-Based Practice Schedule and Task Similarity Enhance Motor Learning in Older Adults.
Authors: Beik M, Taheri H, Saberi Kakhki A, Ghoshuni M Abstract According to the challenge point framework, task difficulty has to be appropriate to learner skill level. The pure blocked or random practice controls the task difficulty during practice monotonically. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of algorithm-based practice schedule and task similarity on motor learning in older adults. For this purpose, 60 older adults were randomly assigned into six groups of blocked-similar, algorithm-similar, random-similar, blocked-dissimilar, algorithm-dissimilar, and random-dissimilar. Sequ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Intermittent Vision and Goal-Directed Movement: A Review.
Authors: Elliott D, Bennett SJ Abstract It is well known that vision makes an important contribution to the control of goal-directed movements. However, task performance can be maintained when vision is interrupted, such as when a goalkeeper faces a free kick in soccer and the ball moves behind teammates and opposing players. To maintain behavior, it is necessary to process the visual information available from intermittent samples. In this review, we consider the performance and learning effects of intermittent vision in tasks such as aiming, reaching and grasping, goal-directed locomotion and ball-catching. We re...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Differential Effects of Concurrent Tasks on Gait in Typically Developing Children: A Meta-Analysis.
The objective of this study was to systematically analyze the literature surrounding dual-task (DT) effects on gait in typically developing children (TDC) and to conduct meta-analyses where applicable. After reviewing the abstracts of 676 articles, a total of 22 studies were included. The outcomes of interest were relative change in gait speed, cadence, stride length, double support time, variability in stride length between single and DT walking; and the exposures were concurrent tasks used for DT gait assessment. DT significantly affected each gait parameter (point estimate (PE), ranged from PE, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.08; p 
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Ipsilateral vs Contralateral Presentation of Familiarization Trials in a Lower-Limb Proprioception Test.
We examined the effect of pretest familiarization with ipsilateral or contralateral limbs on the performance in a proprioception test conducted afterwards. Sixty adults were randomly assigned to six different familiarization-session patterns. Ankle proprioception was tested using active movement extent discrimination assessment. The results reflected a beneficial effect of familiarization session on performance in the subsequent proprioception test (ES = 0.777). However, no significant difference was found between proprioceptive acuity scores when familiarization and test happened with either ipsilateral or contralateral l...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

TDCS of the Primary Motor Cortex: Learning the Absolute Dimension of a Complex Motor Task.
Authors: Parma JO, Profeta VLDS, Andrade AGP, Lage GM, Apolinário-Souza T Abstract The primary motor cortex (M1) is one of the main cortical areas involved in motor learning. However, little is known about its differential role in the learning of the relative and absolute dimensions of motor skills. We investigated the role of M1 in the learning of the dimensions of a complex motor skill. Forty-eight participants practiced golf putting and were stimulated for 20 minutes with real or sham bihemispheric tDCS before acquisition. tDCS improved global performance from pre- to post-test. Only those with wor...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Differences in executive function of the attention network between athletes from interceptive and strategic sports.
Authors: Yu M, Liu Y Abstract The differences in the executive attention network and the related blood oxygen characteristics of the right frontal-parietal network brain area between athletes from interceptive and strategic sport were investigated. Strategic athletes had higher accuracy and longer reaction time (RT) compared with interceptive sports athletes, lower flanker conflict effects on accuracy compared to the other two group. It was accompanied by significant activation of the rdLPFC and the rIFG. Strategic athletes had higher flanker conflict effects on RT compared with interception athletes under the inva...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Brain Structural-Behavioral Correlates Underlying Grooved Pegboard Test Performance Across Lifespan.
This study aims to provide the first brain structural-behavioral correlates underlying age differences in Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) performance after adjusting for gender, education, quality of life, mental health, and anthropometric variables. We report the data of 210 right-handed participants (20- to 80-year old), who underwent behavioral assessments including GPT, Trail Making Test, and stop-signal task. Magnetic resonance images were acquired to investigate the structural-behavioral correlates of age differences in GPT performance. Age differences in GPT performance were positively associated with visuomotor trackin...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Primes Feedback Control During a Novel Single Leg Task.
Authors: Petrie M, Johnson K, McCue P, Shields RK Abstract FMRI studies support that neuromuscular electrical stimulation can modulate the excitability of the somatosensory cortex. We studied whether practice and electrical stimulation of the quadriceps would enhance learning during a weight-bearing task. 20 healthy individuals (10 male) and 8 control subjects participated in a 2-day study. Day 1 consisted of a pretest, a training session, and a post-test; day 2 consisted of a pretest, 2 bouts of electrical stimulation to the quadriceps muscles, and a post-test. The single limb squat task was performed at varying k...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Self-Controlled and Regulated Feedback on Motor Skill Performance and Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study.
Authors: Jimenez-Diaz J, Chaves-Castro K, Morera-Castro M Abstract The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to assess the effectiveness of self-controlled (SC) and regulated (R) feedback on motor skill performance (MSP). Random effects model using the standardized mean difference effect size (ES) was used to pool results. A total of 86 ES, retrieved from 18 studies, were calculated and separated into three types of feedback: SC, R, and yoked group (YG). In acquisition phase, SC (ES = 1.872; CI95% = 1.014, 2.730), R (ES = 0.852; CI95% = 0.614, 1.090), and YG (ES&thi...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Chewing Entrains Cyclical Actions but Interferes With Discrete Actions in Children.
This study examined relationships between chewing and secondary motor tasks in children. Sixteen typically developing children (13.1 ± 2.3 years) participated in finger tapping, simple reaction time, and walking while chewing at different speeds. The chewing rates varied when produced with a secondary motor task, especially for slow chewing and preferred chewing, and the secondary motor tasks were differentially influenced by the chewing. This relationship was not as strong as what has been reported in adults. It appears the neural oscillatory mechanisms involved in chewing and the secondary motor task...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - July 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Virtual Reality Immersion in Healthy Individuals: Ellipse Sway Area of an Electrical Shuttle Balance.
Authors: Coelho TS, Neto EM, Bazan R, de Souza LAPS, Luvizutto GJ Abstract To assess indirectly the effects of virtual reality (VR) immersion on postural sway in thirteen healthy individuals. The ellipse sway area was recorded with an accelerometer coupled to an electrical shuttle balance under six conditions, varying Romberg and single leg stance (SLS) position with eyes open and eyes closed. The length of the ellipse traveled over 10 s was measured and Romberg and single leg stance (SLS) ratios were calculated. Ellipse sway area was reduced in all positions after VR intervention. Statistical differences were obse...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Lower Extremity Open Skill Training Effects on Perception of Visual Stimuli, Cognitive Processing, and Performance.
This study investigates if lower extremity open-skill training impacts perception and cognitive processing abilities or just influences task related motor abilities. Twenty-two participants (24.7 ± 2.4years; 11 males, 11 females) were randomly allocated either into the group that trained on a computerized device or to the control group. Prior to and following the 4-week study period, motor performance was assessed using drop jump, hexagon test, postural control and lower extremity choice reaction. Perception, cognitive processing and task inhibition were captured using validated neurocognitive tests. R...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Quiet Mind Training on Alpha Power Suppression and Fine Motor Skill Acquisition.
Authors: Norouzi E, Hosseini FS, Vaezmosavi M, Gerber M, Pühse U, Brand S Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Quiet Mind Training (QMT) on Alpha power suppression and fine motor skill acquisition among novice dart players. 30 novice dart players were randomly assigned either to a QMT or a control condition. Playing skills and Alpha power suppression were assessed at four time-points: at baseline, retention test 1, under pressure conditions, at retention test 2. Over time, Alpha power suppression increased and radial errors decreased but more so in the QMT condition than in th...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Probing the Effect of Block Duration on Corticospinal Excitability during Motor Imagery Performance.
Authors: Lee J, Kraeutner SN, Pancura DR, Boe SG Abstract Considerable evidence exists related to the behavioral outcomes of motor imagery-based training (MI). Comparatively, there is a relative gap in the literature on how corticospinal excitability, a precursor for experience-dependent plasticity, changes over the course of an MI session, and more specifically if there is an effect of varying the duration of the blocks in which MI is performed. As such, we probed corticospinal excitability during MI, whereby the duration of MI blocks within the session were manipulated yet total exposure to MI was kept constant. ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Tapping Bout Duration During Freely Chosen and Passive Finger Tapping on Rate Enhancement.
Authors: Emanuelsen A, Voigt M, Madeleine P, Hansen EA Abstract The present study investigated whether the duration of the first tapping bout, which could also be considered 'the priming', would play a role for the occurrence of the behavioral phenomenon termed repeated bout rate enhancement. Eighty-eight healthy individuals were recruited. Sixty-three of these demonstrated repeated bout rate enhancement and they were assigned to two different groups, which performed either active or passive tapping as priming. The durations of the first tapping bouts, which acted as priming, were 20, 60, 120, and 180 s. Fol...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Affective, Social, and Informative Gestures Reproduction in Human Interaction: Hyperscanning and Brain Connectivity.
Authors: Balconi M, Fronda G, Bartolo A Abstract Gestural communication characterizes daily individuals' interactions in order to share information and to modify others' behavior. Social neuroscience has investigated the neural bases which support recognizing of different gestures. The present research, through the use of the hyperscanning approach, that allows the simultaneously recording of the activity of two or more individuals involved in a joint action, aims to investigate the neural bases of gestural communication. Moreover, by using hyperscanning paradigm we explore the inter-brain connectivity between two ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Knowledge of Results do not Affect Self-Efficacy and Skill Acquisition on an Anticipatory Timing Task.
The objective of this study was to test the effects of different knowledge of results (KR) frequencies on self-efficacy and motor learning. Two groups with different KR frequencies performed an anticipatory timing task on two consecutive days. To measure self-efficacy, a questionnaire on participant's efficacy was applied at different times. Both groups increased self-efficacy during practice, but we found no evidence of the effect of performance on self-efficacy and no group and self-efficacy effect on retention. These findings demonstrate that different KR frequencies do not affect the self-efficacy and learning of an an...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Visual Feedback Complexity on the Performance of a Movement Task for Rehabilitation.
This study investigated the effects of visual feedback (VF) complexity on movement performance to potentially optimize the design of VF-based rehabilitation. We evaluated the effects of VF complexity on performance of the two-legged squat during training with concurrent (real-time) VF and short-term retention with no VF. Four VF cases were employed to train spatial positioning of the thigh segment in unique combinations of complexity (simple, complex) and representation of body-discernibility (abstract, representative). Eighteen able-bodied subjects attempted to minimize the error between individual body segment positions ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Control of a Whole-Body Task with Uncertain Initial Conditions: Application to the Upstart On Bars.
Authors: Hiley MJ, Yeadon MR Abstract The aim was to determine whether operating a feedforward schema for generating movement pattern parameters was more successful than an open loop strategy for coping with uncertain initial conditions. A computer simulation model was used to determine the optimal solutions that maximised the likelihood of performing a successful upstart. Feedforward schema were established between movement pattern parameters and initial angular velocity. The success of modifying a pre-planned movement pattern based on the parameter relationships (feedforward) was compared with optimal solutions u...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Mental Effort on Premotor Muscle Activity and Maximal Grip Force.
Authors: Saidane Y, Parry R, Belkhiria C, Jebara SB, Driss T, de Marco G Abstract The present study sought to evaluate how mental effort modulates premotor activity within forearm muscles in the context of an isometric grasping task. Muscle activity of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was recorded during the application of maximum grip forces in nineteen healthy adult subjects. Each subject was examined under two experimental conditions: 1) spontaneous initiation of grasp (SI) and 2) focused concentration preceding the initiation of grasp (CA). Two novel parameters, the...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Interlimb Responses to Perturbations of Bilateral Movements are Asymmetric.
Authors: Schaffer JE, Sainburg RL Abstract Previous research has revealed rapid feedback mediated responses in one arm to mechanical perturbations applied to the other arm during shared bimanual tasks. We now ask whether these interlimb responses are expressed symmetrically. We tested this question in a virtual reality environment: a cursor representing each hand was used to 'pick up' each end of a virtual bar and place it into a target trough. Near the onset of occasional, unpredictable trials, one arm was perturbed. Regardless of which arm was perturbed, ipsilateral responses were significant during the perturbat...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - May 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Joint-Position Sense Accuracy Is Equally Affected by Vision among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy.
Authors: de Andrade E Souza Mazuchi F, Mochizuki L, Hamill J, Franciulli PM, Bigongiari A, de Almeida Martins IT, Ervilha UF Abstract We compared the effect of visual information on the dominant upper limb position sense of children with diplegic cerebral palsy (n = 10) and normally developing children (n = 10). An isokinetic dynamometer passively moved the dominant forearm in 120° of elbow flexion/extension until the volunteers stopped the machine to indicate that the elbow joint was positioned in the predetermined target angle. Participants performed this task five times in sequenc...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Topographical Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy.
Authors: Bartonek Å, Piccardi L, Guariglia C Abstract Forty children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 120 typical developing children (TD) performed a topographic working memory (WalCT) test requiring to move their body in a walked vista-space and a visuo-spatial test (CBT) requiring just reaching movements. WalCT score was significantly higher in GMFCS II/III than in TD. CBT score was significantly lower in GMFCS I than in III/IV but lower than TD in all CP groups. Similar results in WalCT between GMFCS I and TD and GMFCS II and III/IV respectively indicate that mobility is associated with topographic working me...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effect of Light Finger Touch, a Cognitive Task, and Vision on Standing Balance in Stroke.
Authors: Lee Y, Curuk E, Aruin AS Abstract The aim of the exploratory study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of light finger touch, a cognitive task, and vision on postural sway in individuals with stroke. Nine older adults with stroke stood on the force platform with eyes open and eyes closed, with and without a light finger touch contact with the stationary frame, and when counting backward from a randomly chosen three-digit number or without it. The center of pressure (COP) excursion, velocity, range and sway area was calculated. Participants demonstrated significantly larger postural sway ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Effects of a Pedal-less Bicycle Intervention on Stability Scores among Preschool Aged Children.
This study used a two group experimental/control repeated measures design analyzed with mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variances to determine if Center of Pressure (CoP) and Limit of Stability (LoS) scores changed during the four weeks. Significant differences in mean performance were detected in the experimental group for LoS in the anterior plane (p = .012), in the left sagittal (p = 0.010), and in the right sagittal plane (p 
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Psychomotor, Psychosocial and Reading Skills in Children with Amblyopia and the Effect of Different Treatments.
This study aims to probe whether children with amblyopia have impairments in these areas and if different optometric treatments reduce them effectively. 50 children, diagnosed with amblyopia, and 33 without amblyopia participated in this study. Eye-hand coordination, psychosocial skills and reading abilities, were measured before and after three months of different treatments (patch, patch and near vision activities and perceptual learning). Results revealed lower scores in eye-hand coordination and some reading issues in children with amblyopia, without differences in psychosocial skills in regard to the control group. Mo...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Differences in limb coordination in polyrhythmic production among water polo players, artistic swimmers and drummers.
This study compares polyrhythmic production ability between water polo players (WPs), artistic swimmers (ASs) and drummers (Ds), to assess how their differing experiences in coordinating complex inter-limb activity with music affected this ability. Eight ASs, eight WPs and eight Ds participated. They were asked to perform finger and foot taps in a single-rhythm task (every 750 ms) and two polyrhythmic tasks (finger and foot taps at 750 and 500 ms, respectively, and vice versa). The percentage of correct response cycles (PCRC), subjective difficulty scores were collected and analysed using a two-way mixed anal...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - April 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of footedness and stance asymmetry confirm an inter-leg metastable coordination dynamics of standing posture.
Authors: Harrison SJ, Kinsella-Shaw JM, Dotov D Abstract We investigated the patterns of coordination between the left and right legs that support the task of maintaining an upright standing posture. We used cross-wavelet analyses to assess coordination between the centers of pressure under the left and right feet. We recruited participants with a lateralized functional preference for their right leg, and we manipulated whether these participants stood with symmetric/asymmetric stances and whether their eyes were open or closed. Our hypotheses were derived from the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) model of interlimb coordina...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex: More Than Movement Execution.
Authors: Bhattacharjee S, Kashyap R, Abualait T, Annabel Chen SH, Yoo WK, Bashir S Abstract The predominant role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in motor execution is well acknowledged. However, additional roles of M1 are getting evident in humans owing to advances in noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques. This review collates such studies in humans and proposes that M1 also plays a key role in higher cognitive processes. The review commences with the studies that have investigated the nature of connectivity of M1 with other cortical regions in light of studies based on NIBS. The review then moves on to ...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Collision avoidance behaviours when circumventing people of different sizes in various positions and locations.
Authors: Bourgaize SM, McFadyen BJ, Cinelli ME Abstract The current study examined whether young adults' avoidance behaviours differed when circumventing a larger versus smaller interferer. It was expected that avoidance behaviours (repulsion) would be affected by the interferer's size (i.e., greater repulsion for larger body size). Participants (n = 20) walked along an 8 m pathway towards a goal while avoiding either a larger or smaller sized male interferer who stood stationary facing forward, backward, left, or right and were located 2, 4, or 6 m from the participants' starting positi...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Learning How to Throw Darts Effects of Modeling Type and Reflection on Novices' Dart-Throwing Skills.
In this study, we investigated the effects of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by conceptually replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a novice model were expected to surpass participants observing an expert model who in turn were expected to outperform participants who learned without a model. Reflection was hypothesized to have a positive effect. 156 High school and university students were tested three times: in a pretest, after a modeling intervention, and after a practice round. Contrar...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Gaze Direction Changes the Vertical-Horizontal Illusory Effects on Manual Length Estimations.
We examined potentially deceptive influences of the vertical-horizontal (V-H) illusion on manual length estimations. When viewing V-H illusory configurations, people perceive that the bisecting segment length exceeds the bisected segment length when segments are actually equal. Participants used downward or rightward pointing movements to manually estimate the length of a short bisecting segment of the V-H illusion in upright or rotated configurations. Participants directed their gaze freely, on the configuration, or on the movement space. Manual length estimations for upright and rotated configurations depended on gaze di...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Experts, but not novices, exhibit StartReact indicating experts use the reticulospinal system more than novices.
The objective of this study was to evaluate how reticulospinal contributions are modulated by task expertise. Reticulospinal contributions were assessed using StartReact (SR). We hypothesized that expert typists would show SR during an individuated, keystroke task but SR would be absent in novices. Expert (75.2 ± 9.8 WPM) and novice typists (41.6 ± 8.2 WPM) were evaluated during an individuated, keystroke movements. In experts, SR was present but was absent in novices. Together, these results suggest that experts use reticulospinal contributions more for movement than novices indic...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Corticomotor Excitability of Gluteus Maximus Is Associated with Hip Biomechanics During a Single-Leg Drop-Jump.
Authors: Shih Y, Fisher BE, Smith JA, Powers CM Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the association between corticomotor excitability (CME) of gluteus maximus (GM) and hip biomechanics during a single-leg drop-jump task. Thirty-two healthy individuals participated. The slope of the input-output curve (IOC) obtained from transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess CME of GM. The average hip extensor moment and peak hip flexion angle during the stance phase of the drop jump task was calculated. The slope of the IOC of GM was found to be a predictor of the average hip extensor moment (r2 = 0.1...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Effects of Short-Term Mental Imagery and Supplemental Visual Feedback on Muscle Coordination in a Myoelectric Task.
Authors: Jayasinghe SAL, Ranganathan R Abstract Changing muscle coordination patterns is a critical part of motor learning - yet there is a lack of simple, clinically feasible techniques to alter these patterns. Here, we investigated the effects of short-term mental imagery and supplemental visual feedback on muscle coordination using a myoelectric reaching task with complex mapping of arm and hand muscles to cursor position. Forty participants were divided into four groups, and practiced this task over 180 trials. During a short intervention period, the controls rested, the task- and muscle-imagery groups were giv...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Biomechanics of Vertical Posture and Control with Referent Joint Configurations.
Authors: Yamagata M, Gruben K, Falaki A, Ochs WL, Latash ML Abstract Our study compared the results of two methods of analysis of postural sway during human quiet standing, the rambling-trembling (Rm-Tr) decomposition and the analysis of the point of intersection of the ground reaction forces (zIP analysis). Young, healthy subjects were required to stand naturally and with an increased level of leg/trunk muscle co-activation under visual feedback on the magnitude of a combined index of muscle activation (muscle mode). The main findings included the shift of zIP toward higher frequencies and strong correlations betw...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research

Dynamics of Postural Control in Elite Sport Rifle Shooters.
Authors: Raffalt PC, Fillingsnes Marker I, Adler AT, Alkjaer T Abstract Thirteen shooters and eleven non-shooters completed two-legged and single-legged stance on a force platform. The dynamics of the center of pressure trajectory was assessed using sample entropy, correlation dimension and entropic half-life. Additionally, the body sway was quantified as the elliptical area of the trajectory. The shooters had lower sample entropy and tended to have longer entropic half-life during the single-legged stance. Across the two tasks, the correlation dimension in the anterior-posterior direction and the body sway in both...
Source: Journal of Motor Behavior - February 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Mot Behav Source Type: research