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The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 69, Issue 4 Author(s): Roger Levy , Evelina Fedorenko , Edward Gibson Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 71, Issue 1 Author(s): Julien Mayor , Kim Plunkett The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Variable binding and coreference in sentence comprehension: Evidence from eye movements
We report the results of an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the relative timing of syntactically-mediated variable binding and discourse-based coreference assignment during pronoun resolution. We examined whether ambiguous pronouns are preferentially resolved via either the variable binding or coreference route, and in particular tested the hypothesis that variable binding should always be computed before coreference assignment. Participants’ eye movements were monitored while they read sentences containing a pronoun and two potential antecedents, a c-commanding quantified noun phrase and a non c-commandi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Real-time interpretation of novel events across childhood
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 73 Author(s): Arielle Borovsky , Kim Sweeney , Jeffrey L. Elman , Anne Fernald Despite extensive evidence that adults and children rapidly integrate world knowledge to generate expectancies for upcoming language, little work has explored how this knowledge is initially acquired and used. We explore this question in 3- to 10-year-old children and adults by measuring the degree to which sentences depicting recently learned connections between agents, actions and objects lead to anticipatory eye-movements to the objects. Combinatory information in sent...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C4 - LANGUAGEED/Barcode
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 74 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Human locomotion in languages: Constraints on moving and meaning
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 74 Author(s): Barbara C. Malt , Eef Ameel , Mutsumi Imai , Silvia P. Gennari , Noburo Saji , Asifa Majid The distinctions between red and yellow or arm and hand may seem self-evident to English speakers, but they are not: Languages differ in the named distinctions they make. To help understand what constrains word meaning and how variation arises, we examined name choices in English, Dutch, Spanish, and Japanese for 36 instances of human locomotion. Naming patterns showed commonalities largely interpretable in terms of perceived physical similariti...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The production of coerced expressions: Evidence from priming
We report four structural priming experiments investigating the syntactic and semantic processes involved in producing coerced and full-form sentences (e.g., The bricklayer began the wall vs. The bricklayer began building the wall). Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated priming for syntactic structure across sentences that involved the same coercing verb (e.g., began). Experiment 1 (and the combined analysis of Experiments 1 and 2) further demonstrated priming for semantic structure when syntactic structure was controlled. Experiment 3 demonstrated repetition of coerced sentences when prime and target used the same coercing ver...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Removal of information from working memory: A specific updating process
This article introduces a method for isolating a process unique to WM updating, namely the removal of no-longer relevant information. In a modified version of an established updating paradigm, to-be-updated items were cued before the new memoranda were presented. Overall, longer cue-target intervals—that is, longer time available for removal of outdated information—led to faster updating, suggesting that people can actively remove information from WM. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that well-established effects of item repetition and similarity on updating RTs were diminished with longer cue-target interval, ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Visuospatial perspective-taking in conversation and the role of bilingual experience
We report novel results regarding the ability of listeners to appreciate the spatial perspective of another person in conversation: While spatial perspective-taking does pose challenges, listeners rapidly accommodated the speaker’s perspective, in time to guide the on-line processing of the speaker’s utterances. Moreover, once adopted, spatial perspectives were enduring, resulting in costs when switching to a different perspective, even when that perspective is one’s own. In addition to these findings, direct comparison of monolingual and bilingual participants offer no support for the hypothesis that bil...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How negation is understood: Evidence from the visual world paradigm
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 74 Author(s): Isabel Orenes , David Beltrán , Carlos Santamaría This paper explores how negation (e.g., the figure is not red) is understood using the visual world paradigm. Our hypothesis is that people will switch to the alternative affirmative (e.g., a green figure) whenever possible, but will be able to maintain the negated argument (e.g., a non-red figure) when needed. To test this, we presented either a specific verbal context (binary: the figure could be red or green) or an unspecified verbal context (multary: the figure could ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Processing gap-filler dependencies in Chinese: What does it tell us about semantic processing?
This study investigates, through gap-filler processing in Mandarin Chinese, whether reanalysis is undertaken to fulfill semantic requirements, even at the expense of structural economy. The construction of interest is Verb+Noun1+de+Noun2, which contains a subject gap and can be ambiguous between a left-branching (relative clause (RC)) and a right-branching (main clause or subject clause) analysis. In the RC analysis, N2 is the filler for the gap. In the right-branching analysis, the gap may co-refer with a noun in the main clause that follows N2 or is interpreted contextually. Sentence completion results showed that the ri...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Working memory updating involves item-specific removal
We present evidence from three experiments that (1) people utilize an active removal process to update working memory, (2) that this removal process is an item-specific operation, and (3) that updating subsets of information held in working memory involves switching between maintenance and updating modes of working memory. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C4 - LANGUAGE_ED/Barcode
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C3 - mendeley
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Test framing generates a stability bias for predictions of learning by causing people to discount their learning beliefs
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Robert Ariel , Jarrod C. Hines , Christopher Hertzog People estimate minimal changes in learning when making predictions of learning (POLs) for future study opportunities despite later showing increased performance and an awareness of that increase (Kornell & Bjork, 2009). This phenomenon is conceptualized as a stability bias in judgments about learning. We investigated the malleability of this effect, and whether it reflected people’s underlying beliefs about learning. We manipulated prediction framing to emphasize th...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How children explore the phonological network in child-directed speech: A survival analysis of children’s first word productions
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Matthew T. Carlson , Morgan Sonderegger , Max Bane We explored how phonological network structure influences the age of words’ first appearance in children’s (14–50months) speech, using a large, longitudinal corpus of spontaneous child–caregiver interactions. We represent the caregiver lexicon as a network in which each word is connected to all of its phonological neighbors, and consider both words’ local neighborhood density (degree), and also their embeddedness among interconnected neighborhoods (clus...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Conjunction meaning can modulate parallelism facilitation: Eye-tracking evidence from German clausal coordination
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Pia Knoeferle In and-coordinated clauses, the second conjunct elicits faster reading times when it parallels (vs. does not parallel) the first in constituent order. This paper examined whether such parallelism facilitation results from simple constituent order priming from the first to the second clause, or whether it can be modulated through the linguistic context (the conjunction and clausal relations). Three eye-tracking experiments on German assessed this issue by manipulating conjunction meaning and type within subjects (resemb...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Coargumenthood and the processing of reflexives
We report three eye-movement experiments and an antecedent choice task investigating the interpretation of reflexives in different syntactic contexts. This included contexts in which the reflexive and a local antecedent were coarguments of the same verbal predicate (John heard that the soldier had injured himself), and also so-called picture noun phrases, either with a possessor (John heard about the soldier’s picture of himself) or without (John heard that the soldier had a picture of himself). While results from the antecedent choice task indicated that comprehenders would choose a nonlocal antecedent (‘John&...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Native ‘um’s elicit prediction of low-frequency referents, but non-native ‘um’s do not
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Hans Rutger Bosker , Hugo Quené , Ted Sanders , Nivja H. de Jong Speech comprehension involves extensive use of prediction. Linguistic prediction may be guided by the semantics or syntax, but also by the performance characteristics of the speech signal, such as disfluency. Previous studies have shown that listeners, when presented with the filler uh, exhibit a disfluency bias for discourse-new or unknown referents, drawing inferences about the source of the disfluency. The goal of the present study is to study the contrast be...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Syllable articulation influences foveal and parafoveal processing of words during the silent reading of Chinese sentences
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Ming Yan , Yingyi Luo , Albrecht W. Inhoff The current study examined effects of syllable articulation on eye movements during the silent reading of Chinese sentences, which contained two types of two-character target words whose second characters were subject to dialect-specific variation. In one condition the second syllable was articulated with a neutral tone for northern-dialect Chinese speakers and with a full tone for southern-dialect Chinese speakers (neutral-tone target words) and in the other condition the second syllable w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Encoding time and the mirror effect in recognition memory: Evidence from eyetracking
We examined the relationship between eye fixation durations during study and later recognition memory for individual words to test whether (1) increased fixation time on a word is associated with better memory, and (2) increased fixation times on LF words can account for their hit rate advantage. In Experiments 1 and 2, words of various frequencies were presented in lists in an intentional study design. In Experiment 3, HF and LF critical words were presented in matched sentence frames in an incidental study design. In all cases, the standard frequency effect on eye movements emerged, with longer reading times for lower fr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The processing of it object relative clauses: Evidence against a fine-grained frequency account
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Paul M. Heider , Jeruen E. Dery , Douglas Roland Reali and Christiansen (2007a) found that pronominal object relative clauses were easier to process than analogous subject relative clauses, except when the pronoun is it. They attributed this to it occurring more frequently in subject relatives than in object relatives, while the opposite was true for the other pronouns. We find that their it relative clause processing result was due to a garden path like effect caused by participants misinterpreting the referent of the grammatical s...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How distinctive processing enhances hits and reduces false alarms
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): R. Reed Hunt , Rebekah E. Smith Distinctive processing is a concept designed to account for precision in memory, both correct responses and avoidance of errors. The principal question addressed in two experiments is how distinctive processing of studied material reduces false alarms to familiar distractors. Jacoby, Kelley, and McElree (1999) has used the metaphors early selection and late correction to describe two different types of control processes. Early selection refers to limitations on access whereas late correction describes...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The persistence of cumulative semantic interference during naming
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Tatiana T. Schnur Naming semantically related pictures (e.g., “goat” “cow” “mouse”) becomes increasingly slower when repeatedly naming from a semantic category even when several unrelated trials intervene (Howard, Nickels, Coltheart, & Cole-Virtue, 2006). The aim of this study was to test whether cumulative semantic interference is independent of time and unrelated trials between naming occurrences as predicted if interference is the result of learning reflected by persistent changes to se...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effects of criterion level on associative memory: Evidence for associative asymmetry
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): Kalif E. Vaughn , Katherine A. Rawson A wealth of research has established that retrieval practice promotes subsequent memory, particularly when the retrieval attempt is successful. Furthermore, the number of successful retrievals during practice (i.e., criterion level) dramatically influences final test performance. For example, Vaughn and Rawson (2011) had participants learn Lithuanian–English word pairs via test–restudy practice until they were correctly recalled. Despite retrieval practice always occurring in the for...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Learnin’ ‘bout my generation? Evaluating the effects of generation on encoding, recall, and metamemory across study-test experiences
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75 Author(s): A. Nicole Burnett , Glen E. Bodner We explored how learning during an initial study-test experience with text materials shapes future encoding, recall, and metamemory. Differential recall of targets from generate and read sentences on a fill-in-the-blank test led participants to shift their encoding strategies such that differential recall was eliminated on a second study-test block using different materials. This shift was not contingent on experiencing a generation advantage on the first test: recall also improved across tests whe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C4 - MENDELEY/Barcode
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C3 - language_ed
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Lexical selection is not by competition: Evidence from the blocked naming paradigm
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Eduardo Navarrete , Paul Del Prato , Francesca Peressotti , Bradford Z. Mahon A central issue in research on speech production is whether or not the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon is a competitive process. An important experimental paradigm to study the dynamics of lexical retrieval is the blocked naming paradigm, in which participants name pictures of objects that are grouped by semantic category (‘homogenous’ or ‘related’ blocks) or not grouped by semantic category (‘heterogeneous’ ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Executive function predicts artificial language learning
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Leah L. Kapa , John Colombo Previous research suggests executive function (EF) advantages among bilinguals compared to monolingual peers, and these advantages are generally attributed to experience controlling two linguistic systems. However, the possibility that the relationship between bilingualism and EF might be bidirectional has not been widely considered; while experience with two languages might improve EF, better EF skills might also facilitate language learning. In the current studies, we tested whether adults’ and p...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Modeling source-memory overdistribution
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): David Kellen , Henrik Singmann , Karl Christoph Klauer In a process-dissociation task of source memory, individuals have to judge whether items belong to one of different, mutually exclusive contexts (e.g., Source A, Source B). The acceptance rates to different test probes (e.g., “Source A?”) can be used to estimate the probability that the item is assigned simultaneously to the different contexts (“Source A and Source B”), designated as source overdistribution. Brainerd et al. (2012) have argued that source...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The time-course of feature interference in agreement comprehension: Multiple mechanisms and asymmetrical attraction
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Darren Tanner , Janet Nicol , Laurel Brehm Attraction interference in language comprehension and production may be as a result of common or different processes. In the present paper, we investigate attraction interference during language comprehension, focusing on the contexts in which interference arises and the time-course of these effects. Using evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and sentence judgment times, we show that agreement attraction in comprehension is best explained as morphosyntactic interference duri...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Interference within and between declarative and procedural representations in working memory
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Miriam Gade , Michel D. Druey , Alessandra S. Souza , Klaus Oberauer We investigate interference between declarative and procedural representations in working memory (WM). Declarative representations are objects of thought, whereas procedural representations provide the (cognitive) actions to work upon these objects. In eight dual-task experiments we varied the number of representations to be maintained in WM (memory load). In Experiments 1–4, we varied declarative and procedural load separately in the two tasks used. In Expe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Retrieval dynamics of the strength based mirror effect in recognition memory
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Aslı Kılıç , Ilke Öztekin The strength based mirror effect (SBME) refers to an increase in hit rates (HR) and a decrease in false alarm rates (FAR) for the test lists that follow a strongly encoded study list. Earlier investigation of accuracy and reaction time distributions by fitting the diffusion model indicated a mirror effect in the drift rate parameter, which was interpreted as an indication of more conservative responses due to a shift in the drift criterion. Additionally, the starting point for the evidence a...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Person and the syntax–discourse interface: An eye-tracking study of agreement
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Simona Mancini , Nicola Molinaro , Doug J. Davidson , Alberto Avilés , Manuel Carreiras The time-course of agreement processing was investigated through three eye-tracking experiments and one grammaticality judgment task by making use of the Spanish Unagreement pattern, which allows the presence of a 3rd person plural subject followed by a 1st person plural verb, as in Los manifestantes anunciamos una huelga (The protesters3.pl announced1.pl a strike). Grammaticality is ensured by re-interpreting the subject as 1st person pl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Solely soles: Inter-lemma competition in inflected word recognition
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Joe Xu , Marcus Taft It was found that the unmasked presentation of a complex form that corresponded to only one definition of a homograph (e.g., solely, which is related to the ‘alone’ meaning of soles) did not inhibit the subsequent recognition of a complex form that was related to the competing meaning (e.g., SOLES, which is related to the ‘shoe’ meaning). Further studies found that inhibitory priming only emerged when the unmasked prime was related to the subordinate meaning of the homograph (e.g., fined...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The “sense boost” to dative priming: Evidence for sense-specific verb-structure links
This study used syntactic priming to investigate this issue. Experiment 1 showed a “sense boost” to dative priming: Stronger priming was observed when the dative verbs in prime and target sentences were used in the same sense than when they were used in different senses. Experiment 2 showed that, in the absence of sense repetition, form overlap between the head verbs of prime and target sentences still caused a boost to dative priming. Finally, Experiment 3 confirmed that the sense boost observed in Experiment 1 was not caused by a general difference in priming strength between dative prime sentences with liter...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Making sense of Kafka: Structural biases induce early sense commitment for metonyms
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Joel Fishbein , Jesse A. Harris Prior research suggests that the language processor initially activates an underspecified representation of a metonym consistent with all its senses, potentially selecting a specific sense if supported by contextual and lexical information. We explored whether a structural heuristic, the Subject as Agent Principle, which provisionally assigns an agent theta role to canonical subjects, would prompt immediate sense selection. In Experiment 1, we found initial evidence that this principle is active duri...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Neural systems underlying perceptual adjustment to non-standard speech tokens
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Emily B. Myers , Laura M. Mesite Evidence suggests that listeners use top-down information to guide perception of speech sounds. A phenomenon termed ‘perceptual learning for speech’ shows that listeners also use top-down information to adjust perceptual boundaries in subsequent processing of speech from the same talker. The neural mechanisms that underlie this process are not well understood. Of interest is whether boundary shifts arise because of a retuning of phonetic sensitivities early in the neural processing strea...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Variables and similarity in linguistic generalization: Evidence from inflectional classes in Portuguese
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): João Veríssimo , Harald Clahsen Two opposing viewpoints have been advanced to account for morphological productivity, one according to which some knowledge is couched in the form of operations over variables, and another in which morphological generalization is primarily determined by similarity. We investigated this controversy by examining the generalization of Portuguese verb stems, which fall into one of three conjugation classes. In Study 1, an elicited production task revealed that the generalization of 2nd and ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Nomina sunt consequentia rerum – Sound–shape correspondences with every-day objects figures
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Andrea Flumini , Mariagrazia Ranzini , Anna M. Borghi Prior research on sound-symbolism has demonstrated the existence of sound–shape correspondences using ad hoc figures in double forced-choice paradigms. This led sound-symbolic skeptics to affirm that the reported effects were due to the properties of the figures shown or to the structure of the task used. In the present study, we hypothesized that the sound–shape correspondence effect would be observed when participants were required to choose which of two invented w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Alignment and task success in spoken dialogue
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): David Reitter , Johanna D. Moore Task-solving in dialogue depends on the convergence of the situation models held by the dialogue partners. The Interactive Alignment Model (Pickering & Garrod, 2004) suggests that this convergence is the result of an interactive alignment process, which is based on mechanistic repetition at a number of linguistic levels. In this paper, we develop two predictions arising from the theory, along with two methods to quantify the known structural priming effects in the full inventory of syntactic...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

“Who’s he?” Event-related brain potentials and unbound pronouns
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 76 Author(s): Mante S. Nieuwland Three experiments used event-related potentials to examine the processing consequences of gender-mismatching pronouns (e.g., “The aunt found out that he had won the lottery”), which have been shown to elicit P600 effects when judged as syntactically anomalous (Osterhout & Mobley, 1995). In each experiment, mismatching pronouns elicited a sustained, frontal negative shift (Nref) compared to matching pronouns: when participants were instructed to posit a new referent for mismatching pronouns (Ex...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C4 - Ad: MENDELEY/Barcode
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 77 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

C3 - Ad: LANGUAGE_ED
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 77 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 77 Author(s): Itamar Lerner , Blair C. Armstrong , Ram Frost Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor does it expl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The role of context in young children’s comprehension of negation
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 77 Author(s): Ann E. Nordmeyer , Michael C. Frank Negation is an important concept in human language, yet little is known about children’s ability to comprehend negative sentences. In this paper, we explore how 2–5-year-old children’s comprehension of negation changes depending on the context in which a negative sentence occurs. We collected eye-tracking data while children watched a video in which they heard positive and negative sentences. Negative sentences, such as “look at the boy with no apples,” referred to ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Effects of acoustic–phonetic detail on cross-language speech production
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 77 Author(s): Colin Wilson , Lisa Davidson , Sean Martin Nonnative sounds and sequences are systematically adapted in both perception and production. For example, American English speakers often modify illegal word-initial clusters by inserting a vocalic transition between the two consonants (e.g., (/bdagu/→[bədagu]). Previous work on such modifications has for the most part focused on relatively abstract properties of the nonnative structures, such as their phonemic content and whether they conform to sonority sequencing principles. The ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Binding radicals in Chinese character recognition: Evidence from repetition blindness
Publication date: January 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 78 Author(s): Yi-Chuan Chen , Su-Ling Yeh Many Chinese characters consist of two radicals and it has long been debated whether characters are decomposed into radicals during the processing of character recognition. Here we examine this issue utilizing a novel repetition blindness (RB) paradigm that provides a sensitive measure of internal representations in the early stages of processing. We found a radical-RB effect (i.e., two characters are less likely to be correctly reported when they share a common radical) for both high- and low-frequency ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Word onsets and speech errors. Explaining relative frequencies of segmental substitutions
Publication date: January 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 78 Author(s): Sieb Nooteboom , Hugo Quené Consonants in word onsets are, in English and Dutch, more frequently misspoken than consonants in other positions, and also more frequently than expected from the relative numbers of onset consonants and other consonants. We argue here that relative numbers of segments in specific positions in the word is not a valid predictor of relative frequencies of segmental speech errors. A more valid predictor would be the relative number of phonotactically allowed opportunities segments in different positi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 4, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research