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Early semantic activation in a semantic categorization task with masked primes: Cascaded or not?
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 85 Author(s): Dane Bell , Kenneth Forster , Shiloh Drake The assumption that activation is cascaded implies that the semantic properties of all neighbors of the input word are activated to varying degrees. This assumption is tested using masked priming in a semantic categorization experiment, where the prime belongs to the same category as the target (a congruent prime), or to a different category (an incongruent prime). In Experiment 1, the prime was a nonword neighbor of an exemplar or non-exemplar of the category, and a clear congruence effe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 12, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Episodic memory does not add up: Verbatim–gist superposition predicts violations of the additive law of probability
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): C.J. Brainerd , Zheng Wang , Valerie F. Reyna , K. Nakamura Fuzzy-trace theory’s assumptions about memory representation are cognitive examples of the familiar superposition property of physical quantum systems. When those assumptions are implemented in a formal quantum model (QEMc), they predict that episodic memory will violate the additive law of probability: If memory is tested for a partition of an item’s possible episodic states, the individual probabilities of remembering the item as belonging to each state must ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The adoption of linguistic rules in native and non-native speakers: Evidence from a Wug task
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Christine Cuskley , Francesca Colaiori , Claudio Castellano , Vittorio Loreto , Martina Pugliese , Francesca Tria Several recent theories have suggested that an increase in the number of non-native speakers in a language can lead to changes in morphological rules. We examine this experimentally by contrasting the performance of native and non-native English speakers in a simple Wug-task, showing that non-native speakers are significantly more likely to provide non -ed (i.e., irregular) past-tense forms for novel verbs than native s...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Accessibility effects on production vary cross-linguistically: Evidence from English and Korean
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Heeju Hwang , Elsi Kaiser Previous work on English suggests that accessibility of individual lexical items plays an important role in shaping speakers’ choice of sentence structure, providing evidence for lexically incremental production. In order to investigate the role of accessibility in cross-linguistic production, we manipulated accessibility in English and Korean via semantic priming in Experiment 1 and visual cueing in Experiment 2. We recorded English and Korean speakers’ speech and eye movements as they describ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 6, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Words, objects, and locations: Perceptual matching explains spatial interference and facilitation
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Zachary Estes , Michelle Verges , James S. Adelman Many common words have spatial associations (e.g., “bird,” “jump”) that, counterintuitively, hinder identification of visual targets at their associated location. For example, “bird” hinders identification at the top of a display. This spatial interference has been attributed to perceptual competition: “bird” shifts attention upward and evokes the perceptual representation of a bird, which impairs identification of an unrelated target...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 6, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Constructing covert dependencies—The case of Mandarin wh-in-situ dependency
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Ming Xiang , SuiPing Wang , YanLing Cui Wh-in-situ constructions in Mandarin Chinese, as opposed to their English counterparts that front wh-phrases to the beginning of the sentence, have the same word order as regular non-wh declaratives. We argue that despite their surface word order, processing wh-in-situ constructions involves constructing a covert non-local syntactic dependency between the in-situ wh-phrase and a higher scope position at a clause boundary, leading to behavioral patterns similar to those associated with the pro...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 26, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Semantic categorisation of a word supports its phonological integrity in verbal short-term memory
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Nicola Savill , Tim Metcalfe , Andrew W. Ellis , Elizabeth Jefferies In three immediate serial recall (ISR) experiments we tested the hypothesis that interactive processing between semantics and phonology supports phonological coherence in verbal short-term memory (STM). Participants categorised spoken words in six-item lists as they were presented, according to their semantic or phonological properties, then repeated the items in presentation order (Experiment 1). Despite matched categorisation performance between conditions, sema...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Generalizing beyond the input: The functions of the constructions matter
In this study, two groups were exposed to six novel verbs and two novel word order constructions that differed in function: one construction but not the other was exclusively used with pronoun undergoers. The distributional structure of the input was manipulated between groups according to whether each verb was used exclusively in one or the other construction (the lexicalist condition), or whether a minority of verbs was witnessed in both constructions (the alternating condition). Production and judgments results demonstrate that participants tended to generalize the constructions for use in appropriate discourse contexts...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Repetition reduction during word and concept overlap in bilinguals
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Tuan Q. Lam , Viorica Marian In natural conversation, speakers often mention the same referents multiple times. While repeated referents are produced with less prominence than non-repeated referents, it is unclear whether prominence reduction is due to repetition of concepts, words, or a combination of the two. In the current study, we dissociate these sources of repetition by examining bilingual speakers, who have more than one word for the same concept across their two languages. Three groups of Korean–English bilinguals (b...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Why does collaborative retrieval improve memory? Enhanced relational and item-specific processing
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Kathryn T. Wissman , Katherine A. Rawson Engaging in collaborative retrieval practice increases performance on subsequent memory tests taken individually (Blumen & Stern, 2011). However, the basis of these post-collaborative benefits is largely unexplained. Thus, the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying post-collaborative benefits vis-à-vis the theoretical framework of distinctiveness theory, which postulates that two processes influence memory. Relational proces...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Interpretation of informational questions modulated by joint knowledge and intonational contours
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Sarah Brown-Schmidt , Scott H. Fraundorf We examine processes by which dialogue partners form and use representations of joint knowledge, or common ground, during on-line language processing. Eye-tracked participants interpreted wh-questions that inquired about task-relevant objects during interactive conversation. Some objects were known to both speaker and listener, and thus in common ground, whereas others were only known to the listener, and thus in privileged ground. Questions were produced with a typical, falling intonation (...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Why are repeated words produced with reduced durations? Evidence from inner speech and homophone production
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Cassandra L. Jacobs , Loretta K. Yiu , Duane G. Watson , Gary S. Dell Acoustic reduction for repeated words could be the result of articulation and motor practice (Lam & Watson, 2014), facilitated production (Gahl, Yao, & Johnson, 2012; Kahn & Arnold, 2015), or audience design and shared common ground (Galati & Brennan, 2010). We sought to narrow down what kind of facilitation leads to repetition reduction. Repetition could, in principle, facilitate production on a conceptual, lexical, phonological, ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 2, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Growth of verbal short-term memory of nonwords varying in phonotactic probability: A longitudinal study with monolingual and bilingual children
This study investigates the hypothesis that verbal short-term memory growth in young children can be explained by increases in long-term linguistic knowledge. To this aim, we compare children’s recall of nonwords varying in phonotactic probability. If our assumption holds, there should be growth in recall of high-probability nonwords, but no or less growth in recall of low-probability nonwords. Monolingual and bilingual children are compared to see if bilingual children who have less phonotactic knowledge of the target language (Dutch) show different growth patterns than their monolingual peers. Participants were 72 ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 29, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Communicative efficiency in language production: Optional case-marking in Japanese
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Chigusa Kurumada , T. Florian Jaeger Grammatical encoding is one of the earliest stages in linguistic encoding. One broadly accepted view holds that grammatical encoding is primarily or exclusively affected by production ease, rather than communicative considerations. This contrasts with proposals that speakers’ preferences during grammatical encoding reflect a trade-off between production ease and communicative goals. In three recall sentence production experiments, we investigate Japanese speakers’ production of option...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Looking for answers in all the wrong places: How testing facilitates learning of misinformation
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Leamarie T. Gordon , Ayanna K. Thomas , John B. Bulevich Research has consistently demonstrated that taking a test prior to receiving misleading information increases eyewitness suggestibility (Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (RES) is characterized by two typical findings: (1) reduced access to the originally witnessed event, which has been contextualized within a reconsolidation framework (e.g., Chan & LaPaglia, 2013), and (2) increased production of misleading post-test narrative ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The effect of contextual constraint on parafoveal processing in reading
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Elizabeth R. Schotter , Michelle Lee , Michael Reiderman , Keith Rayner Semantic preview benefit in reading is an elusive and controversial effect because empirical studies do not always (but sometimes) find evidence for it. Its presence seems to depend on (at least) the language being read, visual properties of the text (e.g., initial letter capitalization), the type of relationship between preview and target, and as shown here, semantic constraint generated by the prior sentence context. Schotter (2013) reported semantic preview b...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Phonological neighborhood competition affects spoken word production irrespective of sentential context
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Neal P. Fox , Megan Reilly , Sheila E. Blumstein Two experiments examined the influence of phonologically similar neighbors on articulation of words’ initial stop consonants in order to investigate the conditions under which lexically-conditioned phonetic variation arises. In Experiment 1, participants produced words in isolation. Results showed that the voice-onset time (VOT) of a target’s initial voiceless stop was predicted by its overall neighborhood density, but not by its having a voicing minimal pair. In Experimen...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How message similarity shapes the timecourse of sentence formulation
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 84 Author(s): Agnieszka E. Konopka , Stefanie E. Kuchinsky Transforming a preverbal message into an utterance (e.g., The swimmer is pushing the paparazzo) requires conceptual and linguistic encoding. Two experiments tested whether the timecourse of sentence formulation is shaped jointly or independently by message-level and sentence-level processes. Eye-tracked speakers described pictures of simple events with verb-medial (SVO/OVS) and verb-initial (VSO/aux-OVS) sentences in Dutch. To assess effects of message-level and sentence-level variables ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Quantifiers are incrementally interpreted in context, more than less
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Thomas P. Urbach , Katherine A. DeLong , Marta Kutas Language interpretation is often assumed to be incremental. However, our studies of quantifier expressions in isolated sentences found N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) evidence for partial but not full immediate quantifier interpretation (Urbach & Kutas, 2010). Here we tested similar quantifier expressions in pragmatically supporting discourse contexts (Alex was an unusual toddler. Most/Few kids prefer sweets/vegetables…) while participants made plausibility...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Implicit and explicit contributions to statistical learning
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Laura J. Batterink , Paul J. Reber , Helen J. Neville , Ken A. Paller Statistical learning allows learners to detect regularities in the environment and appears to emerge automatically as a consequence of experience. Statistical learning paradigms bear many similarities to those of artificial grammar learning and other types of implicit learning. However, whether learning effects in statistical learning tasks are driven by implicit knowledge has not been thoroughly examined. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 3, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Testing enhances learning across a range of episodic memory abilities
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Steven C. Pan , Harold Pashler , Zachary E. Potter , Timothy C. Rickard Brewer and Unsworth (2012) reported that individuals with low episodic memory ability exhibit a larger testing effect, a finding with potentially important educational implications. We conducted two replication attempts of that study. Exp 1 (n =120) drew from a broad demographic sample and was conducted online, while Exp 2 (n =122) was conducted in the lab with undergraduate students. Both experiments demonstrated a large testing effect across the range of episo...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 29, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Do classifiers make the syntactic count/mass distinction? Insights from ERPs in classifier processing in Japanese
We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the within-count/mass-category violation (e.g., an object name accompanied by a classifier for other objects) and the across-count/mass-category violation (e.g., an object name accompanied by a classifier for substances). In both experiments, the violation of the noun–classifier agreements elicited the N400, regardless of whether the noun–classifier disagreement was made within or across the ontological object/substance boundary. The across-count/mass-category violation did not recruit a syntactic process in the brain, suggesting that the Japanese classifi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Referential precedents in spoken language comprehension: A review and meta-analysis
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 83 Author(s): Edmundo Kronmüller , Dale J. Barr Listeners’ interpretations of referring expressions are influenced by referential precedents—temporary conventions established in a discourse that associate linguistic expressions with referents. A number of psycholinguistic studies have investigated how much precedent effects depend on beliefs about the speaker’s perspective versus more egocentric, domain-general processes. We review and provide a meta-analysis of visual-world eyetracking studies of precedent use, focusing on...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Close, but no garlic: Perceptuomotor and event knowledge activation during language comprehension
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): Ben D. Amsel , Katherine A. DeLong , Marta Kutas Recent research has shown that language comprehension is guided by knowledge about the organization of objects and events in long-term memory. We use event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine the extent to which perceptuomotor object knowledge and event knowledge are immediately activated during incremental language processing. Event-related but anomalous sentence continuations preceded by single-sentence event descriptions elicited reduced N400s, despite their poor fit within ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 10, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The acoustic salience of prosody trumps infants’ acquired knowledge of language-specific prosodic patterns
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): Kara Hawthorne , Reiko Mazuka , LouAnn Gerken There is mounting evidence that prosody facilitates grouping the speech stream into syntactically-relevant units (e.g., Hawthorne & Gerken, 2014; Soderstrom, Kemler Nelson, & Jusczyk, 2005). We ask whether prosody’s role in syntax acquisition relates to its general acoustic salience or to the learner’s acquired knowledge of correlations between prosody and syntax in her native language. English- and Japanese-acquiring 19-month-olds listened to sentences from an ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 10, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Agreement attraction in Spanish comprehension
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Sol Lago , Diego E. Shalom , Mariano Sigman , Ellen F. Lau , Colin Phillips Previous studies have found that English speakers experience attraction effects when comprehending subject–verb agreement, showing eased processing of ungrammatical sentences that contain a syntactically unlicensed but number-matching noun. In four self-paced reading experiments we examine whether attraction effects also occur in Spanish, a language where agreement morphology is richer and functionally more significant. We find that despite hav...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Bidirectional lexical interaction in late immersed Mandarin-English bilinguals
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): Barbara C. Malt , Ping Li , Aneta Pavlenko , Huichun Zhu , Eef Ameel We compared naming patterns for common household objects by monolingual speakers of English and Mandarin and Mandarin-English bilinguals in both their L1 and L2. These bilinguals arrived in the U.S. no earlier than age 15, thus having a well-entrenched L1 and relatively late L2 immersion, and their two languages are dissimilar on many dimensions. Results showed changes to both L1 and L2 word use that increased with greater L2 usage, implying that the lexical network ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Lexical mediation of phonotactic frequency effects on spoken word recognition: A Granger causality analysis of MRI-constrained MEG/EEG data
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): David W. Gow Jr. , Bruna B. Olson Phonotactic frequency effects play a crucial role in a number of debates over language processing and representation. It is unclear however, whether these effects reflect prelexical sensitivity to phonotactic frequency, or lexical “gang effects” in speech perception. In this paper, we use Granger causality analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to understand how phonotactic frequency influences neural processing dynamics during auditory lexical decision. Effective connectivity analysis sh...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Relation-sensitive retrieval: Evidence from bound variable pronouns
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): Dave Kush , Jeffrey Lidz , Colin Phillips Formal grammatical theories make extensive use of syntactic relations (e.g. c-command, Reinhart, 1983) in the description of constraints on antecedent-anaphor dependencies. Recent research has motivated a model of processing that exploits a cue-based retrieval mechanism in content-addressable memory (e.g. Lewis, Vasishth, & Van Dyke, 2006) in which item-to-item syntactic relations such as c-command are difficult to use as retrieval cues. As such, the c-command constraints of formal gra...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A faster path between meaning and form? Iconicity facilitates sign recognition and production in British Sign Language
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): David Vinson , Robin L. Thompson , Robert Skinner , Gabriella Vigliocco A standard view of language processing holds that lexical forms are arbitrary, and that non-arbitrary relationships between meaning and form such as onomatopoeias are unusual cases with little relevance to language processing in general. Here we capitalize on the greater availability of iconic lexical forms in a signed language (British Sign Language, BSL), to test how iconic relationships between meaning and form affect lexical processing. In three experiments, w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 31, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The influence of cloze probability and item constraint on cloze task response time
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 82 Author(s): Adrian Staub , Margaret Grant , Lori Astheimer , Andrew Cohen In research on the role of lexical predictability in language comprehension, predictability is generally defined as the probability that a word is provided as a sentence continuation in the cloze task (Taylor, 1953), in which subjects are asked to guess the next word of a sentence. The present experiments investigate the process by which subjects generate a cloze response, by measuring the latency to initiate a response in a version of the task in which subjects produce a s...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 18, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 15, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 15, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 15, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Statistical learning as an individual ability: Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 Author(s): Noam Siegelman , Ram Frost Although the power of statistical learning (SL) in explaining a wide range of linguistic functions is gaining increasing support, relatively little research has focused on this theoretical construct from the perspective of individual differences. However, to be able to reliably link individual differences in a given ability such as language learning to individual differences in SL, three critical theoretical questions should be posed: Is SL a componential or unified ability? Is it nested within other general ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Interlocutor identity affects language activation in bilinguals
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 Author(s): Monika Molnar , Antonio Ibáñez-Molina , Manuel Carreiras In bilingual communities, individuals often communicate in one of their languages only, and they adjust to the linguistic background of different interlocutors with ease. What facilitates such efficiency? We investigated whether bilinguals’ language activation is supported by non-linguistic cues (e.g., interlocutor identity). First, in an audio–visual task, early (proficient) and late (less proficient) Basque–Spanish bilinguals were familiarized wi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 18, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Phonetic adaptation in non-native spoken dialogue: Effects of priming and audience design
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 Author(s): Jiwon Hwang , Susan E. Brennan , Marie K. Huffman To be understood, non-native speakers must adapt their speech in order to produce contrasts in their second language (L2) that are not present in their first language (L1). Here we examine mechanisms hypothesized to facilitate such adaptation within spoken dialogue: priming, affiliation, and audience design. In two experiments, Korean non-native speakers of English interacted in a referential communication task with a Korean English-speaking confederate (Experiment 1) and a monolingual ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 18, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: February–April 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volumes 79–80 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 5, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: February–April 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volumes 79–80 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 5, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Does listening to non-native speech impair speech perception?
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 Author(s): Arthur G. Samuel , Saioa Larraza Previous research with highly fluent, very early, Catalan–Spanish bilinguals has shown that L1 Spanish bilinguals accept certain mispronounced Catalan words at extremely high rates, and even L1 Catalan bilinguals do so at surprisingly high rates. Using similarly highly fluent, very early Basque–Spanish bilinguals, we investigate why this occurs. We test three possibilities: (1) There could be a failure to distinguish two similar sounds at the phonetic level, (2) Listeners might store exempla...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 5, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Consolidating working memory: Distinguishing the effects of consolidation, rehearsal and attentional refreshing in a working memory span task
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 Author(s): Donna M. Bayliss , Jade Bogdanovs , Christopher Jarrold In a series of experiments, we demonstrated that manipulating the opportunity that individuals had to consolidate each memory item produced systematic differences in working memory span performance. In young adults, presenting an unfilled delay interval immediately following the presentation of each to-be-remembered item and before the onset of a distractor processing activity produced enhanced working memory performance relative to when the same delay interval was presented after...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 3, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The subject-relative advantage in Chinese: Evidence for expectation-based processing
Publication date: February–April 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volumes 79–80 Author(s): Lena Jäger , Zhong Chen , Qiang Li , Chien-Jer Charles Lin , Shravan Vasishth Chinese relative clauses are an important test case for pitting the predictions of expectation-based accounts against those of memory-based theories. The memory-based accounts predict that object relatives are easier to process than subject relatives because, in object relatives, the distance between the relative clause verb and the head noun is shorter. By contrast, expectation-based accounts such as surprisal predict that the...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Production and comprehension show divergent constituent order preferences: Evidence from elicited pantomime
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 81 Author(s): Matthew L. Hall , Y. Danbi Ahn , Rachel I. Mayberry , Victor S. Ferreira All natural languages develop devices to communicate who did what to whom. Elicited pantomime provides one model for studying this process, by providing a window into how humans (hearing non-signers) behave in a natural communicative modality (silent gesture) without established conventions from a grammar. Most studies in this paradigm focus on production, although they sometimes make assumptions about how comprehenders would likely behave. Here, we directly asses...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

When and how do children develop knowledge of verb argument structure? Evidence from verb bias effects in a structural priming task
In this study, we investigated when children develop adult-like verb–structure links, and examined two mechanisms, associative and error-based learning, that might explain how these verb–structure links are learned. Using structural priming, we tested children’s and adults’ ability to use verb–structure links in production in three ways; by manipulating: (1) verb overlap between prime and target, (2) target verb bias, and (3) prime verb bias. Children (aged 3–4 and 5–6years old) and adults heard and produced double object dative (DOD) and prepositional object dative (PD) primes wit...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye movement data
Publication date: February–April 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volumes 79–80 Author(s): Bernhard Angele , Elizabeth R. Schotter , Timothy J. Slattery , Tara L. Tenenbaum , Klinton Bicknell , Keith Rayner In the past, most research on eye movements during reading involved a limited number of subjects reading sentences with specific experimental manipulations on target words. Such experiments usually only analyzed eye-movements measures on and around the target word. Recently, some researchers have started collecting larger data sets involving large and diverse groups of subjects reading large num...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The activation of embedded words in spoken word recognition
Publication date: February–April 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volumes 79–80 Author(s): Xujin Zhang , Arthur G. Samuel How do listeners understand English words that have shorter words in them? We tested six types of embedded words, varying their positions in carrier words and their proportions of carrier words. In auditory-auditory priming experiments, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets under optimal conditions, when they were compressed/expanded, and under cognitive load. Within carrier words (e.g., hamster) presented under optimal conditions, the same set of embedded wor...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 1, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research