Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Perceiving while producing: Modeling the dynamics of phonological planning
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Kevin D. Roon, Adamantios I. Gafos We offer a dynamical model of phonological planning that provides a formal instantiation of how the speech production and perception systems interact during online processing. The model is developed on the basis of evidence from an experimental task that requires concurrent use of both systems, the so-called response–distractor task in which speakers hear distractor syllables while they are preparing to produce required responses. The model formalizes how ongoing response planning is...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Modeling the role of distributional information in children’s use of phonemic contrasts
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Erik D. Thiessen, Philip I. Pavlik Between the first and the second year of life, children improve in their ability to use phonemic contrasts when learning label–object pairings. This improvement may be related to children’s experience with the distribution of phonemes across lexical forms. Because phonemes typically occur in different lexical frames (e.g., /d/ and /t/ in “doggy” and “teddy” rather than “doggy” and “toggy”), familiarity with words makes similar phonemes mor...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 19, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A new experimental paradigm to study children’s processing of their parent’s unscripted language input
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Sudha Arunachalam This paper introduces a new experimental paradigm for studying children’s real-time language processing of their parents’ unscripted speech. Focusing on children’s processing of referential expressions, or the phrases that parents used to label particular objects, we engaged dyads in a game in which parents labeled one of several objects displayed on a screen, and the child was to quickly identify it as their eye gaze was tracked. There were two conditions; one included a competitor object (e.g., t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Giving and stealing ideas in memory: Source errors in recall are influenced by both early-selection and late-correction retrieval processes
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Timothy J. Hollins, Nicholas Lange, Christopher J. Berry, Ian Dennis Previous studies of unconscious plagiarism have asked participants to recall their own ideas from a previous group-problem solving session, and have typically reported that people mistakenly include a partner’s responses when trying to recall their own. To date, there has been little research looking at the propensity to include one’s own responses when trying to recall a partner’s previous contribution to the group. Experiment 1 demonstrated th...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye movement data” [J. Mem. Lang. 79–80 (2015) 76–96]
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Bernhard Angele, Elizabeth R. Schotter, Timothy J. Slattery, Tara L. Tenenbaum, Klinton Bicknell, Keith Rayner In the past, most research on eye movements during reading involved a limited number of subjects reading sentences with specific experimental manipulations on target words. Such experiments usually only analyzed eye-movements measures on and around the target word. Recently, some researchers have started collecting larger data sets involving large and diverse groups of subjects reading large numbers of sente...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 9, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The persistence of syntactic priming revisited
This study investigated the generalizability of the claim that syntactic priming persists, while only the lexical boost to syntactic priming decays (Hartsuiker, Bernolet, Schoonbaert, Spreybroek & Vanderelst, 2008). We report syntactic priming experiments and corresponding memory experiments featuring a lag manipulation (LAG 0, 2 and 6) for three different syntactic contrasts in Dutch: transitives (Experiments 1a and b), datives (Experiments 2a and b) and the choice between auxiliary-participle and participle-auxiliary word order in relative clauses (Experiments 3a and b). Even though prime and target constructions...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Dynamically adapted context-specific hyper-articulation: Feedback from interlocutors affects speakers’ subsequent pronunciations
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Esteban Buz, Michael K. Tanenhaus, T. Florian Jaeger We ask whether speakers can adapt their productions when feedback from their interlocutors suggests that previous productions were perceptually confusable. To address this question, we use a novel web-based task-oriented paradigm for speech recording, in which participants produce instructions towards a (simulated) partner with naturalistic response times. We manipulate (1) whether a target word with a voiceless plosive (e.g., pill) occurs in the presence of a voiced ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 2, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Prosody conveys speaker’s intentions: Acoustic cues for speech act perception
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler Action-theoretic views of language posit that the recognition of others’ intentions is key to successful interpersonal communication. Yet, speakers do not always code their intentions literally, raising the question of which mechanisms enable interlocutors to exchange communicative intents. The present study investigated whether and how prosody—the vocal tone—contributes to the identification of “unspoken” intentions. Single (non-)words were spoken with six intonations re...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Similarity-based competition in relative clause production and comprehension
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Gina F. Humphreys, Jelena Mirković, Silvia P. Gennari This work investigates the role of semantic similarity in sentence production and comprehension. Previous research suggests that animacy and conceptual similarity of the noun concepts within complex descriptive phrases modulate structural preferences in production, and processing cost in comprehension. For example, animate-head phrases such as the girl that the boy is pulling are rare in production and more difficult to understand in comprehension. In contrast, phra...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Many neighborhoods: Phonological and perceptual neighborhood density in lexical production and perception
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Susanne Gahl, Julia F. Strand We examine the relationship of lexical representations, pronunciation variation, and word recognition, by investigating effects of two lexical variables: Phonological Neighborhood Density (the number of words that can be formed by a single phoneme substitution, addition, or deletion from the target word), as well as a measure of the perceptual similarity of a target word to other words in the lexicon. We show that perceptual similarity to other words affects recognition, but not production. ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Fundamental causes of systematic and random variability in recognition memory
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Lee Averell, Melissa Prince, Andrew Heathcote Progress in understanding recognition memory has been hampered by confounding among effects associated with the study position, test position and study-test lag factors that are intrinsic to the widely used study-test list paradigm. For example, the list-length effect – once considered a robust benchmark phenomenon – is now known to be either weak or absent when confounding effects associated with these factors are controlled. We investigate two effects of recent theoretical...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Production predicts comprehension: Animacy effects in Mandarin relative clause processing
This article investigates the relationship between production and comprehension of relative clauses in Mandarin Chinese. In a picture description task, we find strong head noun animacy effects on relative clause production despite the fact that Mandarin has head-final relative clauses ([[relative clause] head noun]), so that the animate/inanimate head noun is uttered late. These and other production results have implications for theories of incremental language planning. We then used corpus analyses to investigate the distribution of structure–message pairings in the language that result from these animacy-based prod...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Production–comprehension asymmetries and the acquisition of evidential morphology
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Ercenur Ünal, Anna Papafragou Although children typically comprehend the links between specific forms and their meanings before they produce the forms themselves, the opposite pattern also occurs. The nature of these ‘reverse asymmetries’ between production and comprehension remains debated. Here we focus on a striking case where production precedes comprehension in the acquisition of Turkish evidential morphology and explore theoretical explanations of this asymmetry. We show that 3- to 6-year-old Turkis...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Examining the relationship between comprehension and production processes in code-switched language
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Rosa E. Guzzardo Tamargo, Jorge R. Valdés Kroff, Paola E. Dussias We employ code-switching (the alternation of two languages in bilingual communication) to test the hypothesis, derived from experience-based models of processing (e.g., Boland, Tanenhaus, Carlson, & Garnsey, 1989; Gennari & MacDonald, 2009), that bilinguals are sensitive to the combinatorial distributional patterns derived from production and that they use this information to guide processing during the comprehension of code-switched...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Distraction in verbal short-term memory: Insights from developmental differences
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Emily M. Elliott, Robert W. Hughes, Alicia Briganti, Tanya N. Joseph, John E. Marsh, Bill Macken The contribution of two mechanisms of auditory distraction in verbal serial short-term memory—interference with the serial rehearsal processes used to support short-term recall and general attentional diversion—was investigated by exploiting differences in auditory distraction in children and adults. Experiment 1 showed that serial rehearsal plays a role in children’s as well as adults’ distractibility: Audito...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The mechanisms of determiner selection and its relation to lexical selection: An ERP study
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Elisah Dhooge, Wouter De Baene, Robert J. Hartsuiker The language production literature has given only little attention to the dynamics of closed class word selection, such as determiner selection, and its temporal relation to the selection of open class words. The goal of this paper was to investigate whether determiner selection follows serially after lexical selection, or whether there is cascading. If there is cascading, the additional goal was to determine whether the selection of the correct determiner involves a competitive ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Use of bound morphemes (noun particles) in word segmentation by Japanese-learning infants
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Etsuko Haryu, Sachiyo Kajikawa Recent studies have shown that English-, French-, and German-learning infants begin to use determiners to segment adjacent nouns before their first birthday. The present research extended the investigation to a typologically different language, Japanese, focusing on infants’ use of a high-frequency particle ga, a subject-marker. In Japanese, a particle follows, rather than precedes, the noun, and is usually followed by a predicate verb; thus particles rarely occur at utterance edges. Furthermore,...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Domain-specific processing in short-term serial order memory
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Alexander Soemer, Satoru Saito Recent studies of short-term serial order memory have suggested that the maintenance of order information does not involve domain-specific processes. We carried out two dual-task experiments aimed at resolving several ambiguities in those studies. In our experiments, encoding and response of one serial reconstruction task was embedded within encoding and response of a concurrent serial reconstruction task. Order demands in both tasks were independently varied so as to find revealing patterns of interfe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Learning structure-dependent agreement in a hierarchical artificial grammar
We present a novel way to implement hierarchical structure and test its learnability in an artificial language involving structure-dependent, long-distance agreement relations. In Experiment 1, the grammar was exclusively cued by phonological and prosodic markers similar to those found in natural languages. Experiment 2 contained additional semantic cues in the form of a reference world. At the group level, successful generalization of the phrase structure rules to new words was found in both experiments. Analyses of individual profiles show that a subset of participants also generalized their knowledge to novel phrase str...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Spoken word identification involves accessing position invariant phoneme representations
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 87 Author(s): Jeffrey S. Bowers, Nina Kazanina, Nora Andermane In two adaptation experiments we investigated the role of phonemes in speech perception. Participants repeatedly categorized an ambiguous test word that started with a blended /f/-/s/ fricative (?ail can be perceived as /fail/ or /sail/) or a blended /d/-/b/ stop (?ump can be perceived as /bump/ or /dump/) after exposure to a set of adaptor words. The adaptors all included unambiguous /f/ or /s/ fricatives, or alternatively, /d/ or /b/ stops. In Experiment 1 we manipulated the posit...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cross-language and cross-modal activation in hearing bimodal bilinguals
This study investigates cross-language and cross-modal activation in bimodal bilinguals. Two groups of hearing bimodal bilinguals, natives (Experiment 1) and late learners (Experiment 2), for whom spoken Spanish is their dominant language and Spanish Sign Language (LSE) their non-dominant language, performed a monolingual semantic decision task with word pairs heard in Spanish. Half of the word pairs had phonologically related signed translations in LSE. The results showed that bimodal bilinguals were faster at judging semantically related words when the equivalent signed translations were phonologically related while they...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Spoken word recognition of novel words, either produced or only heard during learning
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Tania S. Zamuner, Elizabeth Morin-Lessard, Stephanie Strahm, Michael P.A. Page Psycholinguistic models of spoken word production differ in how they conceptualize the relationship between lexical, phonological and output representations, making different predictions for the role of production in language acquisition and language processing. This work examines the impact of production on spoken word recognition of newly learned non-words. In Experiment 1, adults were trained on non-words with visual referents; during tra...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 3, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Language as skill: Intertwining comprehension and production
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Nick Chater, Stewart M. McCauley, Morten H. Christiansen Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the ‘abstract knowledge’ viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and pr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Part and whole linguistic experience affect recognition memory for multiword sequences
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 87 Author(s): Cassandra L. Jacobs, Gary S. Dell, Aaron S. Benjamin, Colin Bannard Low frequency words (like wizard) are better remembered in recognition memory than high frequency words like tree. Previously studied low frequency words are endorsed more often than high-frequency words, and unstudied low frequency lures attract fewer false alarms than high frequency lures. In order to evaluate whether repeated experience of phrases has the same effect as that of words, we tested whether infrequent combinations of words (like psychic nephew) are...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 22, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Monitoring sources of event memories: A cross-linguistic investigation
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Ercenur Ünal, Adrienne Pinto, Ann Bunger, Anna Papafragou When monitoring the origins of their memories, people tend to mistakenly attribute memories generated from internal processes (e.g., imagination, visualization) to perception. Here, we ask whether speaking a language that obligatorily encodes the source of information might help prevent such errors. We compare speakers of English to speakers of Turkish, a language that obligatorily encodes information source (direct/perceptual vs. indirect/hearsay or infer...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Listeners beware: Speech production may be bad for learning speech sounds
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Melissa M. Baese-Berk, Arthur G. Samuel Spoken language requires individuals to both perceive and produce speech. Because both processes access lexical and sublexical representations, it is commonly assumed that perception and production involve cooperative processes. However, few studies have directly examined the nature of the relationship between the two modalities, particularly how producing speech influences speech perception. In a series of experiments, we examine the counter-intuitive finding that learning percep...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Talker-specificity and adaptation in quantifier interpretation
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Ilker Yildirim, Judith Degen, Michael K. Tanenhaus, T. Florian Jaeger Linguistic meaning has long been recognized to be highly context-dependent. Quantifiers like many and some provide a particularly clear example of context-dependence. For example, the interpretation of quantifiers requires listeners to determine the relevant domain and scale. We focus on another type of context-dependence that quantifiers share with other lexical items: talker variability. Different talkers might use quantifiers with different inter...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 13, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Source monitoring and associative structure
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Francis S. Bellezza, Jennifer K. Elek, Ru Zhang Paired associates were used to study source memory. In three studies each word of the pairs was presented in one of the four locations of a two by two array. An event code explanation of memory representation, based on the hierarchical propositional network of Anderson and Bower (1974), was used to explain two seemingly paradoxical results: (a) Location identification of the cue word depended on successful target recall, and (b) source memory for the cue and target words ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 10, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A predictive framework for evaluating models of semantic organization in free recall
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Neal W Morton, Sean M. Polyn Research in free recall has demonstrated that semantic associations reliably influence the organization of search through episodic memory. However, the specific structure of these associations and the mechanisms by which they influence memory search remain unclear. We introduce a likelihood-based model-comparison technique, which embeds a model of semantic structure within the context maintenance and retrieval (CMR) model of human memory search. Within this framework, model variants are evalu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Observational word learning: Beyond propose-but-verify and associative bean counting
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Tanja C Roembke, Bob McMurray Learning new words is difficult. In any naming situation, there are multiple possible interpretations of a novel word. Recent approaches suggest that learners may solve this problem by tracking co-occurrence statistics between words and referents across multiple naming situations (e.g. Yu & Smith, 2007), overcoming the ambiguity in any one situation. Yet, there remains debate around the underlying mechanisms. We conducted two experiments in which learners acquired eight word–ob...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Predicting form and meaning: Evidence from brain potentials
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Aine Ito, Martin Corley, Martin J. Pickering, Andrea E. Martin, Mante S. Nieuwland We used ERPs to investigate the pre-activation of form and meaning in language comprehension. Participants read high-cloze sentence contexts (e.g., “The student is going to the library to borrow a…”), followed by a word that was predictable (book), form-related (hook) or semantically related (page) to the predictable word, or unrelated (sofa). At a 500ms SOA (Experiment 1), semantically related words, but not form-rel...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The impact of recent and long-term experience on access to word meanings: Evidence from large-scale internet-based experiments
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 87 Author(s): Jennifer M. Rodd, Zhenguang G. Cai, Hannah N. Betts, Betsy Hanby, Catherine Hutchinson, Aviva Adler Many word forms map onto multiple meanings (e.g., “ace”). The current experiments explore the extent to which adults reshape the lexical–semantic representations of such words on the basis of experience, to increase the availability of more recently accessed meanings. A naturalistic web-based experiment in which primes were presented within a radio programme (Experiment 1; N =1800) and a lab-based experiment (Ex...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The role of the morpho-phonological word-pattern unit in single-word production in Hebrew
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 87 Author(s): Avital Deutsch, Tamar Malinovitch Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated interwoven units: (1) a consonantal root morpheme usually comprising three consonants, embedded within (2) a word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels+consonants. The word-pattern unit provides segmental, vocalic and metrical structure information about the word. Using the picture–word interference paradigm with auditorily presented distractors, we investigated the role of the word-patterns within the nominal...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Modeling confidence and response time in associative recognition
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Chelsea Voskuilen, Roger Ratcliff Research examining models of memory has focused on differences in the shapes of ROC curves across tasks and has used these differences to argue for and against the existence of multiple memory processes. ROC functions are usually obtained from confidence judgments, but the reaction times associated with these judgments are rarely considered. The RTCON2 diffusion model for confidence judgments has previously been applied to data from an item recognition paradigm. It provided an alternativ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 30, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Accommodation to an unlikely episodic state
Discussion (QUD) whether it was John or Bill who left and Speaker B’s reply fails to address this QUD. A different possibility is that the epistemic state of the speaker of (ia) is somewhat unlikely or uneven: the speaker knows that someone left, and that it was John or Bill, but doesn’t know which one. The results of four acceptability judgment studies confirmed that (ia) is less good or coherent than (ib) (Experiment 1), but not due to failure to address the QUD implicitly introduced by the disjunction because the penalty for disjunction persisted even in the presence of a different overt QUD (Experiment 2) a...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 27, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in English” [J. Mem. Lang. 69 (2013) 619–633]
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Elizabeth R. Schotter (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Phonetic variation in bilingual speech: A lens for studying the production–comprehension link
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Melinda Fricke, Judith F. Kroll, Paola E. Dussias We exploit the unique phonetic properties of bilingual speech to ask how processes occurring during planning affect speech articulation, and whether listeners can use the phonetic modulations that occur in anticipation of a codeswitch to help restrict their lexical search to the appropriate language. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual codeswitching in the Bangor Miami Corpus (Deuchar, Davies, Herring, Parafita Couto, & Carter, 2014) reveals that in anticipation...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 22, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Learning to speak by listening: Transfer of phonotactics from perception to production
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Audrey K. Kittredge, Gary S. Dell The language production and perception systems rapidly learn novel phonotactic constraints. In production, for example, producing syllables in which /f/ is restricted to onset position (e.g. as /h/ is in English) causes one’s speech errors to mirror that restriction. We asked whether or not perceptual experience of a novel phonotactic distribution transfers to production. In three experiments, participants alternated hearing and producing strings of syllables. In the same condition...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Reactive and proactive control in bilingual word production: An investigation of influential factors
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Fengyang Ma, Shengcao Li, Taomei Guo The present study examined how reactive control (indexed by switching costs) and proactive control (indexed by mixing costs) during bilingual language production was modulated by three factors reflected by different time-courses of stimulus presentation. In three experiments, unbalanced Chinese–English bilinguals named digits in Chinese or English according to a naming cue. In Experiment 1, switching costs reduced when participants had longer preparation time to select the targ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Retrieval-induced forgetting in item recognition: Retrieval specificity revisited
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Julia Rupprecht, Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the finding that retrieval practice on a subset of studied items can induce later forgetting of related unpracticed items. Although previous studies indicated that RIF is retrieval specific – i.e., it arises after retrieval practice but not after reexposure cycles -, the results of more recent work suggest otherwise, indicating that some reexposure formats can induce RIF very similar to how retrieval practice does. Whereas this p...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 10, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Telling the world’s least funny jokes: On the quantification of humor as entropy
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Chris Westbury, Cyrus Shaoul, Gail Moroschan, Michael Ramscar In assessing aphasics or conducting experiments using a lexical decision task, we have observed informally that some non-words (NWs) reliably make people laugh. In this paper, we describe a set of studies aimed at illuminating what underlies this effect, performing the first quantitative test of a 200year old theory of humor proposed by Schopenhauer (1818). We begin with a brief overview of the history of humor theories. Schopenhauer’s theory is formula...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 7, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

He did it! She did it! No, she did not! Multiple causal explanations and the continued influence of misinformation
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Ullrich K.H. Ecker, Stephan Lewandowsky, Candy S.C. Cheung, Murray T. Maybery Two types of misinformation effects are discussed in the literature—the post-event misinformation effect and the continued influence effect. The former refers to the distorting memorial effects of misleading information that is presented after valid event encoding; the latter refers to information that is initially presented as true but subsequently turns out to be false and continues to affect memory and reasoning despite the correct...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 27, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Letters don’t matter: No effect of orthography on the perception of conversational speech
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Holger Mitterer, Eva Reinisch It has been claimed that learning to read changes the way we perceive speech, with detrimental effects for words with sound–spelling inconsistencies. Because conversational speech is peppered with segment deletions and alterations that lead to sound–spelling inconsistencies, such an influence would seriously hinder the perception of conversational speech. We hence tested whether the orthographic coding of a segment influences its deletion costs in perception. German glottal sto...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 11, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Is awareness of the ability to forget (or to remember) critical for demonstrating directed forgetting?
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 85 Author(s): Nathaniel L. Foster, John Dunlosky, Lili Sahakyan Directed forgetting magnitude increases when participants use forgetting strategies (Foster & Sahakyan, 2011). Furthermore, intentional forgetting ability may depend on memory monitoring if active engagement in the task is motivated by awareness of this ability. Accordingly, across four experiments, we investigated whether people judged that they could engage in intentional forgetting by measuring the sensitivity of list-level, or global, judgments of learning (JOLs). Pa...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 28, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The effect of plausibility on eye movements in reading: Testing E-Z Reader’s null predictions
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 85 Author(s): Matthew J. Abbott, Adrian Staub The E-Z Reader 10 model of eye movements in reading (Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009) posits that the process of word identification strictly precedes the process of integration of a word into its syntactic and semantic context. The present study reports a single large-scale (N =112) eyetracking experiment in which the frequency and plausibility of a target word in each sentence were factorially manipulated. The results were consistent with E-Z Reader’s central predictions: freque...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 27, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Eye movements in reading and information processing: Keith Rayner’s 40year legacy
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Charles Clifton, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson, Albrecht W. Inhoff, Simon P. Liversedge, Erik D. Reichle, Elizabeth R. Schotter Keith Rayner’s extraordinary scientific career revolutionized the field of reading research and had a major impact on almost all areas of cognitive psychology. In this article, we review some of his most significant contributions. We begin with Rayner’s research on eye movement control, including the development of paradigms for answering questions about the perceptual spa...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The advantage of starting big: Learning from unsegmented input facilitates mastery of grammatical gender in an artificial language
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 85 Author(s): Noam Siegelman, Inbal Arnon Why is it difficult to learn a second language as an adult? We focus on the way adults’ existing knowledge of words impacts L2 learning. We suggest adults’ prior knowledge leads them to rely less on multiword units, and that this hinders learning certain grammatical relations between words. We test this prediction in two artificial language learning studies of grammatical gender with adult learners. In the first study, we manipulate whether the artificial language is segmented during initi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 12, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Turning a blind eye to the lexicon: ERPs show no cross-talk between lip-read and lexical context during speech sound processing
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 85 Author(s): Martijn Baart, Arthur G. Samuel Electrophysiological research has shown that pseudowords elicit more negative Event-Related Potentials (i.e., ERPs) than words within 250ms after the lexical status of a speech token is defined (e.g., after hearing the onset of “ga” in the Spanish word “lechuga”, versus “da” in the pseudoword “lechuda”). Since lip-read context also affects speech sound processing within this time frame, we investigated whether these two context effects on speech perc...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 31, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The list-length effect does not discriminate between models of recognition memory
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 85 Author(s): Jeffrey Annis, Joshua Guy Lenes, Holly A. Westfall, Amy H. Criss, Kenneth J. Malmberg Dennis, Lee, and Kinnell (2008) claimed that they obtained evidence for a null list-length effect (LLE) for recognition memory, and that their finding was consistent with context-noise models and inconsistent with item-noise models of memory. This claim has since been repeated in several articles (e.g., Kinnell & Dennis, 2011; Turner, Dennis, & Van Zandt, 2013). However, a more thorough investigation of their data indicates t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 25, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Examining the effects of active versus inactive bilingualism on executive control in a carefully matched non-immigrant sample
We examined the effects of bilingualism on executive control in older adults by comparing active and inactive bilinguals and monolinguals matched on lifestyle, socio-economic status, education, IQ, gender, and age. In the Simon arrow task, no effect of bilingualism was observed on overall RTs or the Simon effect. In the task-switching paradigm, although there was a difference between active (but not inactive) bilinguals and monolinguals on raw switching costs, the groups did not differ on overall RTs and proportional switching or mixing costs. Thus, our findings do not reveal an overall cognitive advantage of bilingualism ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research