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The motoric fluency effect on metamemory
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Jonathan A. Susser, Jennifer Panitz, Zachary Buchin, Neil W. Mulligan Predictions of future memory are often influenced by the ease or fluency of processing information. Susser and Mulligan (2015) recently demonstrated that motoric fluency (of writing with the dominant or non-dominant hand) may likewise affect these predictions. In the present study, we report five experiments that specify the locus of this motoric fluency effect. In Experiment 1, we examined whether the effect was driven by differences in effective study time across...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 22, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cover 4: Barcode/filler advert language_ed_192x262.pdf
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 18, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cover 3: Contents continued
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 18, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The lexical boost effect is not diagnostic of lexically-specific syntactic representations
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Christoph Scheepers, Claudine N. Raffray, Andriy Myachykov Structural priming implies that speakers/listeners unknowingly re-use syntactic structure over subsequent utterances. Previous research found that structural priming is reliably enhanced when lexical content is repeated (lexical boost effect). A widely held assumption is that structure-licensing heads enjoy a privileged role in lexically boosting structural priming. The present comprehension-to-production priming experiments investigated whether head-constituents (verbs) vers...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 16, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Priming plural ambiguities
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Mora Maldonado, Emmanuel Chemla, Benjamin Spector Sentences that involve two or more plural expressions, such as numerical expressions, give rise to systematic ambiguities. For example, the sentence Two boys have three balloons can either mean that there are two boys who, between them, have three balloons (cumulative reading) or that there are two boys who each have three balloons (distributive reading). In this paper, we report the results of three experiments which show that the distributive/cumulative ambiguity can give rise to pr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 7, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The list strength effect in cued recall
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Jack H. Wilson, Amy H. Criss Episodic memory is the process by which information about experienced events is encoded and retrieved. Successful retrieval of episodic memories is dependent on the way in which memory is tested and as a result many effects and theories of episodic memory are task dependent. One such finding is the list strength effect. In free recall, a positive list strength effect is observed; memory for a given item is harmed by the presence of other strongly encoded items and helped by the presence of other weakly en...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 7, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Revising deference: Intuitive beliefs about category structure constrain expert deference
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Alexander Noyes, Frank C. Keil Concepts are grounded in intuitive theories, yet intuitive theories are often sparse and incomplete. Deferring to experts can potentially fill those gaps. Sometimes experts convey new information, such as discovering a new planet (Experiment 1 and 3). Other times they revise past conclusions, such as concluding that Pluto is actually not a planet (Experiment 2 and 3). For non-experts to maintain scientific accuracy, they need to assimilate the expert judgments in either case. However, we find that peopl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 2, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Similarity-based interference in sentence comprehension: Literature review and Bayesian meta-analysis
We report a comprehensive review of the published reading studies on retrieval interference in reflexive-/reciprocal-antecedent and subject-verb dependencies. We also provide a quantitative random-effects meta-analysis of eyetracking and self-paced reading studies. We show that the empirical evidence is only partly consistent with cue-based retrieval as implemented in the ACT-R-based model of sentence processing by Lewis and Vasishth (2005) (LV05) and that there are important differences between the reviewed dependency types. In non-agreement subject-verb dependencies, there is evidence for inhibitory interference in confi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 28, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Word frequency predicts translation asymmetry
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Anna Ibrahim, Patricia E. Cowell, Rosemary A. Varley Bilingualism studies report asymmetries in word processing across languages. Access to L2 words is slower and sensitive to semantic blocking. These observations inform influential models of bilingual processing, which propose autonomous lexicons with different processing routes. In a series of experiments, we explored an alternative hypothesis that the asymmetries are due to frequency of use. Using a within-language ‘translation’ task, involving high/low frequency (HF/L...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 21, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Self-monitoring for speech errors: Two-stage detection and repair with and without auditory feedback
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Sieb G. Nooteboom, Hugo Quené Two experiments are reported, eliciting segmental speech errors and self-repairs. Error frequencies, detection frequencies, error-to-cutoff times and cutoff-to-repair times were assessed with and without auditory feedback, for errors against four types of segmental oppositions. Main hypotheses are (a) prearticulatory and postarticulatory detection of errors is reflected in a bimodal distribution of error-to-cutoff times; (b) after postarticulatory error detection repairs need to be planned in a ti...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 15, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How do violations of Gricean maxims affect reading?
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Kumiko Fukumura, Roger P.G. van Gompel Four eye-tracking experiments examined how violations of the Gricean maxim of quantity affect reading. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that first-pass reading times for size-modified definite nouns (the small towel) were longer when the modifier was redundant, as the context contained one rather than two possible referents, whereas first-pass times for bare nouns (the towel) were unaffected by whether the context contained multiple referents that resulted in ambiguity. Experiment 3 showed that unlike...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 13, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Balancing Type I error and power in linear mixed models
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Hannes Matuschek, Reinhold Kliegl, Shravan Vasishth, Harald Baayen, Douglas Bates Linear mixed-effects models have increasingly replaced mixed-model analyses of variance for statistical inference in factorial psycholinguistic experiments. Although LMMs have many advantages over ANOVA, like ANOVAs, setting them up for data analysis also requires some care. One simple option, when numerically possible, is to fit the full variance-covariance structure of random effects (the maximal model; Barr, Levy, Scheepers & Tily, 2013), presu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 10, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Survival processing versus self-reference: A memory advantage following descriptive self-referential encoding
We report five experiments comparing survival processing to a descriptive self-reference task in which participants rated how well trait words described them. Rating trait adjectives for survival value led to higher levels of recall and recognition than rating them for their relevance to a moving home scenario. Rating the adjectives for self-reference, however, led to higher levels of recall (Experiments 1 and 3) and recollection (Experiment 2) than survival rating. Experiment 4 replaced trait adjectives with trait nouns and found that self-reference led to greater recognition accuracy than survival processing. Experiment ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 4, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Reflexive attraction in comprehension is selective
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Dan Parker, Colin Phillips Many studies have shown that attraction effects are consistently found for linguistic dependencies like subject-verb agreement, e.g., * The key to the cabinets are on the table. However, not all dependencies are equally susceptible to attraction. A parade case involves reflexive-antecedent dependencies, which rarely show attraction effects. The contrast between agreement and reflexives with respect to attraction has motivated various proposals regarding the memory architecture for the parser, including the us...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 26, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

If you want a quick kiss, make it count: How choice of syntactic construction affects event construal
We present a theory of how syntax affects the construal of event similarity and duration in a way that is systematically predictable from the interaction of mass/count syntax and verb semantics, and test these predictions in six studies. Punctive events in count syntax (give a kiss) and durative events in mass syntax (give advice) are construed as taking less time than in transitive frame (kiss and advise). Durative verbs in count syntax (give a talk), however, result in a semantic shift, orthogonal to duration estimates. These results demonstrate how syntactic and semantic structure together systematically affect event co...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 18, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Position-element frequency learning is dissociable from Hebb repetition learning
This study examined whether and how the position-element association is learned as a form of long-term knowledge dissociated from other forms of knowledge such as sequence knowledge acquired in the Hebb list repetition paradigm. Laboratory learning experiments demonstrated that repeated exposure to a specific position-element association facilitated subsequent recall of the position-element association with experimental control of other aspects of to-be-learned statistical structure of the artificial phonotactics. The experiments also demonstrated that the positional frequency learning was more gradual than Hebb list learn...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 9, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The cave of shadows: Addressing the human factor with generalized additive mixed models
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Harald Baayen, Shravan Vasishth, Reinhold Kliegl, Douglas Bates Generalized additive mixed models are introduced as an extension of the generalized linear mixed model which makes it possible to deal with temporal autocorrelational structure in experimental data. This autocorrelational structure is likely to be a consequence of learning, fatigue, or the ebb and flow of attention within an experiment (the ‘human factor’). Unlike molecules or plots of barley, subjects in psycholinguistic experiments are intelligent beings that...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 6, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Recognizing what matters: Value improves recognition by selectively enhancing recollection
We examined the effects of value on recognition by assessing its contribution to recollection and familiarity. In three experiments, participants studied English words, each associated with a point-value they would earn for correct recognition, with the goal of maximizing their score. In Experiment 1, participants provided Remember/Know judgments. In Experiment 2 participants indicated whether items were recollected or if not, their degree of familiarity along a 6-point scale. In Experiment 3, recognition of words was accompanied by a test of memory for incidental details. Across all experiments, participants were more lik...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 6, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Examining what prestudy and immediate judgments of learning reveal about the bases of metamemory judgments
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Jodi Price, Alan Harrison Across three experiments we examined the basis for participants’ judgments of learning (JOLs) – memory beliefs or fluency – by manipulating item relatedness and font size and collecting prestudy JOLs, immediate JOLs, or both types (combination) of JOLs. Experiment 3 also measured self-paced study time as an indirect measure of participants’ perceived fluency of items. All three experiments revealed higher prestudy, immediate, and combination JOLs for related, and large font items than f...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - January 4, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cognitive load makes speech sound fast, but does not modulate acoustic context effects
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Hans Rutger Bosker, Eva Reinisch, Matthias J. Sjerps In natural situations, speech perception often takes place during the concurrent execution of other cognitive tasks, such as listening while viewing a visual scene. The execution of a dual task typically has detrimental effects on concurrent speech perception, but how exactly cognitive load disrupts speech encoding is still unclear. The detrimental effect on speech representations may consist of either a general reduction in the robustness of processing of the speech signal (‘n...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 23, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Does prediction error drive one-shot declarative learning?
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Alexander Kaula, Michael C. Anderson, Richard Henson The role of prediction error (PE) in driving learning is well-established in fields such as classical and instrumental conditioning, reward learning and procedural memory; however, its role in human one-shot declarative encoding is less clear. According to one recent hypothesis, PE reflects the divergence between two probability distributions: one reflecting the prior probability (from previous experiences) and the other reflecting the sensory evidence (fr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 18, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Visual multi-element processing as a pre-reading predictor of decoding skill
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Eduardo Onochie-Quintanilla, Sylvia Defior, Ian C. Simpson A lack of longitudinal studies impedes the understanding of whether visual processing skills significantly influence reading performance. The present study assessed if multi-element processing (MEP), a visual processing task comprising only non-verbal stimuli, was predominantly related with decoding or sight-word reading. One hundred Spanish pre-reading children were evaluated on their MEP, naming speed (RAN), phonemic awareness (PA), letter knowledge (LK) and IQ. Early reading...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

False positives and other statistical errors in standard analyses of eye movements in reading
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Titus von der Malsburg, Bernhard Angele In research on eye movements in reading, it is common to analyze a number of canonical dependent measures to study how the effects of a manipulation unfold over time. Although this gives rise to the well-known multiple comparisons problem, i.e. an inflated probability that the null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected (Type I error), it is accepted standard practice not to apply any correction procedures. Instead, there appears to be a widespread belief that corrections are not necessary because th...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Evaluating mechanisms of proactive facilitation in cued recall
We examined multiple possible explanations for proactive facilitation, including whether proactive facilitation was driven by changes in response threshold, whether participants encoded the pairs with repeated items and associations better during the second study list, or whether participants spent more time searching memory for A-Br pairs. In general, the data appear to be most consistent with the idea that some items, when encountered a second time, are encoded more completely while others are not. Implications for models of memory are discussed. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Form overrides meaning when bilinguals monitor for errors
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Iva Ivanova, Victor S. Ferreira, Tamar H. Gollan Bilinguals rarely produce unintended language switches, which may in part be because switches are detected and corrected by an internal monitor. But are language switches easier or harder to detect than within-language semantic errors? To approximate internal monitoring, bilinguals listened (Experiment 1) or read aloud (Experiment 2) stories, and detected language switches (translation equivalents or semantically unrelated to expected words) and within-language errors (semantically relat...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

When distraction benefits memory through semantic similarity
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Maciej Hanczakowski, C. Philip Beaman, Dylan M. Jones The processing of the relation between targets and distracters which underpins the impairment in memory for visually presented words when accompanied by semantically related auditory distracters—the between-sequence semantic similarity effect—might also disambiguate category membership of to-be-remembered words, bringing about improved memory for these words at recall. In this series of experiments the usual impairment of the between-sequence semantic similarity effect i...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Predictability affects production: Thematic roles can affect reference form selection
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Elise C. Rosa, Jennifer E. Arnold Speakers use pronouns when referring to information that is topical, recently mentioned, or salient in the discourse. Although such information is often predictable, there is conflicting evidence about whether predictability affects reference form production. This debate centers on the question of whether reference form is influenced by the predictability of certain thematic roles. While some (Arnold, 2001) argue that referents in certain thematic roles are more likely to be pronominalized, others (Fuk...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Empirical logit analysis is not logistic regression
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Seamus Donnelly, Jay Verkuilen Many recent psycholinguistic studies have used empirical logit analysis as a substitute for mixed-effects logistic regression. In this paper, we describe the differences between empirical logit analysis and mixed-effects logistic regression and highlight three interacting sources of bias in empirical logit analysis. We then report on two sets of simulations comparing logistic regression and empirical logit analysis. We show that relative to logistic regression, empirical logit analysis generally yields bi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How do children learn to avoid referential ambiguity? Insights from eye-tracking
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Hugh Rabagliati, Alexander Robertson Children have considerable difficulty producing informative and unambiguous referring expressions, a fact that still lacks a full explanation. Potential insight can come from psycholinguistic models of ambiguity avoidance in adults, which suggest that, before describing any scene, speakers pro-actively monitor for some — but not all — types of potential ambiguity, and then subsequently monitor whether their just-produced expression provides an ambiguous description. Our experiments used ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Bimodal language switching: New insights from signing and typing
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94 Author(s): Simone Schaeffner, Laia Fibla, Andrea M. Philipp Language switching typically refers to unimodal switching between two spoken languages. In bimodal language switching, one language is produced vocally and the other language is produced manually (e.g., a sign language). We compared unimodal language switching with two different kinds of bimodal language switching for non-signers. In Experiment 1a and 1b participants switched between speaking and newly learned signs. Participants of Experiment 2 switched between two originally spoken lan...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 3, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Processing of native and nonnative inflected words: Beyond affix stripping
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Kira Gor, Anna Chrabaszcz, Svetlana Cook Two auditory lexical decision tasks explore the role of case form (citation or oblique) and the type of inflection (overt or zero). In native speakers, the study reports an additional processing cost for both overtly and zero-inflected oblique-case nouns compared to the same nouns in the citation form. It is interpreted as the cost of checking the recomposed word within the inflectional paradigm rather than the cost of affix stripping, because there is no affix to strip in zero-inflected words....
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 23, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Adaptive memory: Temporal, semantic, and rating-based clustering following survival processing
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): James S. Nairne, Mindi Cogdill, Melissa Lehman Processing items for their survival relevance often produces a robust memory advantage. The current experiments assessed possible proximate mechanisms responsible for this advantage by assessing output strategies during free recall. Previous research has shown that item clustering during recall can provide diagnostic information about the structure of representations in episodic memory, particularly the encoding of temporal, semantic, and source information. Following survival processing ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 23, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The multimodal nature of spoken word processing in the visual world: Testing the predictions of alternative models of multimodal integration
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Alastair C. Smith, Padraic Monaghan, Falk Huettig Ambiguity in natural language is ubiquitous, yet spoken communication is effective due to integration of information carried in the speech signal with information available in the surrounding multimodal landscape. Language mediated visual attention requires visual and linguistic information integration and has thus been used to examine properties of the architecture supporting multimodal processing during spoken language comprehension. In this paper we test predictions generated by alt...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Retrieval-induced versus context-induced forgetting: Can restudy preceded by context change simulate retrieval-induced forgetting?
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Julia Rupprecht, Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the finding that retrieval practice on a subset of studied items can induce later forgetting of related unpracticed items. The context account of RIF, which attributes RIF to a mismatch of study context and reinstated context at test for the unpracticed items, claims that RIF effects can be simulated by restudy trials when these trials are preceded by context change. To test this proposal, we compared across three experiments effects of retrieval pr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

How beliefs can impact judgments of learning: Evaluating analytic processing theory with beliefs about fluency
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Michael L. Mueller, John Dunlosky According to analytic-processing theory, when people are asked to judge their future memory performance, they search for cues that will help them reduce their uncertainty for how well they will remember each item. For instance, many people believe that more fluently performing a task is related to better task performance. Thus, when studying items for an upcoming test, items that are believed to be more easily processed are expected to be judged as more memorable. To test this prediction, we had parti...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Working memory capacity, strategic allocation of study time, and value-directed remembering
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Matthew K. Robison, Nash Unsworth To further elucidate the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and long-term memory (LTM), the present study investigated how individual differences in WMC relate to strategic encoding and subsequent retrieval in a self-regulated value-directed remembering paradigm. Participants were given 2min to study lists of words that varied in explicit value and then were asked to freely recall the words they had just studied. In Experiment 1, participants were not given any guidance on effective en...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Retraction Notice: “Communicative gestures facilitate problem solving for both communicators and recipients” [J. Mem. Lang. 55 (2006) 47–63]
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Sandra C. Lozano, Barbara Tversky (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 9, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Remember dax? Relations between children ’s cross-situational word learning, memory, and language abilities
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Haley A. Vlach, Catherine A. DeBrock Learning new words is a difficult task. Children are able to resolve the ambiguity of the task and map words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across multiple moments in time, a behavior termed cross-situational word learning (CSWL). Although we observe developments in CSWL abilities across childhood, the cognitive processes that drive individual and developmental change have yet to be identified. This research tested a developmental systems account by examining whether multiple ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Goals and strategies influence lexical prediction during sentence comprehension
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Trevor Brothers, Tamara Y. Swaab, Matthew J. Traxler Predictive processing is a critical component of language comprehension, but exactly how and why comprehenders generate lexical predictions remains to be determined. Here, we present two experiments suggesting that lexical prediction is influenced by top-down comprehension strategies, and that lexical predictions are not always generated automatically as a function of the preceding context. In Experiment 1 (N =24), participants read predictable and unpredictable sentence-final words...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The emotional impact of verbal irony: Eye-tracking evidence for a two-stage process
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Ruth Filik, Emily Brightman, Chloe Gathercole, Hartmut Leuthold In this paper we investigate the socio-emotional functions of verbal irony. Specifically, we use eye-tracking while reading to assess moment-to-moment processing of a character’s emotional response to ironic versus literal criticism. In Experiment 1, participants read stories describing a character being upset following criticism from another character. Results showed that participants initially more easily integrated a hurt response following ironic criticism; but ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 23, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Moving beyond the monosyllable in models of skilled reading: Mega-study of disyllabic nonword reading
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Petroula Mousikou, Jasmin Sadat, Rebecca Lucas, Kathleen Rastle Most English words are polysyllabic, yet research on reading aloud typically focuses on monosyllables. Forty-one skilled adult readers read aloud 915 disyllabic nonwords that shared important characteristics with English words. Stress, pronunciation, and naming latencies were analyzed and compared to data from three computational accounts of disyllabic reading, including a rule-based algorithm (Rastle & Coltheart, 2000) and connectionist approaches (the CDP++ mode...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Relative contributions of semantic and phonological associates to over-additive false recall in hybrid DRM lists
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Jason R. Finley, Victor W. Sungkhasettee, Henry L. Roediger, David A. Balota Two experiments explored false recall of unstudied critical items (e.g., chair) following the presentation of 16 semantic associates to the critical word (e.g., sit, desk), 16 phonological associates to the critical word (e.g., cheer, hair), and every composition of hybrid list in between (e.g., 14 semantic and 2 phonological associates). Results replicated the over-additive pattern of critical false recall from hybrid lists relative to pure lists found by Wa...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 19, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Examining the dynamics of strategic search from long-term memory
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Nash Unsworth In two experiments the dynamic nature of strategic search from long-term memory was examined. Participants retrieved exemplars from various categories over several minutes. Periodically during retrieval participants were presented with a probe asking what strategies, if any, they were currently using to retrieve the desired information. This novel thought probe technique allowed for insights into the nature of in-the-moment retrieval strategies. Across both experiments it was found that participants reported using a vari...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Spoken-word recognition in 2-year-olds: The tug of war between phonological and semantic activation
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Janette Chow, Anne Aimola Davies, Kim Plunkett Previous studies demonstrate that while toddlers can match words with their referent before the age of one, they only begin to extract phonologically- and semantically-related information from speech later in the second year. However, the order and manner in which this information is extracted remains unresolved. In two experiments, we adapted the adult four-picture Visual World Paradigm (VWP) (Huettig & McQueen, 2007) for toddler testing: toddlers hear a spoken word and see pictu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 10, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Do resource constraints affect lexical processing? Evidence from eye movements
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Mallorie Leinenger, Mark Myslín, Keith Rayner, Roger Levy Human language is massively ambiguous, yet we are generally able to identify the intended meanings of the sentences we hear and read quickly and accurately. How we manage and resolve ambiguity incrementally during real-time language comprehension given our cognitive resources and constraints is a major question in human cognition. Previous research investigating resource constraints on lexical ambiguity resolution has yielded conflicting results. Here we present results ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Does working memory have a single capacity limit?
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Robert Taylor, Hana Thomson, David Sutton, Chris Donkin Debate continues over whether visual working memory has a single, fixed capacity. Empirically, performance in working memory tasks worsens as the complexity of stimuli increases. However, there exist two explanations for this result. One proposal is that visual working memory is capable of holding fewer complex stimuli. The alternative proposal is that visual working memory can store 3–4 items, irrespective of their complexity. According to this fixed-capacity explanation, ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 27, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Eye movements in forced-choice recognition: Absolute judgments can preclude relative judgments
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Jeffrey J. Starns, Tina Chen, Adrian Staub Forced choice recognition is usually assumed to involve a relative judgment process in which each test alternative is matched to memory and the one with the highest memory strength is selected. We monitored eye movements during a forced-choice recognition test to determine if absolute judgments also play a role; that is, do participants ever select an item because its memory strength exceeds an absolute criterion without comparing it to the other item? The results strongly supported a role fo...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Competition between phonological and semantic cues in noun class learning
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Jennifer Culbertson, Annie Gagliardi, Kenny Smith Learning noun classification systems, like gender, involves inferring a language-particular set of (often probabilistic) cues to class membership. Previous work has shown that learners rely disproportionately on phonological cues (e.g., Gagliardi & Lidz, 2014; Karmiloff-Smith, 1981). Surprisingly, this occurs even when competing semantic cues are more reliable predictors of class. We investigate two possible explanations for this: first, that phonological cues are more salie...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cleaning working memory: The fate of distractors
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Isabelle Dagry, Evie Vergauwe, Pierre Barrouillet As a capacity-limited system, working memory (WM) is at risk to be cluttered by no-longer-relevant items and distractors, which makes it necessary for WM to have some cleaning mechanism. A prominent approach in WM assumes that active inhibition by deletion of distractors fulfills this function, more efficient inhibition resulting in better WM performance. This hypothesis was tested here in the context of WM span tasks in which distractors have to be processed while maintaining targe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Subject encodings and retrieval interference
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Nathan Arnett, Matthew Wagers Interference has been identified as a cause of processing difficulty in linguistic dependencies, such as the subject-verb relation (Van Dyke and Lewis, 2003). However, while mounting evidence implicates retrieval interference in sentence processing, the nature of the retrieval cues involved - and thus the source of difficulty - remains largely unexplored. Three experiments used self-paced reading and eyetracking to examine the ways in which the retrieval cues provided at a verb characterize subjects. Synt...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research