Presence of Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ticks Removed From Birds in the North of Spain, 2009-2011
This study corroborates the presence of B. turdi and B. valaisiana in ticks from birds in the north of Spain. The presence of these bacteria in larval specimens could suggest the role of birds as their reservoirs, or the occurrence of the cofeeding phenomenon. In addition, the detection of B. turdi and B. valaisiana in H. punctata and I. frontalis ticks, respectively, is reported for the first time. (Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Palomar, A. M., Portillo, A., Santibanez, P., Mazuelas, D., Roncero, L., Gutierrez, O., Oteo, J. A. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Comparison of Vector Efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Northeast and Upper Midwest of the United States for the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii
Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii. In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I. scapularis ticks originating from Minnesota in the Upper Midwest and Connecticut in the Northeast...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Eisen, L., Breuner, N. E., Hojgaard, A., Hoxmeier, J. C., Pilgard, M. A., Replogle, A. J., Biggerstaff, B. J., Dolan, M. C. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) Mixed With Pyriproxyfen for Control of Larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Through Fecal Deposits of Adult Mosquitoes
This study demonstrates that pyriproxyfen can be fecally disseminated into water and control larvae through adult mosquito ingestion and excretion of pyriproxyfen in ASB. (Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Scott, J. M., Seeger, K. E., Gibson-Corrado, J., Muller, G. C., Xue, R.-D. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guarai, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area. Sand flies were captured in forested area close to Pedra Branca Agricultural Project settlement, from March 2006 until December 2007, using Shannon trap. Monthly captures were made from 06:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., and 24-h captures were done twice per semester, from 06:00 a.m. to 06:00 a.m. A total of 10,089 specimens from 30 species were identified. Psychodopygus complexus Mangabeira, Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha &a...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Godoy, R. E., de Santana, A. L. F., Graser, C., Rangel, E. F., Vilela, M. L. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research
Comparison of Adult Mosquito Black-Light and Light-Emitting Diode Traps at Three Cowsheds Located in Malaria-Endemic Areas of the Republic of Korea
Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83.84%), followed by Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (13.66%), Culex pipiens Group (1.67%...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Kim, H.-C., Kim, M.-S., Choi, K.-S., Hwang, D.-U., Johnson, J. L., Klein, T. A. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research
Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Ovine Piroplasmosis, Including the First Report of Theileria annulata (Apicomplexa: Theileridae) in Sheep and Goats from Turkey
Blood and tick samples were collected from 333 apparently healthy sheep and 257 goats as well as 10 sheep exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis in Adana, Gaziantep, and Adiyaman Provinces in southern Turkey. Fully engorged female ticks were selected and maintained in an incubator until they oviposited. The tick carcasses and their egg masses were examined. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. were observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic small ruminants. Genomic DNA isolates from blood of ovine, tick samples, and egg masses were screened for piroplasms by utilizing 18S rRNA polymerase chain rea...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Ozubek, S., Aktas, M. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Longevity and Differential Emergence of Dengue Fever in Two Cities in Sonora, Mexico
Dengue virus, primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito, has rapidly expanded in geographic extent over the past several decades. In some areas, however, dengue fever has not emerged despite established Ae. aegypti populations. The reasons for this are unclear and have sometimes been attributed to socio-economic differences. In 2013 we compared Ae. aegypti adult density and population age structure between two cities in Sonora, Mexico: Hermosillo, which has regular seasonal dengue virus transmission, and Nogales, which has minimal transmission. Larval and pupal abundance was greater in Nogales, and adult den...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Ernst, K. C., Walker, K. R., Reyes-Castro, P., Joy, T. K., Castro-Luque, A. L., Diaz-Caravantes, R. E., Gameros, M., Haenchen, S., Hayden, M. H., Monaghan, A., Jeffrey-Guttierez, E., Carriere, Y., Riehle, M. R. Tags: Vector/Pathogen/Host Interaction, Transmission Source Type: research
Molecular Detection of Leishmania DNA in Wild-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From a Cave in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Leishmania spp. are distributed throughout the world, and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, and thereby giving rise to different transmission cycles. Infection occurs during the bloodmeals of sand flies obtained from a variety of wild and domestic animals, and sometimes from humans. The present study focused on detection of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies from a cave in the state of Minas Gerais. Detection of Leishmania...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Carvalho, G. M. L., Brazil, R. P., Rego, F. D., Ramos, M. C. N. F., Zenobio, A. P. L. A., Andrade Filho, J. D. Tags: Vector/Pathogen/Host Interaction, Transmission Source Type: research
Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia
A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases ...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Santo-Orihuela, P. L., Vassena, C. V., Carvajal, G., Clark, E., Menacho, S., Bozo, R., Gilman, R. H., Bern, C., Marcet, P. L. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Excito-Repellency of Citrus hystrix DC Leaf and Peel Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), Vectors of Human Pathogens
The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1–5% concentrations (90.0–96.4% escape) and the strongest spatial repellent ...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Nararak, J., Sathantriphop, S., Kongmee, M., Bangs, M. J., Chareonviriyaphap, T. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Selected Insecticide Delivery Devices for Management of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) on Beef Cattle
The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = ...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Swiger, S. L., Payne, R. D. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Ovicidal Efficacy of Abametapir Against Eggs of Human Head and Body Lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae)
Studies were undertaken to determine the ovicidal efficacy of 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (abametapir) against eggs of both human head and body lice. Head lice eggs of different ages (0–2, 3–5, and 6–8-d-old eggs) were exposed to varying concentrations of abametapir in isopropanol and concentration-dependent response relationships established based on egg hatch. One hundred percent of all abametapir-treated eggs failed to hatch at the 0.74 and 0.55% concentrations, whereas 100% of 6–8-d-old head louse eggs failed to hatch only at the 0.74% concentration. The LC50 value for abametapir varied, depend...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Bowles, V. M., Yoon, K. S., Barker, S. C., Tran, C., Rhodes, C., Clark, M. J. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Maleck, M., Hollanda, P. d. O., Serdeiro, M. T., Soares, R. O. d. A., Honorio, N. A., Silva, C. G. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Evaluation of Clove Oil, Icaridin, and Transfluthrin for Spatial Repellent Effects in Three Tests Systems Against the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg). The dosages to achieve comparable results with icaridin were lower (Y-olfactometer and double cag...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Nentwig, G., Frohberger, S., Sonneck, R. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Development of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae Under Different Laboratory Conditions
In this study, several life history traits of Ae. albopictus were analyzed to identify upper and lower thresholds of larval density and diet concentration. Survival to pupation, time to pupation, and sex ratio were evaluated under a range of larval densities (0.5–5 larvae/ml) and food levels (0.05–1.6 mg/larva/d) using two larval diets (one locally developed; one developed by the FAO/IAEA). The larvae reared at 28 °C, at a density of 2 larvae/ml and receiving a food dose equal to 0.6 mg/larva/d of a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 50% bovine liver powder (the FAO/IAEA diet), and, as an additive, 0.2 g of ...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Puggioli, A., Carrieri, M., Dindo, M. L., Medici, A., Lees, R. S., Gilles, J. R. L., Bellini, R. Tags: Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents Source Type: research
Amblyomma auricularium (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Florida: New Hosts and Distribution Records
Previous published evidence for the occurrence of an exotic armadillo tick, Amblyomma auricularium (Conil), in Florida is scant, but we found it is fully established and integrated into the state’s tick fauna. We collected 11,192 specimens of this tick from naturalized nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus L., and 14 other species of wild native mammals and birds in Florida, while sampling statewide during 2004 through 2007. In all, we document its specific presence only in 14 contiguous South Florida counties. Moreover, we report the first collections of A. auricularium from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis vi...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Mertins, J. W., Vigil, S. L., Corn, J. L. Tags: Sampling, Distribution, Dispersal Source Type: research
Host-Seeking Phenology of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs in Northwestern California in Relation to Calendar Week, Woodland Type, and Weather Conditions
Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal dens...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Eisen, R. J., Clark, R. J., Monaghan, A. J., Eisen, L., Delorey, M. J., Beard, C. B. Tags: Sampling, Distribution, Dispersal Source Type: research
Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil
Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.–7 a.m. a...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Infran, J. O. M., Souza, D. A., Fernandes, W. S., Casaril, A. E., Eguchi, G. U., Oshiro, E. T., Fernandes, C. E. S., Paranhos Filho, A. C., Oliveira, A. G. Tags: Sampling, Distribution, Dispersal Source Type: research
Egg Hatching and Survival of Immature Stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Under Natural Temperature Conditions During the Cold Season in Buenos Aires, Argentina
In temperate regions, the seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly influenced by temperature. It is assumed that, during the winter season, the population remains as eggs and that the development and population growth of surviving eggs begin during the following spring. The aim of the current study was to assess egg hatching of Ae. aegypti during the winter in Buenos Aires city (Argentina), and analyze the survival of immature stages. The experiments consisted of immersing eggs and studying the development of immature stages of cohorts from June and September under natural temperature conditio...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: De Majo, M. S., Montini, P., Fischer, S. Tags: Population and Community Ecology Source Type: research
Photoperiod Differences in Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species Richness and Abundance in Caves in Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania. The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected with light traps, which were operated for 5 consecutive days in the rainy s...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Campos, A. M., Dos Santos, C. L. C., Stumpp, R., Da Silva, L. H. D., Maia, R. A., Paglia, A. P., Andrade Filho, J. D. Tags: Population and Community Ecology Source Type: research
Simulium maleewongae, a New Species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Thailand
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) maleewongae sp. nov. is described based on the adult males and females, their pupal exuviae, and larvae from Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium gombakense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). It is characterized by the female cibarium with a cup-like appendage, male ventral plate deeply depressed ventromedially, pupal gill composed of an inflated structure and eight slender filaments, cone-shaped pupal terminal hooks, and cocoon with an anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from 10 other species of the same species-group known from C...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Takaoka, H., Srisuka, W., Saeung, A. Tags: Morphology, Systematics, Evolution Source Type: research
Description of Blankaartia shatrovi n. sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) From Brazil
The chigger mite genus Blankaartia includes 28 known species, of which 10 are distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. These species preferentially parasitize birds, but occasionally they can also be found on rodents, bats, and reptiles, showing low host selectivity. In the present study, we report the presence of this genus in Brazil for the first time, including the first report of Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch and Fauran) and the description of a new species of Blankaartia collected from birds (Order Passeriformes). (Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Bassini-Silva, R., Jacinavicius, F. C., Mendoza-Roldan, J. A., Daemon, E., Barros-Battesti, D. M. Tags: Morphology, Systematics, Evolution Source Type: research
A New Species of Sand Fly, Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), From Brazil
A new species of phlebotomine sand fly, Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae sp. n. Brilhante, Sábio & Galati from Xapuri, Acre state, Brazil, is described, with illustrations of male and female adults. (Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Brilhante, A. F., Sabio, P. B., Galati, E. A. B. Tags: Morphology, Systematics, Evolution Source Type: research
Taxonomic Revision of Lipoptilocnema (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), With Notes on Natural History and Forensic Importance of Its Species
Lipoptilocnema Townsend is a small genus of Neotropical Sarcophaginae with a distinctive genitalic morphology. This genus is revised based on the examination of the type series and large numbers of specimens of the seven previously known species, plus three new ones herein described, one from Argentina (L. delfinado Mulieri and Mello-Patiu, sp. nov.), and two from Brazil (L. savana Mulieri and Mello-Patiu, sp. nov. and L. tibanae Mulieri and Mello-Patiu, sp. nov.). All species are described or redescribed and illustrated. Distribution maps and a key for male identification are provided. The taxonomic position of this genus...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Mulieri, P. R., Mello-Patiu, C. A., Aballay, F. H. Tags: Morphology, Systematics, Evolution Source Type: research
Chromosome Painting in Triatomine Insects Reveals Shared Sequences Between X Chromosomes and Autosomes
In order to provide a broad picture on the origin and evolution of holocentric X chromosomes in heteropteran species, we prepared a sex chromosome painting probe by microdissection of the X1 and X2 chromosomes from a kissing bug Mepraia spinolai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Fluorescence in situ hybridization on four species of the Triatomini having different amounts of autosomal heterochromatin and sex chromosome systems show that the Xs probe hybridizes on the euchromatin, located both on autosomes and X chromosomes. The heterochromatic Y chromosome and autosomal heterochromatic regions always appear free of hybr...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Pita, S., Panzera, F., Sanchez, A., Palomeque, T., Lorite, P. Tags: Molecular Biology/Genomics Source Type: research
Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels wer...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Saghafipour, A., Vatandoost, H., Zahraei-Ramazani, A. R., Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M. R., Rassi, Y., Shirzadi, M. R., Akhavan, A. A. Tags: Modeling/GIS, Risk Assessment, Economic Impact Source Type: research
Volume of Larvae Is the Most Important Single Predictor of Mass Temperatures in the Forensically Important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (~50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ~50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Gruner, S. V., Slone, D. H., Capinera, J. L., Turco, M. P. Tags: Direct Injury, Myiasis, Forensics Source Type: research
Comparison of Intrinsic Rate of Different House Fly Densities in a Simulated Condition: A Prediction for House Fly Population and Control Threshold
This study aimed to predict the population changes of house fly population by comparing the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) for different house fly densities in a simulated system. This study first defined the knee points of a known population growth curve as a control threshold by comparing the rm of five densities of house flies in a simulated condition. Later, to understand the interactions between the larval and adult populations, the correlation between larval and adult capacity rate (rc) was studied. The rm values of 300- and 500-fly densities were significantly higher compared with the rm values at densities of 50 a...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Ong, S.-Q., Ahmad, H., Jaal, Z., Rus, A., Fadzlah, F. H. M. Tags: Development, Life History Source Type: research
Chemotaxonomic Profile and Intraspecific Variation in the Blow Fly of Forensic Interest Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to ...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Paula, M. C., Antonialli-Junior, W. F., Mendonca, A., Michelutti, K. B., Eulalio, A. D. M. M., Cardoso, C. A. L., de Lima, T., Von Zuben, C. J. Tags: Behavior, Chemical Ecology Source Type: research
How Zoophilic Japanese Encephalitis Vector Mosquitoes Feed on Humans
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most frequent cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in Asian countries. Several culicine species are potential vectors. The primary JEV vectors feed mainly on cows (a dead-end host for JEV), pigs (an amplifying host), and, occasionally, humans (a dead-end host). It is essential to determine blood-feeding patterns to understand the transmission cycle of the disease. Here we review blood-feeding characteristics of the primary JEV vectors Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui, and Culex gelidus based on experimental works and field surveys conducted in Asian countries. Several studies ...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Tuno, N., Tsuda, Y., Takagi, M. Tags: Review Source Type: research
Limited Evidence for Rickettsia felis as a Cause of Zoonotic Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis in Southern California
Over 90% of human flea-borne rickettsioses cases in California are reported from suburban communities of Los Angeles and Orange counties and are presumed to be associated with either Rickettsia typhi or Rickettsia felis infection. Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) is considered the principal vector for both rickettsiae, and R. felis has largely replaced R. typhi as the presumptive etiologic agent based on the widespread incidence of R. felis in cat flea populations. However, with no evidence to confirm R. felis as the cause of human illness in southern California, coupled with recent findings that showed R. felis to be...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Billeter, S. A., Metzger, M. E. Tags: Forum Source Type: research
Response to Dr. Robertsons Letter to the Editor
(Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Qu, S. X., Song, J. D. Tags: Letter to Editor Source Type: research
Journal of Medical Entomology January 2017 - Vol 54 - No 1 - Front Cover
(Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Cover / Standing Material Source Type: research
Comment on Que et al. 2016
(Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - January 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Robertson, H. M. Tags: Letter to Editor Source Type: research
Reviewers for Journal of Medical Entomology (September 2015-September 2016)
(Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Tags: 2016 Reviewers Source Type: research
Development of a Rickettsia bellii-Specific TaqMan Assay Targeting the Citrate Synthase Gene
We describe the development and validation of a R. bellii-specific, quantitative, real-time PCR TaqMan assay that targets a segment of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. The specificity of this assay was validated against a panel of DNA samples that included 26 species of Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Bartonella, five samples of tick and human DNA, and DNA from 20 isolates of R. bellii, including 11 from North America and nine from South America. A R. bellii control plasmid was constructed, and serial dilutions of the plasmid were used to determine the limit of detection of the assay to be one copy per 4 &...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Hecht, J. A., Allerdice, M. E. J., Krawczak, F. S., Labruna, M. B., Paddock, C. D., Karpathy, S. E. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Domain Collected With Malaise Traps
We report the occurrence for the first time of: 1) B. flaviscutellata, Pintomyia fischeri (Pinto, 1926), Ps. ayrozai, and Psychodopygus carreirai (Barretto, 1946) in the state of Alagoas; 2) Psychodopygus claustrei (Abonnenc, Lèger & Fauran,1979), Psychodopygus amazonensis (Root, 1934), and Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & del ponte, 1927) in the state of Bahia; 3) Nyssomyia anduzei (Rozeboom, 1942) in the state of Pernambuco; and 4) B. flaviscutellata, M. schreiberi, Ps. ayrozai, and Psychodopygus davisi (Root, 1934) in the state of Sergipe. Our results present novel records of sand flies collected with mala...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Shimabukuro, P. H. F., Moreira, J. A. C., Costa, T. S. d. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Anopheles squamosus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Area Targeted for Malaria Elimination, Southern Zambia
Southern Zambia is the focus of strategies to create malaria-free zones. Interventions being rolled out include test and treat strategies and distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets that target vectors that host-seek indoors and late at night. In Macha, Choma District, collections of mosquitoes were made outdoors using barrier screens within homesteads or UV bulb light traps set next to goats, cattle, or chickens during the rainy season of 2015. Anopheline mosquitoes were identified to species using molecular methods and Plasmodium falciparum infectivity was determined by ELISA and real-time qPCR methods. More than 40...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Stevenson, J. C., Simubali, L., Mbambara, S., Musonda, M., Mweetwa, S., Mudenda, T., Pringle, J. C., Jones, C. M., Norris, D. E. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Bionomics and Vector Potential of Culex thriambus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Lake County, California
California statewide West Nile virus (WNV) minimum infection rates in Culex thriambus Dyar mosquitoes are high; however, few specimens are submitted and tested each year, as their distribution seems limited to larval habitats along riparian systems. To evaluate the role of Cx. thriambus in the amplification, maintenance, and overwintering of WNV in Lake County, CA, the bionomics and vector potential of the species was investigated during 2014 and 2015. Culex thriambus was the most abundant mosquito species, with 1,153 adults and 7,624 immatures collected by vacuum aspiration and dip sampling, respectively, at the primary s...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Nelms, B. M., Thiemann, T. C., Bridges, D. N., Williams, A. E., Koschik, M. L., Ryan, B. M., Scott, J. J. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research
Synthesis and Functional Characterization of MAF-1A Peptide Derived From the Larvae of Housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)
The Musca domestica antifungal peptide-1A (MAF-1A peptide) from housefly larvae was synthesized by solid-phase synthesis technique, and antiviral, antioxidant, and antifungal properties were evaluated in this study. Present results indicated that it could significantly inhibit the infection of influenza virus H1N1, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), and Bombyx mori nuclear polyhydrosis virus (BmNPV), which displayed excellent virucidal activities. Antioxidant results demonstrated that the MAF-1A peptide had effective scavenging activity for hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, which were similar...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Zhou, J., Kong, L., Fang, N., Mao, B., Ai, H. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research
Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Vector Biodiversity in High Altitude Atlantic Forest Fragments Within a Semiarid Climate: A New Endemic Area of Spotted-Fever in Brazil
This study reports, for the first time, evidence of infection with Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale and R. sanguineus in Ceará, and Ca. R. andeanae in an Atlantic rainforest environment of Brazil. (Source: Journal of Medical Entomology)
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Moerbeck, L., Vizzoni, V. F., Machado-Ferreira, E., Cavalcante, R. C., Oliveira, S. V., Soares, C. A. G., Amorim, M., Gazeta, G. S. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research
Evaluation of the Honey-Card Technique for Detection of Transmission of Arboviruses in Florida and Comparison With Sentinel Chicken Seroconversion
Zoonotic mosquito-borne viruses, such as the West Nile virus (WNV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), are major public health threats in the United States. Early detection of virus transmission and targeted vector management are critical to protect humans against these pathogens. Sentinel chickens and pool screening of mosquitoes, the most widely used methods of arbovirus early detection, have technical time-lags that compromise their early-detection value. The exploitation of sugar-feeding by trapped mosquitoes for arbovirus surveillance may represent a viable alternative to other methods. Here we compared effe...
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology - November 11, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Burkett-Cadena, N. D., Gibson, J., Lauth, M., Stenn, T., Acevedo, C., Xue, R.-d., McNelly, J., Northey, E., Hassan, H. K., Fulcher, A., Bingham, A. M., van Olphen, J., van Olphen, A., Unnasch, T. R. Tags: Vector-Borne Diseases, Surveillance, Prevention Source Type: research