Inter-Individual Variation in Response to Estrogen in Human Breast Explants
AbstractExposure to estrogen is strongly associated with increased breast cancer risk. While all women are exposed to estrogen, only 12% are expected to develop breast cancer during their lifetime. These women may be more sensitive to estrogen, as rodent models have demonstrated variability in estrogen sensitivity. Our objective was to determine individual variation in expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-induced responses in the normal human breast. Human breast tissue from female donors undergoing reduction mammoplasty surgery were collected for microarray analysis of ER expression. To examine estrogen-induc...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - March 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Expression and Circulating Levels of Perlecan in Breast Cancer - Implications for Oestrogen Dependent Stromal Remodeling
This study shows that perlecan expression and degradation in breast cancer may be linked to the ER status of the tumour. (Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia)
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - March 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Orthotopic Implantation Achieves Better Engraftment and Faster Growth Than Subcutaneous Implantation in Breast Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts
We present our OS implantation method in detail. The re-transplantation rate of TN tumors in each transplant site was significantly higher in OS when compared to SQ tumors (70.1% vs. 32.1%,p 
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ret Receptor Has Distinct Alterations and Functions in Breast Cancer
AbstractRet receptor tyrosine kinase is a proto-oncogene that participates in development of various cancers. Several independent studies have recently identified Ret as a key player in breast cancer. Although Ret overexpression and function have been under investigation, mainly in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, a more comprehensive analysis of the impact of recurring Ret alterations in breast cancer is needed. This review consolidates the current knowledge of Ret alterations and their potential effects in breast cancer. We discuss and integrate data on Ret changes in different breast cancer subtypes and potenti...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

C/EBP ß Isoform Specific Gene Regulation: It’s a Lot more Complicated than you Think!
AbstractIt has been almost 30  years since C/EBPß was discovered. Seminal studies have shown that C/EBPß is a master regulator of mammary gland development and has been shown to control and influence proliferation and differentiation through varying mechanisms. The single-exon C/EBPß mRNA yields at least three different prot ein isoforms which have diverse, specific, context-dependent, and often non-overlapping roles throughout development and breast cancer progression. These roles are dictated by a number of complex factors including: expression levels of other C/EBP family members and their stoichi...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Novel Transcription Factor CREB3L4 Contributes to the Progression of Human Breast Carcinoma
AbstractBreast carcinoma(BC)is the most common cancer type among females globally. Understanding the molecular pathways that trigger the development of BC is crucial for both prevention and treatment. As such, the role of transcription factors (TFs) in the development of BC is a focal point in this field. CREB3s play a critical role in initiating the unfolded protein response (UPR); however, the role of CREB3 family members in breast cancer development remains largely unknown. Here, we mined the ONCOMINE database for the transcriptional data of CREB3s in patients with BC. Then, the regulatory functions of a novel TF, CREB3...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Calcification Microstructure Reflects Breast Tissue Microenvironment
This study explores the hypothesis that microenvironment features may become immortalised within calcification crystallite characteristics thus becoming indicators of tissue pathology. In total, 55 breast calcifications incorporating 3 tissue pathologies (benign – B2, ductal carcinoma in-situ - B5a and invasive malignancy - B5b) from archive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded core needle breast biopsies were analysed using X-ray diffraction. Crystallite size and strain were determined from 548 diffractograms using Williamson-Hall analysis. There was an incr eased crystallinity of hydroxyapatite with tissue malignancy c...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - December 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Circ-TFCP2L1 Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Triple Negative Breast Cancer through Sponging miR-7 by Inhibiting PAK1
In this study, we explored the circRNA expression profiles and possible modulation mechanism of circRNAs on triple negative breast cancer tumourigenesis. We used three pairs of triple negative breast cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues to perform a human circRNA microarray for screening of circRNA expression patterns in TNBC. The results showed that circ-TFCP2L1 was significantly up-regulated in TNBC tissues and cells, tending to have a shorter disease-free survival of TNBC patients. In vitro loss-of-function experiments showed that knockdown of circ-TFCP2L1 significantly suppressed the proliferation and migra...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Exogenous ER α Expression in the Mammary Epithelium Decreases Over Time and Does Not Contribute to p53-Deficient Mammary Tumor Formation in Mice
AbstractApproximately 75% of all breast cancers express the nuclear hormone receptor estrogen receptor α (ERα). However, the majority of mammary tumors from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are ERα-negative. To model ERα-positive breast cancer in mice, we exogenously introduced expression of mouse and human ERα in an existing GEMM of p53-deficient breast cancer. After initial ERα exp ression during mammary gland development, expression was reduced or lost in adult glands and p53-deficient mammary tumors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing analysis of primary mouse...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Redirecting Normal and Cancer Stem Cells to a Mammary Epithelial Cell Fate
AbstractTissue microenvironments, also known as stem cell niches, influence not only resident cells but also cells in surrounding tissues. Physical and biochemical intercellular signals originating from resident stem cells or non-stem cells participate in the homeostasis of the tissue regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, wound healing, tissue remodeling, and tumorigenesis. In recent publications it has been demonstrated that the normal mouse mammary microenvironment can provide development and differentiation guidance to not only resident mammary cells but also cells of non-mammary origin including tumor-derived...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Electron Tomography Revels that Milk Lipids Originate from Endoplasmic Reticulum Domains with Novel Structural Features
AbstractLipid droplets (LD) are dynamically-regulated organelles that originate from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and function in the storage, trafficking and metabolism of neutral lipids. In mammary epithelial cells (MEC) of lactating animals, intact LD are secreted intact into milk to form milk lipids by a novel apocrine mechanism. The secretion of intact LD and the relatively large amounts of lipid secreted by lactating MEC increase demands on the cellular processes responsible for lipid synthesis and LD formation. As yet these processes are poorly defined due to limited understanding of LD-ER interactions. To overco...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Milk Protein Alpha-Casein Suppresses Triple Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity Via STAT and HIF-1alpha Signalling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells and Fibroblasts
We examined the effects of the milk protein alpha-casein over expression in the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The effects of recombinant alpha-casein added exogenously to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and immortalised human fibroblasts were also investigated. We used transcriptional reporters to understand the signalling pathways downstream of alpha-casein in breast cancer cells and these fibroblasts that were activated by breast cancer cells. To extend our findings to the clinical setting, we analysed public gene expression datasets to further understand the relevance of these signalling pathways i...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Remodeling of Murine Mammary Adipose Tissue during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Involution
AbstractWhite adipocytes in the mammary gland stroma comprise the majority of the mammary gland mass. White adipocytes regulate numerous hormonal and metabolic processes and exhibit compositional and phenotypic plasticity. This plasticity is exemplified by the ability of mammary adipocytes to regress during lactation, when mammary epithelial cells expand to establish sufficient milk-producing alveoli. Upon weaning, the process reverses through mammary involution, during which adipocytes extensively regenerate, and alveolar epithelial cells disappear through cell death, returning the mammary gland to the non-lactating state...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Eleventh ENBDC Workshop: Advances in Technology Help to Unveil Mechanisms of Mammary Gland Development and Cancerogenesis
AbstractThe eleventh annual workshop of the European Network for Breast Development and Cancer,Methods in mammary gland biology and breast cancer, took place on the 16th to 18th of May 2019 in Weggis, Switzerland. The main topics of the meeting were high resolution genomics and proteomics for the study of mammary gland development and cancer, breast cancer signaling, tumor microenvironment, preclinical models of breast cancer, and tissue morphogenesis. Exciting novel findings in, or highly relevant to, mammary gland biology and breast cancer field were presented, with insights into the methods used to obtain them. Among ot...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

How to Choose a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer, a Genomic Perspective
AbstractHuman breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with numerous subtypes that have been defined through immunohistological, histological, and gene expression patterns. The diversity of breast cancer has made the study of its various underlying causes complex. To facilitate the examination of particular facets of breast cancer, mouse models have been generated, ranging from carcinogen induced models to genetically engineered mice. While mouse models have been generated to mimic the initiating event, including p53 loss, BRCA loss, or overexpression of HER2 / Neu / erbB2, other genomic events are often not well character...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

GATA3 Truncating Mutations Promote Cistromic Re-Programming In Vitro, but Not Mammary Tumor Formation in Mice
AbstractHeterozygous mutations in the transcription factor GATA3 are identified in 10 –15% of all breast cancer cases. Most of these are protein-truncating mutations, concentrated within or downstream of the second GATA-type zinc-finger domain. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of expression of two truncated GATA3 mutants, in vitro in breast cancer cell lines and in vivo in the mouse mammary gland. We found that the truncated GATA3 mutants display altered DNA binding activity caused by preferred tethering through FOXA1. In addition, expression of the truncated GATA3 mutants reduces E-cadherin expressi...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - June 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

BRCA1 Attenuates Progesterone Effects on Proliferation and NF κB Activation in Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells
This study investigates the effect of reduced BRCA1 expression on proliferation and NFκB activation in human breast cells, and the impact of progesterone on these effects. The major findings are that: 1) Reduced BRCA1 levels inhibit cell growth in normal human mammary cells and breast cancer cells; 2) Reduced BRCA1 levels stimulated i nflammatory targets and NFκB activity in normal human mammary cells; 3) Wildtype BRCA1 inhibited the pro-proliferative effects of progesterone in normal mammary epithelial cells, and; 4) Progesterone attenuated BRCA1-mediated NFκB activation in normal human mammary cells. Th...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - May 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging Role of SOX Proteins in Breast Cancer Development and Maintenance
AbstractTheSOX genes encode a family of more than 20 transcription factors that are critical regulators of embryogenesis and developmental processes and, when aberrantly expressed, have been shown to contribute to tumor development and progression in both an oncogenic and tumor suppressive role. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the SOX proteins play essential roles in multiple cellular processes that mediate or contribute to oncogenic transformation and tumor progression. In the context of breast cancer, SOX proteins function both as oncogenes and tumor suppressors and have been shown to be associated with tumor stage...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - May 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metformin and Breast Cancer: Molecular Targets
AbstractMetformin has been the first-line drug for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for decades, being presently the most widely prescribed antihyperglycemic drug. Retrospective studies associate the use of metformin with a reduction in cancer incidence and cancer-related death. However, despite extensive research about the molecular effects of metformin in cancer cells, its mode of action remains controversial. The major molecular targets of metformin include complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mechanistic target of rapamycin...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - March 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Syngeneic ErbB2 Mammary Cancer Model for Preclinical Immunotherapy Trials
AbstractIn order to develop a practical model of breast cancer, with in vitro and syngeneic,  immune-intact, in vivo growth capacity, we established a primary cell line derived from a mammary carcinoma in the transgenic FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-ErbB2*)NDL2-5Mul mouse, referred to as “NDLUCD”. The cell line is adapted to standard cell culture and can be transplanted into syngeneic FVB/N mice. The line maintains a stable phenotype over multiple in vitro passages and rounds of in vivo transplantation. NDLUCD tumors in FVB/N mice exhibit high expression ofErbB2 andErbB3 and signaling molecules downstream ofErbB2. Th...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Tumor Progression by N G -Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester in 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Breast Cancer: Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition as an Antitumor Prevention
AbstractBreast cancer has high mortality rates among the women in the Republic of Armenia. It is now evident that nitric oxide plays important roles in various stages of carcinogenesis such as oncogene activation, tumor suppressor genes, modulation of apoptosis and metastasis. Advances in our understanding of the metabolism and molecular functions of arginine alterations in cancer have led to resurgence in the interest of targeting arginine catabolism, as an anticancer strategy. NOS inhibitors have been proposed, as a way to treat cancer. We have been researching the anti-tumor potential of the NOS inhibition by NG-Nitro-L...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Inhibition of Tumor Progression by N G -Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester in 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Breast Cancer: Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition as an Antitumor Prevention
(Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia)
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Detection of Milk Ejection Using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Lactating Women during Milk Expression Using an Electric Breast Pump
AbstractMilk ejection is essential for effective milk removal during breastfeeding and pumping, and for continued milk synthesis. Many women are unable to accurately sense milk ejection to determine whether their infant is receiving milk or, when pumping, to switch the pump to a more effective expression pattern. To determine if changes in bioimpedance parameters are associated with milk ejection in the lactating breast during pumping. 30 lactating women participated in 2 pumping sessions within 2  weeks of each other. During pumping the breasts were monitored with bioimpedance spectroscopy (on either the pumped or th...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mammary Epithelial Cell Lineage Changes During Cow ’s Life
AbstractMilk production is highly dependent on the optimal development of the mammary epithelium. It is therefore essential to better understand mammary epithelial cell growth and maintenance from the related epithelial lineage during the animal life. Here, we characterized the epithelial lineage at puberty, lactation and dry-off in bovine using the cell surface markers CD49f, CD24, and CD10. The pubertal period was characterized by a high proportion of CD49fpos cells corresponding to various epithelial subpopulations, notably the CD24pos subpopulations. The proportion of CD49fpos cells was weaker during lactation and dry-...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - February 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Application of the D492 Cell Lines to Explore Breast Morphogenesis, EMT and Cancer Progression in 3D Culture
AbstractThe human female breast gland is composed of branching epithelial ducts that extend from the nipple towards the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), which are the functional, milk-producing units of the gland and the site of origin of most breast cancers. The epithelium of ducts and TDLUs is composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of contractile myoepithelial cells, separated from the vascular-rich stroma by a basement membrane. The luminal- and myoepithelial cells share an origin and in recent years, there has been increasing understanding of how these cell types interac...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - January 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Study of the Association between Mammographic Density and Gene Expression in Normal Breast Tissue
AbstractHigh mammographic density (MD) is associated with a 4 –6 times increase in breast cancer risk. For post-menopausal women, MD often decreases over time, but little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms. MD reflects breast tissue composition, and may be associated with microenvironment subtypes previously identified in tumor-adjacent norm al tissue. Currently, these subtypes have not been explored in normal breast tissue. We obtained biopsies from breasts of healthy women at two different time points several years apart and performed microarray gene expression analysis. At time point 1, 65 samples...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - January 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Comparative Review of Mixed Mammary Tumors in Mammals
AbstractMixed tumors are characterized by the histological identification of two or more cell types. Commonly, a mixture of epithelial and myoepithelial cells is included in abundant stroma, which can consist of myxoid, chondroid or bony matrices. Spontaneously arising mixed tumors are rare lesions in the human breast but are common in human salivary glands and canine mammary glands. Subtle histopathological characteristics and overlapping attributes of malignant lesions with other benign lesions can lead to a diagnostic challenge. Mixed tumors can present as benign or malignant. While malignant mixed tumors are quite rare...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel 3-Dimensional Co-culture Method Reveals a Partial Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition in Breast Cancer Cells Induced by Adipocytes
AbstractCancer metastases are accountable for almost 90% of all human cancer related deaths including from breast cancer (BC). Adipocytes can alter the tumor microenvironment, which can promote metastasis by inducing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BC cells. However, the role of adipocytes during the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), that can be important in metastasis, is not clear. To understand the effect of adipocytes on the BC progression, there is a requirement for a better in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) co-culture system that mimics the breast tissue and allows for more accurate analysis of E...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Emerging Roles of Steroid Hormone Receptors in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. (Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia)
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Human Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: from the Eyes of a Beholder
(Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia)
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - November 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Emerging Roles of Steroid Hormone Receptors in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast
AbstractDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor to most types of invasive breast cancer (IBC). Although it is estimated only one third of untreated patients with DCIS will progress to IBC, standard of care for treatment is surgery and radiation. This therapeutic approach combined with a lack of reliable biomarker panels to predict DCIS progression is a major clinical problem. DCIS shares the same molecular subtypes as IBC including estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive luminal subtypes, which encompass the majority (60 –70%) of DCIS. Compared to the established roles of ER...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - October 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

STAT5-Driven Enhancers Tightly Control Temporal Expression of Mammary-Specific Genes
AbstractThe de novo formation of milk-secreting mammary epithelium during pregnancy is regulated by prolactin through activation of the transcription factor STAT5, which stimulates the expression of several hundred mammary-specific genes. In addition to its key role in activating gene expression in mammary tissue, STAT5, which is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types, implements T cell-specific programs controlled by interleukins. However, the mechanisms by which STAT5 controls cell-specific genetic programs activated by distinct cytokines remain relatively unknown. Integration of data from genome-wide surveys of chrom...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - October 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Beyond DNA: the Role of Epigenetics in the Premalignant Progression of Breast Cancer
AbstractDuctal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is an early breast cancer lesion that is considered a nonobligate precursor to development of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Although only a small subset of DCIS lesions are predicted to progress into a breast cancer, distinguishing innocuous from minacious DCIS lesions remains a clinical challenge. Thus, patients diagnosed with DCIS will undergo surgery with the potential for radiation and hormone therapy. This has led to a current state of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Interrogating the transcriptome alone has yet to define clear functional determinants of progression from DCI...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - October 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dissecting Tissue-Specific Super-Enhancers by Integrating Genome-Wide Analyses and CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing
AbstractRecent advances in genome-wide sequencing technologies have provided researchers with unprecedented opportunities to discover the genomic structures of gene regulatory units in living organisms. In particular, the integration of ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, and DNase-seq techniques has facilitated the mapping of a new class of regulatory elements. These elements, called super-enhancers, can regulate cell-type-specific gene sets and even fine-tune gene expression regulation in response to external stimuli, and have become a hot topic in genome biology. However, there is scant genetic evidence demonstrating their unique biolog...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - October 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Therapeutic Approaches to DCIS
AbstractTreatment for ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) has historically been extrapolated from studies of invasive breast cancer. Accepted local therapy approaches range from small local excisions, with or without radiation, to bilateral mastectomies. Systemic treatment with endocrine therapy is often recommended for hormone positive patients. With improvements in imaging, pathologic review, and treatment techniques in the modern era, combined with new information regarding tumor biology, the management of DCIS is rapidly evolving. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment is now more important than ever, with a shift towar...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Transgenic MMTV-Flippase Mouse Line for Molecular Engineering in Mammary Gland and Breast Cancer Mouse Models
AbstractGenetically engineered mouse models have become an indispensable tool for breast cancer research. Combination of multiple site-specific recombination systems such as Cre/loxP and Flippase (Flp)/Frt allows for engineering of sophisticated, multi-layered conditional mouse models. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel transgenic mouse line expressing a mouse codon-optimized Flp under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. These mice show robust Flp-mediated recombination in luminal mammary gland and breast cancer cells but no Flp activity in non-mammary tissues, with the...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical Trials for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast
AbstractDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a non-obligatory precursor to invasive breast carcinoma, with a variable natural history and biological potential for progression to invasive disease. Over the past 30  years, clinical trials have applied the therapeutic principles used for invasive carcinoma to treat DCIS (surgery, with or without breast radiotherapy, and post-operative endocrine therapy), with excellent survival outcomes, and in-breast recurrence rates that range from 0.5 to 1% annually. Howeve r, half of such recurrences are again in-situ lesions, and intensive therapy is likely not necessary...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gap Junctions and Wnt Signaling in the Mammary Gland: a Cross-Talk?
AbstractConnexins (Cxs), the building blocks of gap junctions (GJs), exhibit spatiotemporal patterns of expression and regulate the development and differentiation of the mammary gland, acting via channel-dependent and channel-independent mechanisms. Impaired Cx expression and localization are reported in breast cancer, suggesting a tumor suppressive role for Cxs. The signaling events that mediate the role of GJs in the development and tumorigenesis of the mammary gland remain poorly identified. The Wnt pathways, encompassing the canonical or the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway and the noncanonical β-catenin-independent p...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Chaos and Consequence
AbstractDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive proliferative growth in the breast that serves as a non-obligate precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma. The widespread adoption of screening mammography has led to a steep increase in the detection of DCIS, which now comprises approximately 20% of new breast cancer diagnoses in the United States. Interestingly, the intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) that has been observed in invasive breast cancers may have been established early in tumorigenesis, given the vast and varied ITH that has been detected in DCIS. This review will discuss the intratumoral heterogeneity of ...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gap Junctions and Wnt Signaling in the Mammary Gland: a Cross-Talk?
AbstractConnexins (Cxs), the building blocks of gap junctions (GJs), exhibit spatiotemporal patterns of expression and regulate the development and differentiation of the mammary gland, acting via channel-dependent and channel-independent mechanisms. Impaired Cx expression and localization are reported in breast cancer, suggesting a tumor suppressive role for Cxs. The signaling events that mediate the role of GJs in the development and tumorigenesis of the mammary gland remain poorly identified. The Wnt pathways, encompassing the canonical or the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway and the noncanonical β-catenin-independent p...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Chaos and Consequence
AbstractDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive proliferative growth in the breast that serves as a non-obligate precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma. The widespread adoption of screening mammography has led to a steep increase in the detection of DCIS, which now comprises approximately 20% of new breast cancer diagnoses in the United States. Interestingly, the intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) that has been observed in invasive breast cancers may have been established early in tumorigenesis, given the vast and varied ITH that has been detected in DCIS. This review will discuss the intratumoral heterogeneity of ...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Polarized Secretion of Extracellular Vesicles by Mammary Epithelia
AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by many cell types and are increasingly investigated for their role in human diseases including cancer. Here we focus on the secretion and potential physiological function of non-pathological EVs secreted by polarized normal mammary epithelial cells. Using a transwell system to allow formation of epithelial polarity and EV collection from the apical versus basolateral compartments, we found that impaired secretion of EVs by knockdown of RAB27A or RAB27B suppressed the establishment of mammary epithelial polarity, and that addition of apical but not basolateral EVs suppresse...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Attenuation of Mammary Gland Dysplasia and Feeding Difficulties in Tabby Mice by Fetal Therapy
AbstractHypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasias (HED) are hereditary differentiation disorders of multiple ectodermal structures including the mammary gland. The X-linked form of HED (XLHED) is caused by a lack of the secreted signaling molecule ectodysplasin A1 (EDA1) which is encoded by the geneEDA and belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. Although male patients (hemizygous) are usually more severely affected by XLHED, heterozygous female carriers of anEDA mutation may also suffer from a variety of symptoms, in particular from abnormal development of their breasts. InTabby mice, a well-studied animal model o...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pax-5 Inhibits NF- κB Activity in Breast Cancer Cells Through IKKε and miRNA-155 Effectors
In this study, we set out to elucidate the regulatory network between differentialPax-5 expression and NF- κB activity which dictate breast cancer malignancy. Through next-generation sequencing (NGS) of breast cancer cells conditionally expressingPax-5, we profile significantly upregulated microRNAs; including microRNA-155, a known regulator of pathological processes and suppressor of malignant growth. Through the conditional expression of microRNA-155 in breast cancer models, we identify and validate IKK ε (IKBKE) as a downstream target and an essential effector ofPax-5-mediated suppression of NF- κB s...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Histology and Transcriptome Profiles of the Mammary Gland across Critical Windows of Development in Sprague Dawley Rats
We examined mammary glands in femal e Sprague Dawley rats across six developmental stages – pre-pubertal, peri-pubertal, pubertal, lactation, adult parous and adult nulliparous. We investigated histology by Hematoxylin and Eosin and Mallory’s Trichrome stain, proliferative and apoptotic rate by immunohistochemistry and whole-trans criptome by microarrays. We identified differentially expressed genes between adjacent developmental stages by linear models, underlying pathways by gene ontology analysis and gene networks and hubs active across developmental stages by coexpression network analysis. Mammary gland dev...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

cIAP2 Is an Independent Signaling and Survival Factor during Mammary Lactational Involution and Tumorigenesis
AbstractCellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP1/2) are integral to regulation of apoptosis and signaling by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and related family of receptors. The expression of cIAP2 in tissues is typically low and considered functionally redundant with cIAP1, however cIAP2 can be activated by a variety of cellular stresses. Members of the TNFR family and their ligands have essential roles in mammary gland biology. We have found thatcIAP2−/− virgin mammary glands have reduced ductal branching and delayed lobuloalveogenesis in early pregnancy. Post-lactational involution involves t...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oxytocin Induces Mammary Epithelium Disruption and Could Stimulate Epithelial Cell Exfoliation
AbstractMammary epithelial cells (MEC) are exfoliated from the epithelium into milk, influencing the number of MEC present in the udder. This process is associated with epithelium integrity. The release of oxytocin (OT) induced by milking causes myoepithelial cell contraction, which, in turn, may stimulate MEC exfoliation through mechanical forces. To investigate the role of OT in MEC exfoliation, we inhibited or induced myoepithelial cell contraction by injecting the OT receptor antagonist atosiban (Ato) or a supraphysiological dose of OT, respectively. Eight cows were assigned to 2 treatments during 2 milkings according ...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research