Th2 cell regulatory and effector molecules single nucleotide polymorphisms and periodontitis.
Abstract AIM: To investigate the association between T helper 2 (Th2) cell regulatory and effector molecules' genetic polymorphisms and periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 11 Th2 cell regulatory or effector molecules genes (CD28, CTLA4, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL9, IL10, IL13, IL4R, GATA3, STAT6, and rs1537415; total 130 SNPs) were studied in Chinese nonsmokers (163 periodontitis-free controls, 141 periodontitis patients) using Sequenom iPlex assays. SNPs potentially associated with periodontitis (adjusted allelic P 
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Zheng Y, Chai L, Fan Y, Song YQ, Zee KY, Tu WW, Jin L, Leung WK Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

MEK5/ERK5 signaling mediates IL-4-induced M2 macrophage differentiation through regulation of c-Myc expression.
Abstract Macrophages are highly plastic cells, responding to diverse environmental stimuli to acquire different functional phenotypes. Signaling through MAPKs has been reported to regulate the differentiation of macrophages, but the role of ERK5 in IL-4-mediated M2 macrophage differentiation is still unclear. Here, we showed that the ERK5 signaling pathway plays a critical role in IL-4-induced M2 macrophage differentiation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK5, an upstream activator of ERK5, markedly reduced the expression of classical M2 markers, such as Arg-1, Ym-1, and Fizz-1, as well as the production of M2-relate...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Luiz JPM, Toller-Kawahisa JE, Viacava PR, Nascimento DC, Pereira PT, Saraiva AL, Prado DS, LeBert M, Giurisato E, Tournier C, Cunha TM, Cunha FQ, Quesniaux V, Ryffel B, Alves-Filho JC Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

A natural oil increases specific anti-OVA IgG levels and induces a cellular immune response combined with aluminum hydroxide.
Abstract The efficacy of certain vaccines is improved by the use of adjuvants. Nowadays, the development of new, effective, and safe adjuvants that stimulate the innate immune response is researched. In this context, medicinal plants appear as a suitable alternative. Minthostachys verticillata essential oil (EO) has demonstrated the ability to modulate mechanisms of the innate immune response. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the EO adjuvant effect on humoral and cellular immunity, coadministered with OVA as antigen. The chemical analysis of EO by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a predominant...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Campra NA, Montironi ID, Reinoso EB, Raviolo J, Moreno FR, Maletto B, Cariddi LN Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

NLRP3 inflammasome priming: A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.
Abstract The NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome is an immunological sensor that detects a wide range of microbial- and host-derived signals. Inflammasome activation results in the release of the potent pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and triggers a form of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. Excessive NLRP3 activity is associated with the pathogenesis of a wide range of inflammatory diseases, thus NLRP3 activation mechanisms are an area of intensive research. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a tightly regulated process that requires both priming and acti...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: McKee CM, Coll RC Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Tumor inhibition or tumor promotion? The duplicity of CXCR3 in cancer.
Abstract Tumor tissue includes cancer cells and normal stromal cells such as vascular endothelial cells, connective tissue cells (cancer associated fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cell), and immune cells (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or TIL, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, tumor-associated macrophages or TAM, myeloid-derived suppressor cells or MDSC). Anti-tumor activity is mainly mediated by infiltration of NK cells, Th1 and CD8+ T cells, and correlates with expression of NK cell and T cell attracting chemokines. Nevertheless, cancer cells hijack tissue homeostasis through secretion ...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 1, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Russo E, Santoni A, Bernardini G Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

CXXC5: A novel regulator of myelopoiesis.
Discussion on how CXXC5 alters hematopoiesis by regulating the differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells toward monocyte development. PMID: 32745327 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 1, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Capitano ML Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

High-speed squeeze: Light-sheet imaging of zebrafish neutrophils.
Discussion of lattice light sheet microscopy used for high resolution 3D imaging of neutrophil behaviors in zebrafish larvae. PMID: 32745328 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 1, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Stow JL, Condon ND Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 32745329 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 1, 2020 Category: Hematology Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Frontline Science:  Conversion of neutrophils into atypical Ly6G+ SiglecF+ immune cells with neurosupportive potential in olfactory neuroepithelium.
Frontline Science: Conversion of neutrophils into atypical Ly6G+ SiglecF+ immune cells with neurosupportive potential in olfactory neuroepithelium. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Jul 29;: Authors: Ogawa K, Asano K, Yotsumoto S, Yamane T, Arita M, Hayashi Y, Harada H, Makino-Okamura C, Fukuyama H, Kondo K, Yamasoba T, Tanaka M Abstract Neutrophils are generally considered as short-lived, homogenous, and terminally differentiated phagocytes that play crucial roles in conquering infection, although they occasionally cause severe collateral tissue damage or chronic inflammation. Recent reports have indicated th...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Ogawa K, Asano K, Yotsumoto S, Yamane T, Arita M, Hayashi Y, Harada H, Makino-Okamura C, Fukuyama H, Kondo K, Yamasoba T, Tanaka M Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Unraveling exhaustion in adaptive and conventional NK cells.
Abstract Immune exhaustion in T cells significantly impacts their ability to control malignancies and infections, and its discovery has led to revolutionary therapies for cancer in the form of checkpoint blockade. NK cells, like T cells, are lymphocytes that recognize virally infected and malignantly transformed cells. However, it remains unclear if NK cells are similarly susceptible to exhaustion. In this review, the aims are to summarize what is currently known and to identify key areas of variability that skew the scientific literature on NK cell exhaustion. A lack of consensus on the defining features of NK ce...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Merino AM, Kim H, Miller JS, Cichocki F Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of sinomenine on lung cancer cells via negative regulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
Inhibitory effect of sinomenine on lung cancer cells via negative regulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Jul 29;: Authors: Bai S, Wen W, Hou X, Wu J, Yi L, Zhi Y, Lv Y, Tan X, Liu L, Wang P, Zhou H, Dong Y Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a high morbidity and less than 20% survival rate. Therefore, new treatment strategies and drugs are needed to reduce the mortality of patients with lung cancer. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), as a receptor of nicotine and its metabolites, is a potential target...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Bai S, Wen W, Hou X, Wu J, Yi L, Zhi Y, Lv Y, Tan X, Liu L, Wang P, Zhou H, Dong Y Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Multifunctional T cell response in convalescent patients two years after ZIKV infection.
This study aimed to evaluate the phenotype of multifunctional T cells in individuals 2 yr after exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV). We used a library of 671 synthetic peptides covering the whole polyprotein of ZIKV in pools corresponding to each viral protein (i.e., capsid, membrane precursor or prM, envelope, NS1 [nonstructural protein], NS2A + NS2B, NS3, NS4A + NS4B, and NS5) to stimulate PBMCs from individuals previously exposed to ZIKV. We observed an increased frequency of ZIKV-specific IFNγ, IL-17A, TNF, and IL-10 production by T cell populations. IFNγ and TNF production were especially sti...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Pereira Neto TA, Gonçalves-Pereira MH, de Queiroz CP, Ramos MF, de Oliveira FFS, Oliveira-Prado R, do Nascimento VA, Abdalla LF, Santos JHA, Martins-Filho OA, Naveca FG, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Santiago HDC Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Serum-borne lipids amplify TLR-activated inflammatory responses.
Abstract TLRs recognize conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns and generate innate immune responses. Several circulating and cell membrane associated proteins have been shown to collaborate with TLRs in sensing microbial ligands and promoting inflammatory responses. Here, we show that serum and serum-borne lipids including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) amplify inflammatory responses from intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes primed with microbial TLR ligands. Treatment with the inhibitors of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, suramin, or pertussis toxin (PT), the inhibitor of J...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 27, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Sharma N, Akhade AS, Ismaeel S, Qadri A Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

The mechanism of Chinese herbal formula HQT in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is related to its regulation of lncRNA uc.477 and miR-19b.
In this study, a microarray assay was performed to study the profile of lncRNAs in the serum of RA patients and healthy donors, and a set of novel lncRNAs associated with RA was identified. For the remainder of the study, focus is on the top hit, lncRNA uc.477. The upregulation of lncRNA uc.477 and downregulation of miR-19b were validated in the serum of RA patients compared to that of healthy donors, and similar results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of a cell line: RA-derived human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS-RA). LncRNA uc.477 could interfere with the processing of pri-miR-19b to pr...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Wang M, Mei L, Liu Z, Tang X, Wu X, Chen X, Zhao Y, Huang Q, Huang R Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Mendelian diseases of dysregulated canonical NF- κB signaling: From immunodeficiency to inflammation.
Mendelian diseases of dysregulated canonical NF-κB signaling: From immunodeficiency to inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Jul 17;: Authors: Schnappauf O, Aksentijevich I Abstract NF-κB is a master transcription factor that activates the expression of target genes in response to various stimulatory signals. Activated NF-κB mediates a plethora of diverse functions including innate and adaptive immune responses, inflammation, cell proliferation, and NF-κB is regulated through interactions with IκB inhibitory proteins, which are in turn regulated by the inhibitor of κB k...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Schnappauf O, Aksentijevich I Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Macrophage dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: Nature or nurture?
Abstract Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) affect the homeostasis of chloride flux by epithelial cells. This has deleterious consequences, especially in respiratory epithelia, where the defect results in mucus accumulation distinctive of cystic fibrosis. CFTR is, however, also expressed in phagocytic cells, like macrophages. Immune cells are highly sensitive to conditioning by their environment; thus, CFTR dysfunction in epithelia influences macrophages by affecting the lung milieu, but the mutations also appear to be directly consequential for intrinsic macrophage functio...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Turton KB, Ingram RJ, Valvano MA Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Impact of age-, cancer-, and treatment-driven inflammation on T cell function and immunotherapy.
Abstract Many cancers are predominantly diagnosed in older individuals and chronic inflammation has a major impact on the overall health and immune function of older cancer patients. Chronic inflammation is a feature of aging, it can accelerate disease in many cancers and it is often exacerbated during conventional treatments for cancer. This review will provide an overview of the factors that lead to increased inflammation in older individuals and/or individuals with cancer, as well as those that result from conventional treatments for cancer, using ovarian cancer (OC) and multiple myeloma (MM) as key examples. W...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Quinn KM, Kartikasari AER, Cooke RE, Koldej RM, Ritchie DS, Plebanski M Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: Maintainers of intestinal immune tolerance and regulators of intestinal immunity.
Abstract Intestinal immune tolerance is essential for the immune system, as it prevents abnormal immune responses to large quantities of antigens from the intestinal lumen, such as antigens from commensal microorganisms, and avoids self-injury. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), a special group of mucosal T lymphocytes, play a significant role in intestinal immune tolerance. To accomplish this, IELs exhibit a high threshold of activation and low reactivity to most antigens from the intestinal lumen. In particular, CD8αα+ TCRαβ+ IELs, TCRγδ+ IELs, and CD4+ CD8α&a...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Ma H, Qiu Y, Yang H Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Treponema denticola stimulates Oncostatin M cytokine release and de novo synthesis in neutrophils and macrophages.
Abstract Oncostatin M (OSM) is a pleiotropic cytokine elevated in a number of inflammatory conditions including periodontal disease. OSM is produced by a variety of immune cells and has diverse functionality such as regulation of metabolic processes, cell differentiation, and the inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens. The oral cavity is under constant immune surveillance including complementary neutrophil and macrophage populations, due to a persistent symbiotic bacterial presence. Periodontal disease is characterized by a dysbiotic bacterial community, with an abundance of Treponema denticola. Despite stro...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Jones MM, Vanyo ST, Ibraheem W, Maddi A, Visser MB Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Natural products and their derivatives: Promising modulators of tumor immunotherapy.
Abstract A wealth of evidence supports the role of tumor immunotherapy as a vital therapeutic option in cancer. In recent decades, accumulated studies have revealed the anticancer activities of natural products and their derivatives. Increasing interest has been driven toward finding novel potential modulators of tumor immunotherapy from natural products, a hot research topic worldwide. These works of research mainly focused on natural products, including polyphenols (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol), cardiotonic steroids (e.g., bufalin and digoxin), terpenoids (e.g., paclitaxel and artemisinins), and polysaccharide e...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Deng LJ, Qi M, Li N, Lei YH, Zhang DM, Chen JX Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Classically activated mouse macrophages produce methylglyoxal that induces a TLR4- and RAGE-independent proinflammatory response.
Abstract The highly reactive compound methylglyoxal (MG) can cause direct damage to cells and tissues by reacting with cellular macromolecules. MG has been identified as a biomarker associated with increased sepsis-induced mortality. Patients undergoing septic shock have significantly elevated circulating MG levels compared to postoperative patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, MG has been implicated in the development of type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. Because MG is generated during glycolysis, we hypothesized that MG may be produced by classically activated (M1) macrophages, possibly con...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 17, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Prantner D, Nallar S, Richard K, Spiegel D, Collins KD, Vogel SN Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Monocytes complexed to platelets differentiate into functionally deficient dendritic cells.
Abstract In addition to their role in hemostasis, platelets store numerous immunoregulatory molecules such as CD40L, TGFβ, β2-microglobulin, and IL-1β and release them upon activation. Previous studies indicate that activated platelets form transient complexes with monocytes, especially in HIV infected individuals and induce a proinflammatory monocyte phenotype. Because monocytes can act as precursors of dendritic cells (DCs) during infection/inflammation as well as for generation of DC-based vaccine therapies, we evaluated the impact of activated platelets on monocyte differentiation into DCs. We o...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Singh MV, Suwunnakorn S, Simpson SR, Weber EA, Singh VB, Kalinski P, Maggirwar SB Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Dengue virus-activated platelets modulate monocyte immunometabolic response through lipid droplet biogenesis and cytokine signaling.
Abstract Dengue is characterized as one of the most important arthropod-borne human viral diseases, representing a public health problem. Increased activation of immune cells is involved in the progression of infection to severe forms. Recently, our group demonstrated the contribution of platelet-monocyte interaction to inflammatory responses in dengue, adding to evolving evidence that platelets have inflammatory functions and can regulate different aspects of innate immune responses. Furthermore, stimuli-specific-activated platelets can promote phenotypic changes and metabolic reprogramming in monocytes. Thus, th...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Barbosa-Lima G, Hottz ED, de Assis EF, Liechocki S, Souza TML, Zimmerman GA, Bozza FA, Bozza PT Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Modulation of neutrophil extracellular traps release by Klebsiella pneumoniae.
In conclusion, Kpn KPC ST258 effectively managed to evade the PMN response by inhibiting the release of NETs, and primary granule mobilization. PMID: 32640486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Birnberg-Weiss F, Castillo LA, Pittaluga JR, Martire-Greco D, Gómez SA, Landoni VI, Fernández GC Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

BTK/ITK dual inhibitors: Modulating immunopathology and lymphopenia for COVID-19 therapy.
Abstract Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) signaling is involved in innate immune responses and regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can contribute to COVID-19 immunopathology. Clinical trials with BTK inhibitors in COVID-19 treatment have been proposed, and previous studies have attempted to investigate the therapeutic effects of ibrutinib and underlying mechanisms in treating viral pneumonia. These attempts, however, did not consider potential off target effect of BTK inhibitors on T cell differentiation, function, and survival, which may be beneficial in treatment for COVID-19. Here, we summa...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: McGee MC, August A, Huang W Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

p67phox -derived self-assembled peptides prevent Nox2 NADPH oxidase activation by an auto-inhibitory mechanism.
In this study, we found that: (i) progressive N- and C-terminal truncation of inhibitory p67phox peptides, corresponding to residues 259-273 and 265-279, revealed that inhibitory ability correlated with the presence of residues 265 NIVFVL270 , exposed at either the N- or C-termini of the peptides; (ii) inhibition of oxidase activity was associated exclusively with self-assembled peptides, which pelleted upon centrifugation at 12,000 ×g; (iii) self-assembled p67phox peptides inhibited oxidase activity by specific binding of p67phox and the ensuing depletion of this component, essential for interaction with Nox2; ...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Bechor E, Zahavi A, Berdichevsky Y, Pick E Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Curcumin inhibits CT26 cells metastasis by decreasing heparanase expression.
This study tested the hypothesis that heparanase (HPSE) is related to tumor metastasis and curcumin (CCM) inhibits tumor metastasis by down-regulating HPSE expression. MTT, Transwell assays, and RT-PCR were used to study the effects of CCM on the migration and invasion of CT26 cells and the expression of HPSE. CT26 cells were transfected with lentivirus to establish HPSE-overexpressing cells (OE) and corresponding negative control cells (NC). Signal pathways involved in down-regulating the expression of HPSE and inhibiting the migration and invasion of CT26 cells by CCM were screened by the liquid crystal chip. HPSE promot...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Li S, Fu H, Wang Y, Wang L, Jia B, Bian Y Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Frontline Science: AMPK regulates metabolic reprogramming necessary for interferon production in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
In this study, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is strongly implicated as a driver of metabolic reprogramming that the authors and others have observed in pDCs after activation via TLR7/9. Oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were elevated following stimulation of pDCs with influenza or herpes simplex virus. Blocking these changes using mitochondrial inhibitors abrogated IFN-α production. While it appears that multiple carbon sources can be used by pDCs, blocking pyruvate metabolism had the strongest effect on IFN-α production. Furthermore, we saw no evidence of aerobic glycolysis (A...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Hurley HJ, Dewald H, Rothkopf ZS, Singh S, Jenkins F, Deb P, De S, Barnes BJ, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Alpha lipoic acid promotes development of hematopoietic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells by antagonizing ROS signals.
In this study, we show that ALA promoted production of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) derived hemogenic endothelial cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of hPSCs derived hemogenic endothelial cells showed that ALA promoted endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition by up-regulating RUNX1, GFI1, GFI1B, MEIS2, and HIF1A and down-regulating SOX17, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2. ALA also up-regulated sensor genes of ROS signals, including HIF1A, FOXO1, FOXO3, ATM, PETEN, SIRT1, and SIRT3, during the process of hPSCs derived hemogenic endothelial cells generation. However, ...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Dong Y, Bai J, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Pan X, Li X, Zhou Q, Chen Y, Lai M, Mao B, Bian G, Feng J, Xie F, Chen B, Nakahata T, Zhang Y, Ma F Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Guanylate binding proteins contained in the murine chromosome 3 are important to control mycobacterial infection.
In conclusion, this study shows that GBPchr3 are important not only to stimulate cell-intrinsic immunity but also for inducing an efficient immune response to control mycobacterial infection in vivo. PMID: 32620042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Marinho FV, Fahel JS, de Araujo ACVSC, Diniz LTS, Gomes MTR, Resende DP, Junqueira-Kipnis AP, Oliveira SC Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Identification of the association between HBcAg-specific T cell and viral control in chronic HBV infection using a cultured ELISPOT assay.
Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells play a critical role in determining the outcome of HBV infection. However, T cell response induced by predominant Ag in chronic infection is hardly detectable owing to the lack of a suitable assay. We herein established an optimized method to enumerate HBV-specific T cells and assessed the association between HBV surface Ag (HBsAg) and HBV DNA. Sixty chronic HBV infection patients were enrolled. HBV-specific T cells were expanded by using overlapping peptide pools covering the entire sequence of HBV genotypes B and C. IFN-γ-producing HBV-specific T cells were...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Chen C, Jiang X, Liu X, Guo L, Wang W, Gu S, Wen C, Yi X, Tang L, Li Y Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Anti-CD20 rituximab IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 but not IgG2 subclass trigger Ca2+ mobilization and cytotoxicity in human NK cells.
In conclusion, this is the first study correlating Ca2+ signaling and NK cell-mediated ADCC triggered by the four IgG subclasses with the FCGR3A V158F SNP. Our findings indicate important differences in the interactions of IgG subclasses with FcγRIIIA/CD16a but no major impact of FCGR3A SNP and may therefore help to better correlate the functional properties of particular engineered therapeutic antibodies in vitro with individual differences of their clinical efficacy. PMID: 32620047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Freitas Monteiro M, Papaserafeim M, Réal A, Puga Yung GL, Seebach JD Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Interplay between alveolar epithelial and dendritic cells and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract The innate response plays a crucial role in the protection against tuberculosis development. Moreover, the initial steps that drive the host-pathogen interaction following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are critical for the development of adaptive immune response. As alveolar Mϕs, airway epithelial cells, and dendritic cells can sense the presence of M. tuberculosis and are the first infected cells. These cells secrete mediators, which generate inflammatory signals that drive the differentiation and activation of the T lymphocytes necessary to clear the infection. Throughout this review article, we...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Rodrigues TS, Conti BJ, Fraga-Silva TFC, Almeida F, Bonato VLD Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Surmounting the obstacles that impede effective CAR T cell trafficking to solid tumors.
We present some of these strategies, which represent a dynamic field of research with high potential for clinical applicability. PMID: 32620049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Donnadieu E, Dupré L, Pinho LG, Cotta-de-Almeida V Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Classic and new mediators for in vitro modelling of human macrophages.
Abstract Macrophages are key immune cells in the activation and regulation of immune responses. These cells are present in all tissues under homeostatic conditions and in many disease settings. Macrophages can exhibit a wide range of phenotypes depending on local and systemic cues that drive the differentiation and activation process. Macrophage heterogeneity is also defined by their ontogeny. Tissue macrophages can either derive from circulating blood monocytes or are seeded as tissue-resident macrophages during embryonic development. In humans, the study of in vivo-generated macrophages is often difficult with l...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 27, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Luque-Martin R, Mander PK, Leenen PJM, Winther MPJ Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

A recombinant protein rLZ-8, originally extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, ameliorates OVA-induced lung inflammation by regulating Th17/Treg balance.
Abstract Asthma is one of the most common chronic and inflammatory respiratory diseases, which is estimated to affect 1-10% of the population in different regions across the world. Previous studies have shown that recombinant Ling-Zhi 8 (rLZ-8), an immunoregulatory protein originally extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, plays multiple roles in regulating murine immune cells, including T cells. Here, we examined whether rLZ-8 would ameliorate pulmonary inflammation in a model of asthma-like mice. We found that rLZ-8 significantly inhibited the lung inflammation and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, including...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 24, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Liu H, Qiu F, Wang Y, Liang F, Liang J, Lin C, Liang J, Gong B, Chan S, De Zhang Z, Lai X, Hou S, Dai Z Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Treatment with buprenorphine prior to EcoHIV infection of mice prevents the development of neurocognitive impairment.
Abstract Approximately 15-40% of people living with HIV develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, HAND, despite successful antiretroviral therapy. There are no therapies to treat these disorders. HIV enters the CNS early after infection, in part by transmigration of infected monocytes. Currently, there is a major opioid epidemic in the United States. Opioid use disorder in the context of HIV infection is important because studies show that opioids exacerbate HIV-mediated neuroinflammation that may contribute to more severe cognitive deficits. Buprenorphine is an opioid derivate commonly prescribed for opiat...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 24, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Jaureguiberry-Bravo M, Kelschenbach J, Murphy A, Carvallo L, Hadas E, Tesfa L, Scott TM, Rivera-Mindt M, Cunningham CO, Arnsten JH, Volsky DJ, Berman JW Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Aloe emodin relieves Ang II-induced endothelial junction dysfunction via promoting ubiquitination mediated NLRP3 inflammasome inactivation.
Abstract Recent studies have revealed that aloe emodin (AE), a natural compound from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., exhibits significant pharmacologic activities. However, the pharmacologic relevance of the compound, particularly for cardiovascular disease, remains largely unknown. Here, we hypothesized that AE could improve endothelial junction dysfunction through inhibiting the activation of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome regulated by NLRP3 ubiquitination, and ultimately prevent cardiovascular disease. In vivo, we used confocal microscopy to study the expressi...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 23, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Zhang Y, Song Z, Huang S, Zhu L, Liu T, Shu H, Wang L, Huang Y, Chen Y Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Spinal microglia-neuron interactions in chronic pain.
Abstract Current deficiency in our understanding of acute-to-chronic pain transition remains a hurdle for developing effective treatments against chronic pain. Whereas neurocentric mechanisms alone are insufficient to provide satisfactory explanation for such transition, neuro-immune crosstalk has attracted attention in recent pain research. In contrast to brain microglia, spinal microglia are activated immediately in various pain states. The fast-responsive enrichment and activation of spinal microglia among different pain conditions have highlighted the crucial role of neuroinflammation caused by microglia-neuro...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 23, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Ho IHT, Chan MTV, Wu WKK, Liu X Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

LPS-mediated neutrophil VEGF-A release is modulated by cannabinoid receptor activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils play a central role in the control of bacterial infections and in the outcome of sepsis. The latter condition is associated with an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A. We demonstrated that low concentrations of CB agonists inhibit VEGF-A release from LPS-activated PMNs. These results suggest that CB agonists might represent a novel therapeutic strategy in patients with sepsis. PMID: 32573828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 23, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Braile M, Cristinziano L, Marcella S, Varricchi G, Marone G, Modestino L, Ferrara AL, De Ciuceis A, Scala S, Galdiero MR, Loffredo S Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

The multiple ways Wnt signaling contributes to acute leukemia pathogenesis.
Abstract WNT proteins constitute a very conserved family of secreted glycoproteins that act as short-range ligands for signaling with critical roles in hematopoiesis, embryonic development, and tissue homeostasis. These proteins transduce signals via the canonical pathway, which is β-catenin-mediated and better-characterized, or via more diverse noncanonical pathways that are β-catenin independent and comprise the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and the WNT/Ca++ pathways. Several proteins regulate Wnt signaling through a variety of sophisticated mechanisms. Disorders within the pathway can contribute ...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 23, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Soares-Lima SC, Pombo-de-Oliveira MS, Carneiro FRG Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

TLR3 expression by maternal and fetal cells at the maternal-fetal interface in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.
In conclusion, functional TLR3 was broadly expressed by maternal and fetal cells at both sites of the maternal-fetal interface and the placental intravillous expression was increased in preeclampsia. This suggests TLR3-mediated inflammatory involvement with local regulation at both sites of the maternal-fetal interface in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. PMID: 32573856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 23, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Gierman LM, Silva GB, Pervaiz Z, Rakner JJ, Mundal SB, Thaning AJ, Nervik I, Elschot M, Mathew S, Thomsen LCV, Bjørge L, Iversen AC Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Innate lymphoid cell and adaptive immune cell cross-talk: A talk meant not to forget.
Abstract Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a relatively new class of innate immune cells with phenotypical characters of lymphocytes but genotypically or functionally behave as typical innate immune cells. They have been classically divided into 3 groups (group 1 ILCs or ILC1s, group 2 ILCs or ILC2s, and group 3 ILCs or ILC3s). They serve as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and allergens at mucosal surfaces. The adaptive immune response works effectively in association with innate immunity as innate immune cells serve as APCs to directly stimulate the adaptive immune cells (various sets of T and...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 18, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Kumar V Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Divergent Siglec-F(eights) of mouse and human eosinophil death.
PMID: 32557797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 18, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Jacobsen EA Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Notch signaling at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity.
Abstract Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-to-cell signaling pathway that regulates cellular differentiation and function across multiple tissue types and developmental stages. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of Notch signaling in mammalian innate and adaptive immunity. The importance of Notch signaling is pervasive throughout the immune system, as it elicits lineage and context-dependent effects in a wide repertoire of cells. Although regulation of binary cell fate decisions encompasses many of the functions first ascribed to Notch in the immune system, recent advances in th...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 18, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Vanderbeck A, Maillard I Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Cytoskeletal regulation of dendritic cells: An intricate balance between migration and presentation for tumor therapy.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main players in many approaches for cancer therapy. The idea with DC tumor therapy is to promote activation of tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T cells that kill tumor cells. This requires that DCs take up tumor Ag and present peptides on MHC class I molecules in a process called cross-presentation. For this process to be efficient, DCs have to migrate to the tumor draining lymph node and there activate the machinery for cross-presentation. In this review, we will discuss recent progress in understanding the role of actin regulators for control of DC migration and Ag present...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 18, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Oliveira MMS, Westerberg LS Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Breakthrough concepts in immune-oncology: Cancer vaccines at the bedside.
Abstract Clinical approval of the immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) agents for multiple cancer types has reinvigorated the long-standing work on cancer vaccines. In the pre-ICB era, clinical efforts focused on the Ag, the adjuvants, the formulation, and the mode of delivery. These translational efforts on therapeutic vaccines range from cell-based (e.g., dendritic cells vaccine Sipuleucel-T) to DNA/RNA-based platforms with various formulations (liposome), vectors (Listeria monocytogenes), or modes of delivery (intratumoral, gene gun, etc.). Despite promising preclinical results, cancer vaccine trials without ICB ha...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 18, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Roy S, Sethi TK, Taylor D, Kim YJ, Johnson DB Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected alveolar epithelial cells modulate dendritic cell function through the HIF-1 α-NOS2 axis.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected alveolar epithelial cells modulate dendritic cell function through the HIF-1α-NOS2 axis. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Jun 18;: Authors: Rodrigues TS, Alvarez ARP, Gembre AF, Forni MFPAD, de Melo BMS, Alves Filho JCF, Câmara NOS, Bonato VLD Abstract Tuberculosis kills more than 1 million people every year, and its control depends on the effective mechanisms of innate immunity, with or without induction of adaptive immune response. We investigated the interaction of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC-II) infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with dendritic cel...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 18, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Rodrigues TS, Alvarez ARP, Gembre AF, Forni MFPAD, de Melo BMS, Alves Filho JCF, Câmara NOS, Bonato VLD Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Artemisinin attenuates IgM xenoantibody production via inhibition of T cell-independent marginal zone B cell proliferation.
In this study, we demonstrate that ART decreases T cell-independent xenogeneic IgM Ab production and, this is associated with a strong suppression of MZ B cell proliferation and a relative increase of CD21low CD23+ follicular and B10 B cells. In addition, this suppression impairs IL-10 production. Taken together, our data indicate that ART suppresses B cell immune responses through a distinctive effect on splenic MZ B and other B cells. This represents a new mechanism of ART-induced immunosuppression. PMID: 32542769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 15, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Liu L, Zhao J, Li A, Yang X, Sprangers B, Li S Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

The regulation of DOCK family proteins on T and B cells.
Abstract The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins consist of 11 members, each of which contains 2 domains, DOCK homology region (DHR)-1 and DHR-2, and as guanine nucleotide exchange factors, they mediate activation of small GTPases. Both DOCK2 and DOCK8 deficiencies in humans can cause severe combined immunodeficiency, but they have different characteristics. DOCK8 defect mainly causes high IgE, allergic disease, refractory skin virus infection, and increased incidence of malignant tumor, whereas DOCK2 defect mainly causes early-onset, invasive infection with less atopy and increased IgE. However, the u...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - June 15, 2020 Category: Hematology Authors: Chen Y, Chen Y, Yin W, Han H, Miller H, Li J, Herrada AA, Kubo M, Sui Z, Gong Q, Liu C Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research