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The Location and Effects of Visual Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation on Reading Fluency in Children With the Characteristics of Dyslexia.
This study is designed to replicate Lorusso, Facoetti, Paganoni, Pezzani, and Molteni's (2006) work using FlashWord, a computer program that tachistoscopically presents words in the right or left visual hemi-field in English and locates through fMRI imaging the processing areas involved in fluency development. Our participants were 15 students who were ages 8 to 19 years and had reading disabilities randomly assigned to Intervention ( n = 9) and Delayed Intervention ( n = 6) groups. Functional imaging studies focused on analyzing activations in the left hemisphere (LH) superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, a...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Koen BJ, Hawkins J, Zhu X, Jansen B, Fan W, Johnson S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

An Analysis of First-Grade Writing Profiles and Their Relationship to Compositional Quality.
Abstract To help all students meet the writing expectations of the Common Core State Standards, researchers need a deeper understanding of the characteristics of struggling writers. The purpose of this study was to explore the writing profiles of students including those who have or are at risk for writing disabilities. First-grade students ( N = 391) were assessed at the end of the school year using three writing assessments (spelling, sentence writing fluency, writing achievement). The researchers used latent profile analysis to identify students as fitting into one of five profiles (At Risk, Low Fluency, Low Wr...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Coker DL, Ritchey KD, Uribe-Zarain X, Jennings AS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Writing Intervention.
Abstract The purpose of this best evidence synthesis was to identify promising interventions that align with a theoretical model of early writing development, targeting three components of early writing: transcription, text generation, and self-regulation. We determined the extent to which these interventions are effective for children who struggle with early writing skills, by calculating effect sizes for group and single-subject designs, and we examined the overall quality of the research. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Among group design studies, mean effects (Hedge's g) ranged from 0.19 to 1.17 fo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: McMaster KL, Kunkel A, Shin J, Jung PG, Lembke E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Critical Issues in the Understanding of Young Elementary School Students at Risk for Problems in Written Expression: Introduction to the Special Issue.
In conclusion, we envision future directions to advance the field. PMID: 28498735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Coker DL, Kim YG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Tailoring Multicomponent Writing Interventions: Effects of Coupling Self-Regulation and Transcription Training.
Abstract Writing proficiency is heavily based on acquisition and development of self-regulation and transcription skills. The present study examined the effects of combining transcription training with a self-regulation intervention (self-regulated strategy development [SRSD]) in Grade 2 (ages 7-8). Forty-three students receiving self-regulation plus transcription (SRSD+TR) intervention were compared with 37 students receiving a self-regulation only (SRSD only) intervention and 39 students receiving the standard language arts curriculum. Compared with control instruction, SRSD instruction-with or without transcrip...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Limpo T, Alves RA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Learning Disabilities and Low Social Status: The Role of Peer Academic Reputation and Peer Reputation of Teacher Liking.
Abstract Although many studies have found that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less liked by peers than children without LD, the results are not unequivocal. In the present study, we investigated the social status (in terms of likeability and popularity) of children with LD by considering peer academic reputation and peer reputation of teacher liking. These variables are potentially important alternative factors for differences in social status between children with and without LD. Fifth-grade students ( n = 1,453; Mage = 10.60) in 58 classes in the Netherlands completed peer nominations for academic ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: van der Sande L, Hendrickx MMHG, Boor-Klip HJ, Mainhard T Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Screening for Dyslexia in French-Speaking University Students: An Evaluation of the Detection Accuracy of the Alouette Test.
In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i.e., phonological skills). However, the test's psychometric properties have not previously been available, and it is not standardized for adults. The results showed that, on the Alouette test, dyslexic readers were impaired on measures of accuracy, speed, and efficiency (accuracy/reading time). We also foun...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Cavalli E, Colé P, Leloup G, Poracchia-George F, Sprenger-Charolles L, El Ahmadi A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reading Disability Spectrum: Early and Late Recognition, Subthreshold, and Full Comorbidity.
This study demonstrated that early recognition of RD may play a role in determining comorbid psychopathology and should therefore be an educational and clinical priority. Clinicians should routinely screen children with RD for comorbid disorders, including subthreshold pathology. PMID: 28406742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Törő KT, Miklósi M, Horanyi E, Kovács GP, Balázs J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Comparing Students With and Without Reading Difficulties on Reading Comprehension Assessments: A Meta-Analysis.
DL Abstract Researchers have increasingly investigated sources of variance in reading comprehension test scores, particularly with students with reading difficulties (RD). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine if the achievement gap between students with RD and typically developing (TD) students varies as a function of different reading comprehension response formats (e.g., multiple choice, cloze). A systematic literature review identified 82 eligible studies. All studies administered reading comprehension assessments to students with RD and TD students in Grades K-12. Hedge's g standardized mean dif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Collins AA, Lindström ER, Compton DL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

How Many U.S. High School Students Have a Foreign Language Reading "Disability"? Reading Without Meaning and the Simple View.
In this study, a random sample of U.S. high school students completing first-, second-, and third-year Spanish courses were administered standardized measures of Spanish word decoding and reading comprehension, compared with monolingual Spanish readers from first to eleventh grades, and classified into reader types according to the simple view of reading. The majority of students fit the hyperlexic profile, and no participants fit the good reader profile until they were compared with first- and second-grade monolingual Spanish readers. Findings call into question the practice of diagnosing an FL "disability" befo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Sparks RL, Luebbers J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.
Abstract Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially pre...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 31, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Sanders EA, Berninger VW, Abbott RD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Applied STEM Course Taking Link to STEM Outcomes for High School Students With Learning Disabilities?
Abstract Over the most recent two decades, federal policy has urged high schools to embed applied science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses into the curriculum to reinforce concepts learned in traditional math and science classes as well as to motivate students' interests and long-term pursuits in STEM areas. While prior research has examined whether these courses link to STEM persistence for the general student population, no work has examined the role of these courses for students with learning disabilities (LDs). This is a critical lapse, as these courses have been supported as being one ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 31, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Gottfried MA, Sublett C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Arithmetic Abilities in Children With Developmental Dyslexia.
e;e L Abstract A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. Of them, 40% displayed arithmetic deficits, mostly with regard to numb...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: De Clercq-Quaegebeur M, Casalis S, Vilette B, Lemaitre MP, Vallée L Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Use of Text-to-Speech and Related Read-Aloud Tools Improve Reading Comprehension for Students With Reading Disabilities? A Meta-Analysis.
This study addresses this gap in the research by conducting a meta-analysis on the effects of text-to-speech technology and related read-aloud tools on reading comprehension for students with reading difficulties. Random effects models yielded an average weighted effect size of ([Formula: see text] = .35, with a 95% confidence interval of .14 to .56, p
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Wood SG, Moxley JH, Tighe EL, Wagner RK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Conservation Abilities, Visuospatial Skills, and Numerosity Processing Speed.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between elementary school children's mathematical achievement and their conservation abilities, visuospatial skills, and numerosity processing speed. We also assessed differences in these abilities between children with different types of learning problems. In Study 1 ( N = 229), we investigated second to fourth graders and in Study 2 ( N = 120), third and fourth graders. Analyses revealed significant contributions of numerosity processing speed and visuospatial skills to math achievement beyond IQ. Conservation abilities were predictive in ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Lambert K, Spinath B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Advancing Stage 2 Research on Measures for Monitoring Kindergarten Reading Progress.
In this study, kindergarten students ( N = 137) of whom the majority was receiving supplemental intervention for reading skills were monitored using Letter Sound Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Word Reading Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, Highly Decodable Passages, and Spelling on a biweekly basis between February and May. Acceptable reliability was observed for all measures. Analyses of slope validity using latent growth models, latent change score models, and slope differences according to level of year-end achievement indicated that the relation of slope to overall reading skills varied across the measures. A sug...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Clemens NH, Soohoo MM, Wiley CP, Hsiao YY, Estrella I, Allee-Smith PJ, Yoon M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Temporal Processing Development in Chinese Primary School-Aged Children With Dyslexia.
This study aimed to investigate the development of visual and auditory temporal processing among children with and without dyslexia and to examine the roles of temporal processing in reading and reading-related abilities. A total of 362 Chinese children in Grades 1-6 were recruited from Taiwan. Half of the children had dyslexia, and the other half were typically developing children who matched the dyslexic group on age, intelligence, and gender. Our results indicate that for typically developing children, the visual and auditory modalities follow the same developmental trend: The children in first and second grades perform...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Wang LC, Yang HM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Beyond Phonology: Visual Processes Predict Alphanumeric and Nonalphanumeric Rapid Naming in Poor Early Readers.
Abstract Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded visual processing measures, after controlling for initial (Grade 1) RAN, matrix reasoning, phonological awareness, and word decoding abilities. A predictive influence of backward visual masking-a speeded visual discrimination task-was found for nonalphanumeric RA...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 28, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Kruk RS, Luther Ruban C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Combined Modality Intervention for ADHD With Comorbid Reading Disorders: A Proof of Concept Study.
Abstract To evaluate the relative efficacy of two reading programs with and without adjunctive stimulant medication for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading disorder (ADHD+RD). Sixty-five children (7-11 years in age) were assigned randomly to one of three intensive remedial academic programs (phonologically or strategy-based reading instruction, or general academic strategy and social skills training) in combination with either immediate-release methylphenidate or placebo. Multiple-blind procedures were used for medication/placebo, given twice daily. Children received 35 hour...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 27, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Tannock R, Frijters JC, Martinussen R, White EJ, Ickowicz A, Benson NJ, Lovett MW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Making Space for Spatial Proportions.
Abstract The three target articles presented in this special issue converged on an emerging theme: the importance of spatial proportional reasoning. They suggest that the ability to map between symbolic fractions (like 1/5) and nonsymbolic, spatial representations of their sizes or magnitudes may be especially important for building robust fractions knowledge. In this commentary, we first reflect upon where these findings stand in a larger theoretical context, largely borrowed from mathematics education research. Next, we emphasize parallels between this work and emerging work suggesting that nonsymbolic proportio...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 27, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Matthews PG, Hubbard EM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Clusters in Specific Learning Disorder.
Abstract The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 16, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Poletti M, Carretta E, Bonvicini L, Giorgi-Rossi P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Attitudes of Primary School Teachers in Three Western Countries Toward Learning Disabilities.
This study examines these issues by comparing beliefs and attitudes among 557 primary school teachers from specific areas of three countries (Italy, Spain, and the United States). Results from this study support the hypothesis that, in general, teachers in these areas are sufficiently well informed about students with LD and are in favor of policies supporting these students' needs. However, substantial differences emerge among countries about the etiology of LD; teachers' and specialists' roles in managing LD students; intervention planning, inclusion, and compensatory provisions; and the range of emotional attitudes that...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Cornoldi C, Capodieci A, Colomer Diago C, Miranda A, Shepherd KG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Remediation for Students With Mathematics Difficulties: An Intervention Study in Middle Schools.
nn S Abstract As empirical studies have consistently shown, low achievement in mathematics at the secondary level can often be traced to deficits in the understanding of certain basic arithmetic concepts taught in primary school. The present intervention study in middle schools evaluated whether such learning deficits can be reduced effectively and whether the type of instruction influences students' progress. The sample consisted of 123 students in 34 classes, split among one control group and two intervention groups: (a) small group instruction and (b) independent work partially integrated into regular classroom...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 7, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Moser Opitz E, Freesemann O, Prediger S, Grob U, Matull I, Hußmann S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Working Memory Load and Reminder Effect on Event-Based Prospective Memory of High- and Low-Achieving Students in Math.
Abstract The effects of working memory (WM) demand and reminders on an event-based prospective memory (PM) task were compared between students with low and high achievement in math. WM load (1- and 2-back tasks) was manipulated as a within-subject factor and reminder (with or without reminder) as a between-subject factor. Results showed that high-achieving students outperformed low-achieving students on all PM and n-back tasks. Use of a reminder improved PM performance and thus reduced prospective interference; the performance of ongoing tasks also improved for all students. Both PM and n-back performances in low ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 7, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Chen Y, Lian R, Yang L, Liu J, Meng Y Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predictive Validity of Curriculum-Embedded Measures on Outcomes of Kindergarteners Identified as At Risk for Reading Difficulty.
This study examined the predictive validity of formative assessments embedded in a Tier 2 intervention curriculum for kindergarten students identified as at risk for reading difficulty. We examined when (i.e., months during the school year) measures could predict reading outcomes gathered at the end of kindergarten and whether the predictive validity of measures changed across the kindergarten year. Participants consisted of 137 kindergarten students whose reading development was assessed four times from October to February. Measures aligned with content taught in the curriculum and assessed a range of phonologic, alphabet...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 22, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Oslund EL, Hagan-Burke S, Simmons DC, Clemens NH, Simmons LE, Taylor AB, Kwok OM, Coyne MD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Cross-National Comparison of Attributional Patterns Toward Students With and Without Learning Disabilities.
This article aims to raise awareness of the importance of attributional beliefs in relation to the educational outcomes of students with LD in Australia and China. Australian and Chinese trainee teachers (N = 240) who were at the end of their training were surveyed with vignettes and Likert-scale questions to ascertain their responses to students with and without LD. Overall, the findings suggest that Chinese trainee teachers' attributional pattern is more positive than that of their Australian counterparts. Implications and recommendations for research and practice are also presented. PMID: 27550910 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 21, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Woodcock S, Jiang H Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Life on the Number Line: Routes to Understanding Fraction Magnitude for Students With Difficulties Learning Mathematics.
Abstract Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number lines broaden the concept of fractions for students who are tied to the more general part-whole representations of area models. We also discuss how number lines, compared to other representations, are a superior and more mathematically correct way to explain fractio...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Gersten R, Schumacher RF, Jordan NC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Prevalence of LD From Parental and Professional Perspectives: A Comparison of the Data From the National Survey of Children's Health and the Office of Special Education Programs' Reports to Congress.
Abstract Since the emergence of the field of learning disabilities (LD) in the late 1960s and early 1970s, controversy has surrounded issues regarding methods used for identification. The prevalence of students identified as LD increased steadily from the 1970s until the beginning of the 21st century, at which time it has decreased until at least 2011 (the most current data available from the U.S. Office of Education). In this article, I compare the prevalence rates of children aged 6 to 17 years being served in schools according to the Office of Special Education Programs with the prevalence rates as reported by ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Pullen PC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Series on Fraction Learning.
PMID: 27506550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Gersten R, Jordan NC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measu...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jordan NC, Resnick I, Rodrigues J, Hansen N, Dyson N Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.
Abstract The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and comp...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Fennell FS, Karp K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction unders...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 3, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Tian J, Siegler RS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Improving the Historical Knowledge and Writing of Students With or At Risk for LD.
In this study, we explored the potential of two forms of discussion (disciplinary vs. traditional) for 39 sixth- and seventh-grade students with or at risk for learning disabilities (LD), before writing historical arguments. Nine teachers who led small group discussions in six heterogeneous social studies classrooms implemented the intervention. Students who were involved in disciplinary discussions (n = 19) scored statistically higher than their peers who engaged in traditional discussions (n = 20) on a measure of historical knowledge (partial η(2) = .23); they also wrote essays with better persuasive quality (partial...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 24, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: De La Paz S, Wissinger DR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Why Learning Common Fractions Is Uncommonly Difficult: Unique Challenges Faced by Students With Mathematical Disabilities.
Abstract In this commentary, I examine some of the distinctive, foundational difficulties in learning fractions and other types of rational numbers encountered by students with a mathematical learning disability and how these differ from the struggles experienced by students classified as low achieving in math. I discuss evidence indicating that students with math disabilities exhibit a significant delay or deficit in the numerical transcoding of decimal fractions, and I further maintain that they may face unique challenges in developing the ability to effectively translate between different types of fractions and...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 17, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Berch DB Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Concept of Magnitude and What It Tells Us About How Struggling Students Learn Fractions.
Abstract This commentary summarizes emerging research into fractions instruction for students who are at risk for failure. Each of the three articles emphasizes a measure conception of fractions. Teaching fractions as measurement helps students learn the magnitude of rational numbers. However, measurement is only part of the way that students should conceptualize fractions. Instruction also needs to emphasize fractions as division. The article also draws attention to the teaching qualifications of those who typically instruct at-risk students in Tier 2 and 3 settings. More often than not, these individuals lack th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 14, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Woodward J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

When Average Is Not Good Enough: Students With Learning Disabilities at Selective, Private Colleges.
We examined the psychoeducational functioning of students receiving accommodations for learning disabilities at a private, selective, liberal arts college. We also determined whether students had objective evidence supporting their disability diagnoses and academic accommodations. Most students showed above-average cognitive abilities, average academic skills, and no evidence of impairment. Although nearly all students reported academic problems, most lacked objective evidence of academic difficulties prior to college as well as relative or normative deficits in broad academic skills or fluency. Results indicate a need for...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 23, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Weis R, Erickson CP, Till CH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Writing Disabilities in Spanish-Speaking Children: Introduction to the Special Series.
ez JE Abstract This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities focuses on studies of writing disabilities in Spanish-speaking children. The World Health Organization (2001) included writing difficulties as one of the problems considered to constitute an impediment to school participation, a significant element in the normal developmental process of the child. In this introduction, I describe the background of a larger project promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This special series offers recent findings on writing disabilities in Spanish-Speaking ch...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 9, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Modifying a Research-Based Problem-Solving Intervention to Improve the Problem-Solving Performance of Fifth and Sixth Graders With and Without Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focu...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 9, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Krawec J, Huang J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Spelling Errors of Dyslexic Children in Bosnian Language With Transparent Orthography.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of spelling errors made by children with dyslexia in Bosnian language with transparent orthography. Three main error categories were distinguished: phonological, orthographic, and grammatical errors. An analysis of error type showed 86% of phonological errors,10% of orthographic errors, and 4% of grammatical errors. Furthermore, the majority errors were the omissions and substitutions, followed by the insertions, omission of rules of assimilation by voicing, and errors with utilization of suffix. We can conclude that phonological errors were dominant in ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 21, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Duranović M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Instructional Practices for Spelling by Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities in Early Grades.
cho J Abstract The main objectives of this study were to examine the type of adaptations made by Grades 1 through 3 primary school teachers working with children who are poor spellers of a transparent language such as Spanish and to analyze whether these adaptations were determined by the grade taught by these teachers. Using the total population of primary school classroom teachers in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands as a base, the authors took a random sample that was stratified by level, resulting in a representative sample of 300 teachers. For data collection, the authors employed an online quest...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 19, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Guzmán R, O'Shanahan I, Camacho J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Relationship Between Implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Student Outcomes for Adolescents With Disabilities.
This study examines the interaction between the fidelity of implementation of a set of research-based strategies-Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)-and outcomes for students with mild to moderate disabilities using data from two nonoverlapping studies in middle school language arts and reading classrooms (Study 1) and middle school social studies and science classrooms (Study 2). The authors use a definition of fidelity that includes both the amount of CSR instruction delivered by teachers and the quality of implementation. Although there were no main effects for quality or amount of CSR instruction, in both studies the...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 18, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Boardman AG, Buckley P, Vaughn S, Roberts G, Scornavacco K, Klingner JK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders.
This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. TheTest Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs. good) across the grades. Results demonstrated that fluency in...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 18, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Peake C, Diaz A, Artiles C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Handwriting Development in Spanish Children With and Without Learning Disabilities: A Graphonomic Approach.
Abstract The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities. The Early Grade Writing Assessment tasks selected for this purpose were writing the alphabet in order from memory, alphabet copying in cursive and manuscript, and allograph selection. The dynamics of these four handwriting tasks were recorded using graphonomic ta...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 17, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Barrientos P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Reading Fluency Interventions on the Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Performance of Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Research from 2001 to 2014.
Abstract Fluent word reading is hypothesized to facilitate reading comprehension by improving automatic word reading, thus releasing a reader's cognitive resources to focus on meaning. Many students with learning disabilities (LD) struggle to develop reading fluency, which affects reading comprehension. This synthesis extends Chard, Vaughn, and Tyler's (2002) review, synthesizing fluency intervention research from 2001 to 2014. The search yielded 19 studies examining reading fluency and comprehension outcomes of reading fluency interventions for students with LD in kindergarten through 5th grade. Results showed re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Stevens EA, Walker MA, Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fluency and Accuracy in Alphabet Writing by Keyboarding: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.
acute;rez E Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from theEarly Grade Writing Assessment(Jiménez, in press) were used to assign the participants to one of four groups with different ability patterns: poor handwriters, poor spellers, a mixed group, and typically achieving students. Groups were equalized by a matching strategy, resulting in a final sample ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Bisschop E, Morales C, Gil V, Jiménez-Suárez E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Internal Structure and Development of Keyboard Skills in Spanish-Speaking Primary-School Children With and Without LD in Writing.
This study had two purposes: examining the internal structure of theTest Estandarizado para la Evaluación Inicial de la Escritura con Teclado(TEVET; Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test), and analyzing the development of keyboarding skills in Spanish elementary school children with and without learning disabilities (LD) in writing. A group of 1,168 elementary school children carried out the following writing tasks: writing the alphabet in order from memory, allograph selection, word copying, writing dictated words with inconsistent spelling, writing pseudowords from dictation, and independent composition of sentence. Fo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 6, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE, Marco I, Suárez N, González D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access From Symbolic Numbers?
Abstract Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a physical number line. However, it remains unclear whether they have a deficit with the mental number line per se or a deficit with accessing it from nonsymbolic and/or symbolic numbers. Quebec French-speaking 8- to 9-year-old children with (24) and without (37) dysca...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 24, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Lafay A, St-Pierre MC, Macoir J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model.
ez JE Abstract The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the Early Grade Writing Assessment (EGWA) is to document learners' basic writing skills, mapped in composing units of increasing complexity to communicate meaning. Validation and standardization of EGWA was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain) in 12 schools using a cross-sectional design with a sampl...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 17, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predicting Handwriting Difficulties Through Spelling Processes.
This study examined whether spelling tasks contribute to the prediction of the handwriting status of children with poor and good handwriting skills in a cross-sectional study with 276 Spanish children from Grades 1 and 3. The main hypothesis was that the spelling tasks would predict the handwriting status of the children, although this influence would decrease with age due to a gradual automatization of handwriting skills. The results confirmed this hypothesis. Another interesting result was that the pattern of pseudoword and irregular word spellings as predictors of handwriting status changed from Grade 1 to Grade 3. In G...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 14, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Rodríguez C, Villarroel R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on Proportional Problem-Solving for Students With Mathematics Problem-Solving Difficulties.
This article reports results from a study investigating the efficacy of a proportional problem-solving intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), in seventh grade. Participants included 806 students with mathematical difficulties in problem solving (MD-PS) from an initial pool of 1,999 seventh grade students in a larger study. Teachers and their students in the larger study were randomly assigned to an SBI or control condition and teachers in both conditions then provided instruction on the topics of ratio, proportion, and percent. We found that students with MD-PS in SBI classrooms scored on average higher than their c...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jitendra AK, Harwell MR, Dupuis DN, Karl SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research