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Fraction Intervention for Students With Mathematics Difficulties: Lessons Learned From Five Randomized Controlled Trials.
Abstract In this article, the authors summarize results from 5 randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of intervention to improve the fraction performance of fourth-grade students at risk for difficulty in learning about fractions. The authors begin by explaining the importance of competence with fractions and why an instructional focus on fractions magnitude understanding may improve learning. They then describe an intervention that relies strongly on this type of understanding about fractions instruction, and they provide an overview of the intervention's overall effects. This is followed by an overvi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Fuchs LS, Malone AS, Schumacher RF, Namkung J, Wang A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Editor Farewell.
PMID: 29017428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Swanson HL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Developmental Dyscalculia in Adults: Beyond Numerical Magnitude Impairment.
l V Abstract Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control pa...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: De Visscher A, Noël MP, Pesenti M, Dormal V Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reading and Phonological Awareness in Africa.
Abstract Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learn...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Alcock KJ, Ngorosho DS, Jukes MCH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Unpacking Direct and Indirect Relationships of Short-Term Memory to Word Reading: Evidence From Korean-Speaking Children.
We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN. ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Kim YG, Cho JR, Park SG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Slope in Upper Elementary Grades Using Quantile Regression.
This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance. However, ORF slope was differentially predictive of a passage-level comprehension assessment based on students' reading skills when controlling for initial ORF status. Results showed that ORF explained unique varia...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Cho E, Capin P, Roberts G, Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.
Abstract This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cros...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Arden SV, Pentimonti JM, Cooray R, Jackson S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Reading Model from the Perspective of Japanese Orthography: Connectionist Approach to the Hypothesis of Granularity and Transparency.
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relative...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Ijuin M, Wydell TN Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

MAWRID: A Model of Arabic Word Reading in Development.
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic wo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Saiegh-Haddad E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

First-Grade Cognitive Predictors of Writing Disabilities in Grades 2 Through 4 Elementary School Students.
Abstract The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach. Data analysis primarily involved...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Costa LJ, Green M, Sideris J, Hooper SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Models of Reading in Different Orthographies: An Introduction.
Abstract The authors provide a summary of the articles in the special series on reading development in different orthographies from various writing systems and scripts. PMID: 28720026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Joshi RM, McCardle P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Growth of Word and Pseudoword Reading Efficiency in Alphabetic Orthographies: Impact of Consistency.
Abstract Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Caravolas M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Learning to Read a Semitic Abjad: The Triplex Model of Hebrew Reading Development.
Abstract We introduce a model of Hebrew reading development that emphasizes both the universal and script-specific aspects of learning to read a Semitic abjad. At the universal level, the study of Hebrew reading acquisition offers valuable insights into the fundamental dilemmas of all writing systems-balancing the competing needs of the novice versus the expert reader (Share, 2008). At the script-specific level, pointed Hebrew initially employs supplementary vowel signs, providing the beginning reader a consistent, phonologically well-specified script while helping the expert-to-be unitize words and morphemes via ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Share DL, Bar-On A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Behavioral Executive Functions Among Adolescents With Mathematics Difficulties.
This study investigates behavioral executive functions (EFs) in the mathematics classroom context among adolescents with different mathematics performance levels. The EF problems were assessed by teachers using a behavioral rating inventory. Using cutoff scores on a standardized mathematics assessment, groups with mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 124), low mathematics performance (LA; n = 140), and average or higher scores (AC; n = 355) were identified. Results showed that the MD group had more problems with distractibility, directing attention, shifting attention, initiative, execution of action, planning, and evaluation...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Holm ME, Aunio P, Björn PM, Klenberg L, Korhonen J, Hannula MS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

What Reading Disability? Evidence for Multiple Latent Profiles of Struggling Readers in a Large Russian Sibpair Sample With at Least One Sibling at Risk for Reading Difficulties.
In this study, we performed a latent profile analysis of reading and related skills in a large ( n = 733) sibpair sample of Russian readers at risk for reading difficulties. The analysis suggested the presence of seven latent profiles, of which two were characterized by relatively high performance on measures of spelling and reading comprehension and the remaining five included severely as well as moderately affected readers with deficits in the domains of phonological, orthographic, and morphological processing. The results suggest that the development and manifestation of reading difficulties in Russian is mappable on a ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Kornilov SA, Grigorenko EL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Toward a Graded Psycholexical Space Mapping Model: Sublexical and Lexical Representations in Chinese Character Reading Development.
Abstract Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the in...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Tong X, McBride C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Investigating the Asymmetrical Roles of Syllabic and Phonemic Awareness in Akshara Processing.
This study builds on a growing body of literature on the akshara orthographies to shed light on the precise nature of the developmental asymmetry in the dual syllabic and phonemic representation in akshara reading. PMID: 28685668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Nakamura PR, Joshi RM, Ji XR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Difficulties in Comprehending Affirmative and Negative Sentences: Evidence From Chinese Children With Reading Difficulties.
This study looks at how young poor readers, speakers of Mandarin Chinese, comprehend affirmative and negative sentences as compared with a group of age-matched typical readers. Forty-four Chinese children were tested with a truth value judgment task. The results reveal that negative sentences were harder to process than affirmative ones, irrespective of the distinction between poor and typical readers. Moreover, poor readers performed worse than typical readers in comprehending sentences, regardless of whether they were affirmative or negative sentences. We interpret the results as (a) confirming the two-step simulation hy...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Hu S, Vender M, Fiorin G, Delfitto D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Suicide Attempts Among Individuals With Specific Learning Disorders: An Underrecognized Issue.
Abstract Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey ( n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with an SLD was much higher than those without (11.1% vs. 2.7%, p
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Fuller-Thomson E, Carroll SZ, Yang W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predicting Individual Differences in Reading and Spelling Skill With Artificial Script-Based Letter-Speech Sound Training.
In this study, we examined the learning of letter-speech sound correspondences within an artificial script and performed an experimental analysis of letter-speech sound learning among dyslexic and normal readers vis-à-vis phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, reading, and spelling. Participants were provided with 20 min of training aimed at learning eight new basic letter-speech sound correspondences, followed by a short assessment of mastery of the correspondences and word-reading ability in this unfamiliar script. Our results demonstrated that brief training is moderately successful in differentiating ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Aravena S, Tijms J, Snellings P, van der Molen MW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Beyond Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits: Lexical Tone Perception Deficits in Chinese Children With Developmental Dyslexia.
This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children. Sixteen children with dyslexia and 44 age-matched controls were administered a Cantonese lexical tone perception task, psychoacoustic tasks, a nonverbal reasoning ability task, and word reading and dictation tasks. Children with dyslexia performed worse than controls on Cantonese lexical tone perception, rise time, and intensity. Furthermore, Cantonese lexical tone perception appeared t...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Tong X, Tong X, King Yiu F Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Effect of Working Memory Updating Training on Retrieving Symptoms of Children With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Working memory (WM) deficiency is a primary reason for the poor academic performance of children with learning disabilities (LDs). Studies have shown that the WM of typical children could be improved through training, and WM training contributes to improving their fluid intelligence and academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated WM training for children with LDs, and results have been inconsistent. The present study examined the long-term effects of WM updating training and whether it can mitigate LD symptoms. Fifty-four children with LDs were recruited and divided randomly into a traini...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Chen X, Ye M, Chang L, Chen W, Zhou R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Theorization and an Empirical Investigation of the Component-Based and Developmental Text Writing Fluency Construct.
Abstract We discuss a component-based, developmental view of text writing fluency, which we tested using data from children in Grades 2 and 3. Text writing fluency was defined as efficiency and automaticity in writing connected texts, which acts as a mediator between text generation (oral language), transcription skills, and writing quality. We hypothesized that in the beginning phase, text writing fluency would be largely constrained by transcription skills (spelling and handwriting), while at a later phase, oral language would make an independent contribution to text writing fluency. Furthermore, we hypothesized...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Kim YG, Gatlin B, Al Otaiba S, Wanzek J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: Abstract Cavalli, E., Colé, P., Leloup, G., Poracchia-George, F., Sprenger-Charolles, L., & El Ahmadi, A. (2017). Screening for dyslexia in French-speaking university students: An evaluation of the detection accuracy of the Alouette test. Journal of Learning Disabilites. Advance online publication. (Original doi: 10.1177/0022219417704637 ) In the version of this article originally published OnlineFirst, the funding statement was incorrect. The correct funding statement is as follows: Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Location and Effects of Visual Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation on Reading Fluency in Children With the Characteristics of Dyslexia.
This study is designed to replicate Lorusso, Facoetti, Paganoni, Pezzani, and Molteni's (2006) work using FlashWord, a computer program that tachistoscopically presents words in the right or left visual hemi-field in English and locates through fMRI imaging the processing areas involved in fluency development. Our participants were 15 students who were ages 8 to 19 years and had reading disabilities randomly assigned to Intervention ( n = 9) and Delayed Intervention ( n = 6) groups. Functional imaging studies focused on analyzing activations in the left hemisphere (LH) superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, a...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Koen BJ, Hawkins J, Zhu X, Jansen B, Fan W, Johnson S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

An Analysis of First-Grade Writing Profiles and Their Relationship to Compositional Quality.
Abstract To help all students meet the writing expectations of the Common Core State Standards, researchers need a deeper understanding of the characteristics of struggling writers. The purpose of this study was to explore the writing profiles of students including those who have or are at risk for writing disabilities. First-grade students ( N = 391) were assessed at the end of the school year using three writing assessments (spelling, sentence writing fluency, writing achievement). The researchers used latent profile analysis to identify students as fitting into one of five profiles (At Risk, Low Fluency, Low Wr...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Coker DL, Ritchey KD, Uribe-Zarain X, Jennings AS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Writing Intervention.
Abstract The purpose of this best evidence synthesis was to identify promising interventions that align with a theoretical model of early writing development, targeting three components of early writing: transcription, text generation, and self-regulation. We determined the extent to which these interventions are effective for children who struggle with early writing skills, by calculating effect sizes for group and single-subject designs, and we examined the overall quality of the research. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Among group design studies, mean effects (Hedge's g) ranged from 0.19 to 1.17 fo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: McMaster KL, Kunkel A, Shin J, Jung PG, Lembke E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Critical Issues in the Understanding of Young Elementary School Students at Risk for Problems in Written Expression: Introduction to the Special Issue.
In conclusion, we envision future directions to advance the field. PMID: 28498735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Coker DL, Kim YG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Tailoring Multicomponent Writing Interventions: Effects of Coupling Self-Regulation and Transcription Training.
Abstract Writing proficiency is heavily based on acquisition and development of self-regulation and transcription skills. The present study examined the effects of combining transcription training with a self-regulation intervention (self-regulated strategy development [SRSD]) in Grade 2 (ages 7-8). Forty-three students receiving self-regulation plus transcription (SRSD+TR) intervention were compared with 37 students receiving a self-regulation only (SRSD only) intervention and 39 students receiving the standard language arts curriculum. Compared with control instruction, SRSD instruction-with or without transcrip...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Limpo T, Alves RA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Learning Disabilities and Low Social Status: The Role of Peer Academic Reputation and Peer Reputation of Teacher Liking.
Abstract Although many studies have found that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less liked by peers than children without LD, the results are not unequivocal. In the present study, we investigated the social status (in terms of likeability and popularity) of children with LD by considering peer academic reputation and peer reputation of teacher liking. These variables are potentially important alternative factors for differences in social status between children with and without LD. Fifth-grade students ( n = 1,453; Mage = 10.60) in 58 classes in the Netherlands completed peer nominations for academic ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: van der Sande L, Hendrickx MMHG, Boor-Klip HJ, Mainhard T Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Screening for Dyslexia in French-Speaking University Students: An Evaluation of the Detection Accuracy of the Alouette Test.
In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i.e., phonological skills). However, the test's psychometric properties have not previously been available, and it is not standardized for adults. The results showed that, on the Alouette test, dyslexic readers were impaired on measures of accuracy, speed, and efficiency (accuracy/reading time). We also foun...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Cavalli E, Colé P, Leloup G, Poracchia-George F, Sprenger-Charolles L, El Ahmadi A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reading Disability Spectrum: Early and Late Recognition, Subthreshold, and Full Comorbidity.
This study demonstrated that early recognition of RD may play a role in determining comorbid psychopathology and should therefore be an educational and clinical priority. Clinicians should routinely screen children with RD for comorbid disorders, including subthreshold pathology. PMID: 28406742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Törő KT, Miklósi M, Horanyi E, Kovács GP, Balázs J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Comparing Students With and Without Reading Difficulties on Reading Comprehension Assessments: A Meta-Analysis.
DL Abstract Researchers have increasingly investigated sources of variance in reading comprehension test scores, particularly with students with reading difficulties (RD). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine if the achievement gap between students with RD and typically developing (TD) students varies as a function of different reading comprehension response formats (e.g., multiple choice, cloze). A systematic literature review identified 82 eligible studies. All studies administered reading comprehension assessments to students with RD and TD students in Grades K-12. Hedge's g standardized mean dif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Collins AA, Lindström ER, Compton DL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

How Many U.S. High School Students Have a Foreign Language Reading "Disability"? Reading Without Meaning and the Simple View.
In this study, a random sample of U.S. high school students completing first-, second-, and third-year Spanish courses were administered standardized measures of Spanish word decoding and reading comprehension, compared with monolingual Spanish readers from first to eleventh grades, and classified into reader types according to the simple view of reading. The majority of students fit the hyperlexic profile, and no participants fit the good reader profile until they were compared with first- and second-grade monolingual Spanish readers. Findings call into question the practice of diagnosing an FL "disability" befo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Sparks RL, Luebbers J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.
Abstract Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially pre...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 31, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Sanders EA, Berninger VW, Abbott RD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Applied STEM Course Taking Link to STEM Outcomes for High School Students With Learning Disabilities?
Abstract Over the most recent two decades, federal policy has urged high schools to embed applied science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses into the curriculum to reinforce concepts learned in traditional math and science classes as well as to motivate students' interests and long-term pursuits in STEM areas. While prior research has examined whether these courses link to STEM persistence for the general student population, no work has examined the role of these courses for students with learning disabilities (LDs). This is a critical lapse, as these courses have been supported as being one ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 31, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Gottfried MA, Sublett C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Arithmetic Abilities in Children With Developmental Dyslexia.
e;e L Abstract A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. Of them, 40% displayed arithmetic deficits, mostly with regard to numb...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: De Clercq-Quaegebeur M, Casalis S, Vilette B, Lemaitre MP, Vallée L Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Use of Text-to-Speech and Related Read-Aloud Tools Improve Reading Comprehension for Students With Reading Disabilities? A Meta-Analysis.
This study addresses this gap in the research by conducting a meta-analysis on the effects of text-to-speech technology and related read-aloud tools on reading comprehension for students with reading difficulties. Random effects models yielded an average weighted effect size of ([Formula: see text] = .35, with a 95% confidence interval of .14 to .56, p
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Wood SG, Moxley JH, Tighe EL, Wagner RK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Conservation Abilities, Visuospatial Skills, and Numerosity Processing Speed.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between elementary school children's mathematical achievement and their conservation abilities, visuospatial skills, and numerosity processing speed. We also assessed differences in these abilities between children with different types of learning problems. In Study 1 ( N = 229), we investigated second to fourth graders and in Study 2 ( N = 120), third and fourth graders. Analyses revealed significant contributions of numerosity processing speed and visuospatial skills to math achievement beyond IQ. Conservation abilities were predictive in ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Lambert K, Spinath B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Advancing Stage 2 Research on Measures for Monitoring Kindergarten Reading Progress.
In this study, kindergarten students ( N = 137) of whom the majority was receiving supplemental intervention for reading skills were monitored using Letter Sound Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Word Reading Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, Highly Decodable Passages, and Spelling on a biweekly basis between February and May. Acceptable reliability was observed for all measures. Analyses of slope validity using latent growth models, latent change score models, and slope differences according to level of year-end achievement indicated that the relation of slope to overall reading skills varied across the measures. A sug...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Clemens NH, Soohoo MM, Wiley CP, Hsiao YY, Estrella I, Allee-Smith PJ, Yoon M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Temporal Processing Development in Chinese Primary School-Aged Children With Dyslexia.
This study aimed to investigate the development of visual and auditory temporal processing among children with and without dyslexia and to examine the roles of temporal processing in reading and reading-related abilities. A total of 362 Chinese children in Grades 1-6 were recruited from Taiwan. Half of the children had dyslexia, and the other half were typically developing children who matched the dyslexic group on age, intelligence, and gender. Our results indicate that for typically developing children, the visual and auditory modalities follow the same developmental trend: The children in first and second grades perform...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Wang LC, Yang HM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Beyond Phonology: Visual Processes Predict Alphanumeric and Nonalphanumeric Rapid Naming in Poor Early Readers.
Abstract Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded visual processing measures, after controlling for initial (Grade 1) RAN, matrix reasoning, phonological awareness, and word decoding abilities. A predictive influence of backward visual masking-a speeded visual discrimination task-was found for nonalphanumeric RA...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 28, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Kruk RS, Luther Ruban C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Combined Modality Intervention for ADHD With Comorbid Reading Disorders: A Proof of Concept Study.
Abstract To evaluate the relative efficacy of two reading programs with and without adjunctive stimulant medication for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading disorder (ADHD+RD). Sixty-five children (7-11 years in age) were assigned randomly to one of three intensive remedial academic programs (phonologically or strategy-based reading instruction, or general academic strategy and social skills training) in combination with either immediate-release methylphenidate or placebo. Multiple-blind procedures were used for medication/placebo, given twice daily. Children received 35 hour...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 27, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Tannock R, Frijters JC, Martinussen R, White EJ, Ickowicz A, Benson NJ, Lovett MW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Making Space for Spatial Proportions.
Abstract The three target articles presented in this special issue converged on an emerging theme: the importance of spatial proportional reasoning. They suggest that the ability to map between symbolic fractions (like 1/5) and nonsymbolic, spatial representations of their sizes or magnitudes may be especially important for building robust fractions knowledge. In this commentary, we first reflect upon where these findings stand in a larger theoretical context, largely borrowed from mathematics education research. Next, we emphasize parallels between this work and emerging work suggesting that nonsymbolic proportio...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 27, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Matthews PG, Hubbard EM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Clusters in Specific Learning Disorder.
Abstract The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 16, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Poletti M, Carretta E, Bonvicini L, Giorgi-Rossi P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Attitudes of Primary School Teachers in Three Western Countries Toward Learning Disabilities.
This study examines these issues by comparing beliefs and attitudes among 557 primary school teachers from specific areas of three countries (Italy, Spain, and the United States). Results from this study support the hypothesis that, in general, teachers in these areas are sufficiently well informed about students with LD and are in favor of policies supporting these students' needs. However, substantial differences emerge among countries about the etiology of LD; teachers' and specialists' roles in managing LD students; intervention planning, inclusion, and compensatory provisions; and the range of emotional attitudes that...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Cornoldi C, Capodieci A, Colomer Diago C, Miranda A, Shepherd KG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Remediation for Students With Mathematics Difficulties: An Intervention Study in Middle Schools.
nn S Abstract As empirical studies have consistently shown, low achievement in mathematics at the secondary level can often be traced to deficits in the understanding of certain basic arithmetic concepts taught in primary school. The present intervention study in middle schools evaluated whether such learning deficits can be reduced effectively and whether the type of instruction influences students' progress. The sample consisted of 123 students in 34 classes, split among one control group and two intervention groups: (a) small group instruction and (b) independent work partially integrated into regular classroom...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 7, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Moser Opitz E, Freesemann O, Prediger S, Grob U, Matull I, Hußmann S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Working Memory Load and Reminder Effect on Event-Based Prospective Memory of High- and Low-Achieving Students in Math.
Abstract The effects of working memory (WM) demand and reminders on an event-based prospective memory (PM) task were compared between students with low and high achievement in math. WM load (1- and 2-back tasks) was manipulated as a within-subject factor and reminder (with or without reminder) as a between-subject factor. Results showed that high-achieving students outperformed low-achieving students on all PM and n-back tasks. Use of a reminder improved PM performance and thus reduced prospective interference; the performance of ongoing tasks also improved for all students. Both PM and n-back performances in low ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 7, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Chen Y, Lian R, Yang L, Liu J, Meng Y Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predictive Validity of Curriculum-Embedded Measures on Outcomes of Kindergarteners Identified as At Risk for Reading Difficulty.
This study examined the predictive validity of formative assessments embedded in a Tier 2 intervention curriculum for kindergarten students identified as at risk for reading difficulty. We examined when (i.e., months during the school year) measures could predict reading outcomes gathered at the end of kindergarten and whether the predictive validity of measures changed across the kindergarten year. Participants consisted of 137 kindergarten students whose reading development was assessed four times from October to February. Measures aligned with content taught in the curriculum and assessed a range of phonologic, alphabet...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 22, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Oslund EL, Hagan-Burke S, Simmons DC, Clemens NH, Simmons LE, Taylor AB, Kwok OM, Coyne MD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Cross-National Comparison of Attributional Patterns Toward Students With and Without Learning Disabilities.
This article aims to raise awareness of the importance of attributional beliefs in relation to the educational outcomes of students with LD in Australia and China. Australian and Chinese trainee teachers (N = 240) who were at the end of their training were surveyed with vignettes and Likert-scale questions to ascertain their responses to students with and without LD. Overall, the findings suggest that Chinese trainee teachers' attributional pattern is more positive than that of their Australian counterparts. Implications and recommendations for research and practice are also presented. PMID: 27550910 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 21, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Woodcock S, Jiang H Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research