A Note to the JLD Community in Response to the Pandemic.
PMID: 32539569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 17, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Al Otaiba S, Terry NP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Algebraic Equation Solving Intervention for Students With Mathematics Learning Difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of algebraic equation solving intervention for sixth graders with mathematics learning difficulties (MD). A total of 48 students with MD were randomly assigned to either the algebraic equation solving intervention, Mystery Math (n = 24) or control condition (n = 24). The multicomponent intervention was based on the principles of explicit instruction and focused on improving conceptual and procedural knowledge of algebraic equation solving using concrete manipulatives. Students in the intervention group received instruction in pairs, 30 min per session, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 8, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Namkung JM, Bricko N Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Snapshot of RTI Implementation a Decade Later: New Picture, Same Story.
Abstract Response to intervention (RTI) has evolved from its first decade of implementation. Because states guide and regulate policy and practice at the state and local education agency levels, it is important to understand their critical role in RTI implementation. A systematic review of all 50 state education agency websites was conducted to provide an updated "snapshot" of states' interpretation of RTI a decade after IDEA regulations were finalized. Findings revealed substantive progress towards developing approaches to systematic supports to students, with a major trend in adoption of multi-tiered s...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 28, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Berkeley S, Scanlon D, Bailey TR, Sutton JC, Sacco DM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Systematic CHAAOS: Teaching Vocabulary in English/Language Arts Special Education Classes in Middle School.
Abstract In this multi-year study, we taught English/Language Arts teachers of students with learning disabilities in middle school to incorporate 15 min of daily vocabulary activities with students in their intact special education English/Language Arts classes. During Year 1, teachers taught 48 words to their sixth grade students, who learned and retained the words significantly better than the students in business-as-usual (BAU) control classes. In the current study, we report the second year results, as the sixth grade students entered seventh grade. Students (n = 42) in treatment classes again learned 48 new ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 28, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: O'Connor RE, Sanchez VM, Jones BT, Suchlit L, Youkhana V, Beach KD, Widaman K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Preservice Observation in Special Education: A Validation Study.
Abstract Advancing teacher candidates' overall competence through use of valid teacher observation systems should be an essential element of teacher preparation. Yet, the field of special education has not provided observation protocols designed specifically for preservice teachers that are founded in theoretical perspectives and research on effective instruction for students with learning and other high-incidence disabilities (SWDs). To address this need, a group of researchers in special education teacher preparation and measurement developed the Preservice Observation Instrument for Special Education (POISE). T...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 26, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Pua DJ, Peyton DJ, Brownell MT, Contesse VA, Jones ND Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Dyslexia: A New Approach to Its Estimation.
Abstract How prevalent is dyslexia? A definitive answer to this question has been elusive because of the continuous distribution of reading performance and predictors of dyslexia and because of the heterogeneous nature of samples of poor readers. Samples of poor readers are a mixture of individuals whose reading is consistent with or expected based on their performance in other academic areas and in language, and individuals with dyslexia whose reading is not consistent with or expected based on their other performances. In the present article, we replicate and extend a new approach for determining the prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 26, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Wagner RK, Zirps FA, Edwards AA, Wood SG, Joyner RE, Becker BJ, Liu G, Beal B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Are Individual Differences in Response to Intervention Influenced by the Methods and Measures Used to Define Response? Implications for Identifying Children With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Response to intervention (RTI) has been promoted for nearly 20 years as a valid supplement to or alternative method of learning disability (LD) identification. Nevertheless, important unresolved questions remain about its role in disability identification. We had two purposes when conducting this study of 229 economically and racially diverse poor readers in Grades 4 and 5 in 28 public elementary and middle schools in Nashville. First, we examined predictors of the children's response to a reading comprehension tutoring program. Second, we explored the utility of different methods (growth vs final status)...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 26, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Hendricks EL, Fuchs D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Comparison of Reading Growth Among Students With Severe Reading Deficits Who Received Intervention to Typically Achieving Students and Students Receiving Special Education.
This study compared the reading growth of students with and without learning disabilities, and students with and without reading deficits in response to tier 2 reading interventions within a response-to-intervention framework. Participants were 499 second- and third-grade students in six urban schools. Students who scored at or below the 10th percentile on the fall reading screening assessment were identified as having a severe reading deficit and received a tier 2 reading intervention that was targeted to their needs. Results showed a significant effect between groups on reading growth. Students with severe reading defici...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 18, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Burns MK, Maki KE, Brann KL, McComas JJ, Helman LA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Do Children Classified With Specific Language Impairment Have a Learning Disability in Writing? A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract In this meta-analysis, we examined whether children classified with specific language impairment (SLI) experience difficulties with writing. We included studies comparing children with SLI to (a) typically developing peers matched on age (k = 39 studies) and (b) typically developing younger peers with similar language capabilities (k = six studies). Children classified with SLI scored lower on writing measures than their typically developing peers matched on age (g = -0.97) when all writing scores in a study were included in the analysis. This same pattern occurred for specific measures of writing: qualit...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 12, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Graham S, Hebert M, Fishman E, Ray AB, Rouse AG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Characteristics of Students Identified With Dyslexia Within the Context of State Legislation.
Abstract All but seven U.S. states have laws that govern some aspects of dyslexia screening, intervention, or teacher training in public schools. However, in the three states that mandate child-level reporting, data indicate lower than expected rates of dyslexia identification when compared with commonly accepted dyslexia prevalence rates. To better understand this apparent mismatch, this study explores factors that might predict the school-assigned identification of individuals with dyslexia. Deidentified data on 7,947 second-grade students in 126 schools from one U.S. state included a universal screening measure...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 27, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Odegard TN, Farris EA, Middleton AE, Oslund E, Rimrodt-Frierson S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Exploring the Relation Between Teacher Factors and Student Growth in Early Writing.
Abstract Data from a small randomized control trial of teachers' use of Data-Based Instruction (DBI) for early writing were analyzed to determine the influence of teacher knowledge, skills, and treatment fidelity on student Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) slope. Participants included 11 elementary grade teachers who delivered intensive intervention in early writing and their students (n = 31), all identified as either at risk for or with disabilities that affect their writing. Teachers received professional development and ongoing coaching to support the implementation of DBI for improving their students' early...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 10, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Bresina BC, McMaster KL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Common Family Factor Underlying Language Difficulties and Internalizing Problems: Findings From a Population-Based Sibling Study.
This study uses sibling data to investigate if the comorbidity between language difficulties and internalizing problems is best explained by familial factors shared by siblings, such as genes or family environment, or nonfamilial factors specific to each child, such as peer environment. Data include 5,568 siblings at 5 years and 3,654 siblings at 8 years participating in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We constructed a latent factor model at 5 and 8 years, including a family comorbidity factor capturing correlations between language and internalizing problems that were equally strong between as ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 24, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Helland SS, Røysamb E, Brandlistuen RE, Melby-Lervåg M, Gustavson K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Using Direct Observation to Document "Practice-Based Evidence" of Evidence-Based Mathematics Instruction.
This study investigated "practice-based evidence" of interventionists' actual use of explicit mathematics instruction, a well-established EBP. Specifically, this study analyzed direct observation data collected in a federally funded efficacy trial involving a Tier 2 first-grade mathematics intervention to examine whether the quantity and quality of explicit mathematics instruction was associated with the mathematics outcomes of 470 first-grade students with or at risk for mathematics learning disabilities. Associations between group-level pretreatment skill levels and the quality and quantity of explicit mathemat...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 19, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Doabler CT, Clarke B, Kosty D, Turtura JE, Sutherland M, Maddox SA, Smolkowski K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Relationship of Special Education Teacher Performance on Observation Instruments With Student Outcomes.
In this study, we examined the relationship of special education teachers' performance on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) Explicit Instruction observation protocol with student growth on academic measures. Special education teachers provided video-recorded observations of three instructional lessons along with data from standardized, curriculum-based academic measures at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year for the students in the instructional group. Teachers' lessons were evaluated by external, trained raters. Data were analyzed using many-faceted Rasch measurement (MFRM), correl...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 18, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Johnson ES, Zheng Y, Crawford AR, Moylan LA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Toward Integrative Reading Science: The Direct and Indirect Effects Model of Reading.
Abstract The authors propose an integrative theoretical model of reading called the direct and indirect effects model of reading (DIER) that builds on and extends several prominent theoretical models of reading. According to DIER, the following skills and knowledge are involved in reading comprehension: word reading, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, background knowledge (content knowledge and discourse knowledge), reading affect or socioemotions, higher order cognitions and regulation (e.g., inference, perspective taking, reasoning, and comprehension monitoring), vocabulary, grammatical (morphosyntac...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 3, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Kim YG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Critical Role of Instructional Response for Identifying Dyslexia and Other Learning Disabilities.
This article addresses the nature of dyslexia and best practices for identification and treatment within the context of multitier systems of support (MTSS). We initially review proposed definitions of dyslexia to identify key commonalities and differences in proposed attributes. We then review empirical evidence for proposed definitional attributes, focusing on key sources of controversy, including the role of IQ, instructional response, as well as issues of etiology and immutability. We argue that current empirical evidence supports a dyslexia classification marked by specific deficits in reading and spelling words combin...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 20, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Miciak J, Fletcher JM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Using Video-Based Instruction via Augmented Reality to Teach Mathematics to Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of video-based mathematics instruction for seven middle school students with specific learning disability (SLD), using an augmented reality-based training package. The dependent variable was the percentage of steps students performed correctly to solve each type of mathematics problem. The independent variable was the augmented reality video-based intervention, which used video to model the individual steps for solving four types of multistep mathematics problems: (a) addition and subtraction of integers, (b) multiplication and division of integer...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 17, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Kellems RO, Eichelberger C, Cacciatore G, Jensen M, Frazier B, Simons K, Zaru M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Handwriting Delay in Dyslexia: Children at the End of Primary School Still Make Numerous Short Pauses When Producing Letters.
Abstract Developmental dyslexia is defined as a specific reading disorder but is also thought to be underpinned by a deficit in motor skills that may well affect handwriting performance. However, the results of studies addressing this issue are not consistent. The present study was, therefore, designed to better understand the functioning of handwriting in children with dyslexia, by conducting an analysis of the legibility and fluency of handwritten letters, supplemented by an assessment of motor skills. The performances of 15 children with dyslexia (Mage = 11.4 years) were compared with those of two groups of typ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 10, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Alamargot D, Morin MF, Simard-Dupuis E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Effects of Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction on Historical Writing Growth of Students With Writing Difficulties.
This study provides evidence for the benefits of discipline-specific interventions in social studies for students with WD. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID: 32028833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 7, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Wissinger DR, De La Paz S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Skill Profiles of College Students With a History of Developmental Language Disorder and Developmental Dyslexia.
We examined the cognitive skill profiles of 352 college students (ages 18-35 years), using standardized and research-validated measures of reading, spoken language, nonverbal cognition, and self-reported childhood diagnostic history. We classified college students as having DLD (n = 50), and/or DD (n = 40), or as typically developed adults (n = 132) according to procedures described for adults with DLD and DD. A structural equation model determined the cognitive, language, and reading measures predicted by the classification group. Adults with DLD demonstrated poor verbal working memory and speeded sentence-level reading. ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 6, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Del Tufo SN, Earle FS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Dynamic Assessment for Identifying Spanish-Speaking English Learners' Risk for Mathematics Disabilities: Does Language of Administration Matter?
We examined dynamic assessment's (DA's) added value over traditional assessments for identifying Spanish-speaking English learners' (ELs) risk for developing mathematics disabilities, as a function of the language of test administration (English vs. Spanish), type of math outcome, and EL's language dominance. At the start of first grade, ELs (N = 368) were randomly assigned to English-DA or Spanish-DA conditions, were assessed on static mathematics measures and domain-general (language, reasoning) measures in English, and completed DA in their assigned language condition. At year's end, they were assessed on calculation an...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 23, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Cho E, Fuchs LS, Seethaler PM, Fuchs D, Compton DL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Writing and Revision Strategies of Students With and Without Dyslexia.
Abstract Previous work suggests that written text produced by university students with dyslexia is scored lower than that produced by their peers. The present study used a digital writing tablet to examine the writing process and the quality of text written by university students with dyslexia. Revision behavior during and after writing was also investigated. Thirty-two university students with dyslexia (mean age, 20 years), were compared with 32 typically developing (TD) students matched by age. Students composed a written text in response to an expository essay prompt. In line with previous research, students wi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 15, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Sumner E, Connelly V Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Lecture Note-Taking Skills of Adolescents With and Without Learning Disabilities.
This study attempted to replicate these findings with two groups of high school students-those with and without the diagnosis of a learning disability (LD). Students without LD scored significantly higher than those with LD on handwriting speed, listening comprehension, background knowledge, sustained attention, quality of notes, and test performance. Results of regression analyses indicated that note-taking (f2 = 1.94) and test-taking (f2 = 2.69) were associated with listening comprehension and background knowledge predominately. If these results are replicated, they suggest that the variables related to note-taking in ty...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 6, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Oefinger LM, Peverly ST Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Republication of The Technology-Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Act: Relevance to Individuals with Learning Disabilities and Their Advocates.
Abstract Assistive technology (AT) was recognized by Congress as a viable need for people with disabilities when it passed the Tech Act in 1988. The legislation, which was reauthorized in 1994, has resulted in numerous programs and services that have helped people with disabilities access and use AT devices. The Tech Act's implications for people with learning disabilities is discussed in this article. PMID: 31894727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 2, 2020 Category: Disability Authors: Bryant BR, Seay PC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

In Memoriam.
PMID: 31810433 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 9, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Gallimore R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Republication of Future of the LD Field: Research and Practice.
PMID: 31810434 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 9, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Keogh BK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Critical Role of Word Reading as a Predictor of Response to Intervention.
This study examines the initial word reading performance of fourth-grade struggling readers and the extent to which differing levels of word reading performance at pretest influenced their response to reading interventions. A large group of students with significant reading comprehension difficulties (N = 481) were classified into three clusters of word reading proficiency based on their pretest performance: (a) very low, (b) low, and (c) near adequate. We examined their performance on several academic, language, and executive functioning measures at the beginning of the year and their reading comprehension performance at ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 6, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Vaughn S, Capin P, Scammacca N, Roberts G, Cirino P, Fletcher JM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Republication of An Interview With Barbara Keogh: Observations of Her Career and the Role of Context in Understanding Children With Disabilities.
PMID: 31722602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 13, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Chamberlain SP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Editorial for JLD 53:1.
PMID: 31694458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 6, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Al Otaiba S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Academic Achievements of College Graduates With Learning Disabilities Vis-a-Vis Admission Criteria and Academic Support.
Abstract Postsecondary entrance examination scores are generally low predictors of college achievement (grade point average [GPA]) for students with learning disabilities (LD). The difficulties with meeting academic requirements have raised the awareness of the needs of students with LD for support services. The present study examined the adequacy of entrance criteria to academic studies for students with LD and the effectiveness of three support levels during their academic studies in increasing their academic gains. Data were collected for 315 college graduates with LD and 955 graduates who do not have LD (NLD) ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 1, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Sarid M, Meltzer Y, Raveh M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Identifying Fraction Measures as Screeners of Mathematics Risk Status.
This study investigated the accuracy of three fraction measures (i.e., fraction number line estimation accuracy, general fraction concepts, and fraction arithmetic) for screening fourth graders who might be at risk for mathematics difficulties. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses assessed diagnostic accuracy of the fraction measures for predicting which students would not meet state standards on the state mathematics test in fourth grade (n = 411), fifth grade (n = 362), and sixth grade (n = 304). A combined measure consisting primarily of fraction number line estimation items and general fraction concep...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 14, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Rodrigues J, Jordan NC, Hansen N Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Writing Impairments in Spanish Children With Developmental Dyslexia.
This study investigated which components of the writing production process are impaired in Spanish children with developmental dyslexia (DD) aged 8 to 12 years. Children with and without dyslexia (n = 60) were assessed in their use of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the orthographic working memory system by manipulating lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography (P-O) consistency, and word length in a copying task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that children with dyslexia produced longer written latencies than chronological age-matched (CA) controls, more errors than CA and...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 17, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Afonso O, Suárez-Coalla P, Cuetos F Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

SRSD Fractions: Helping Students at Risk for Disabilities Add/Subtract Fractions With Unlike Denominators.
In this study, we used SRSD Fractions to teach adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators, simplifying fractions, and converting fractions to mixed numbers using the mnemonics FILMS, CUT, and EDIT. A researcher provided instruction in small groups to fifth-grade students at risk for disabilities. The results from use of a multiple-baseline-across-groups design suggest a functional relationship between SRSD Fractions and 8 fifth-grade students' digits correct on timed fraction probes. Results from treatment fidelity, social validity, and academic engagement during the intervention are also reported. We also d...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 7, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Ennis RP, Losinski M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

New Teachers' Perceptions on Being Prepared to Teach Students With Learning Disabilities: Insights From California.
Abstract Including students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) in general education classrooms is a priority nationwide. Consequently, now more than ever before in our nation's history, university teacher education programs face increased responsibility to ensure general education teaching candidates receive adequate preparation to educate SWLDs. Many stakeholders believe that edTPA-a performance assessment used as a credential requirement-can be an important tool in helping to fulfill this goal. Utilizing survey data from a large, research university, the authors investigated how perceptions of preparation progra...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 7, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Gottfried MA, Hutt EL, Kirksey JJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Learning Lexical Information Depends Upon Task, Learning Approach, and Reader Subtype.
In this study, 45 children participated in three tasks that differentially tested PO and semantic attributes of novel pseudo-words learned through two learning approaches. Children were classified into groups as having dyslexia (DYS), having specific reading comprehension deficits (S-RCDs), or being typically developing readers (TD). Differences were found between groups, with S-RCD poorer than TD on semantic but not PO components of learning. Children with DYS displayed impaired results on both semantic and PO learning but showed an interaction on task by LA performance. Specifically, in the DYS group, isolation LA yielde...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 29, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Saha NM, Del Tufo SN, Cutting LE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Auditory, Visual, and Cross-Modal Temporal Processing Skills Among Chinese Children With Developmental Dyslexia.
Abstract The present study examined whether temporal processing (TP) is associated with reading of a non-alphabetic script, that is, Chinese. A total of 126 primary school-aged Chinese children from Taiwan (63 children with dyslexia) completed cross-modal, visual, and auditory temporal order judgment tasks and measures of Chinese reading and literacy-related skills. The results showed that typically developing children and children with dyslexia differed in all TP skills. Structural equation modeling indicated that cross-modal TP contributed independently to character recognition in the entire sample if the signif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 17, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Liu S, Wang LC, Liu D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Conditional Longitudinal Relations of Elementary Literacy Skills to High School Reading Comprehension.
Abstract The present study explores the longitudinal development between Grade 3 word level reading skills and higher level semantic skills to Grade 10 reading comprehension for 3,157 students. In particular, this work focused on how the developmental relations varied for subsamples of students who are English learners (EL; N = 308), students identified as specific learning disability (SLD; N = 133), and general education (Gen Ed; N = 2,716) students who have no formal classification or diagnoses. Multiple group structural equation modeling showed that the relation between Grade 3 vocabulary and Grade 10 reading c...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 19, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Petscher Y, Solari EJ, Catts HW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Embedding Self-Regulation Instruction Within Fractions Intervention for Third Graders With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of fractions intervention with and without an embedded self-regulation (SR) component for third-grade students at risk for mathematics disabilities. Fractions intervention focused on magnitude understanding and word problems. Embedded SR was designed to support a growth mindset (fostering belief that intellectual and academic abilities can be developed) along with SR processes in which students set goals, self-monitor, and use strategies to engage motivationally, metacognitively, and behaviorally through challenging tasks. Students ( n = 69) were rando...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 29, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Wang AY, Fuchs LS, Fuchs D, Gilbert JK, Krowka S, Abramson R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Stereotype Threat Deteriorate Academic Performance of High School Students With Learning Disabilities? The Buffering Role of Psychological Disengagement.
Abstract The academic underperformance of high school students with learning disabilities may reduce their access to higher education and decrease their employment opportunities. Based on stereotype threat hypothesis, the present study examined the role of stereotype threat in academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities and the moderating role of psychological disengagement in this relation. In Study 1, 120 students with learning disabilities finished the measures of stereotype threat vulnerability and psychological disengagement, and their academic score at two time points were collected. Re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 23, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Zhao F, Li S, Li T, Yu G Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Kindergarten Training in Phonological Awareness: Fluency and Comprehension Gains Are Greatest for Readers at Risk in Grades 1 Through 9.
Abstract Training in phonological awareness has brought about well-documented positive effects on learning to read in lower-primary grades. Less is known about long-term gains extending to upper-primary and junior high school. The few longitudinal studies covering at least 5 years suggest that gains in decoding are sustained, whereas effects on reading comprehension have either not been studied or produced equivocal results. The present study followed up the reading development of 209 Finland Swedish students from kindergarten until Grade 9, half of whom participated in an 8-month phonological intervention in kind...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 17, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Kjeldsen AC, Educ L, Saarento-Zaprudin SK, Niemi PO Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Identifying Children With Clinical Language Disorder: An Application of Machine-Learning Classification.
In this study, we identified child- and family-level characteristics most strongly associated with clinical identification of language disorder for preschool-aged children. We used machine learning to identify variables that best classified children receiving therapy for language disorder among a sample of 483 3- to 5-year-old children (54% affected). Using a dichotomous outcome based on receipt of language therapy, we applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) classification approach to a range of background data available on the children, including teacher and caregiver ratings of communication a...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 7, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Justice LM, Ahn WY, Logan JAR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Attitudes and Knowledge About Learning Disabilities: A Comparison Between Arabic- and Hebrew-Speaking University Students.
Abstract Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in postsecondary institutions. The current study investigated attitudes toward and knowledge about SLD among students from different cultural and educational backgrounds. The study included 113 students (63 Arabic speakers and 50 Hebrew speakers) working toward bachelor's degrees in different faculties and departments at a university in northern Israel. Findings indicated that both Arabic- and Hebrew-speaking students had some knowledge regarding SLD and agreed with positive statements about...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 3, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Shecter-Lerner M, Lipka O, Khouri M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Are Reading Interventions for English Language Learners Effective? A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Despite concerted efforts to improve the reading skills of English language learners (ELLs), it remains unclear if the interventions they have been receiving produce any positive results. Thus, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine how effective reading interventions are in improving ELLs' reading skills and what factors may influence their effectiveness. Twenty-six studies with reported outcomes for pretest and posttest were selected, and four moderators (group size, intensity of intervention, students' risk status, and type of intervention) were coded. The results of random-effects analyses s...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 29, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Ludwig C, Guo K, Georgiou GK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Student Practice Opportunities in Core Mathematics Instruction: Exploring for a Goldilocks Effect for Kindergartners With Mathematics Difficulties.
This study explored whether there is an optimal amount of student practice that teachers should provide in core mathematics instruction to maximize the mathematics achievement of kindergarten students with MD, a so called "Goldilocks effect," as opposed to simply "more is better." Results from observation data collected in a large-scale efficacy trial supported the latter rather than the former. Specifically, we found that three individual practice opportunities for every explicit teacher demonstration of mathematical content was associated with increased mathematics achievement for students with MD rel...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Doabler CT, Gearin B, Baker SK, Stoolmiller M, Kennedy PC, Clarke B, Nelson NJ, Fien H, Smolkowski K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Reading Comprehension Profiles of Grade 5 Monolinguals and English Language Learners Through the Lexical Quality Hypothesis Lens.
This study set out to compare patterns of relationships among phonological skills, orthographic skills, semantic knowledge, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension in English as a first language (EL1) and English language learners (ELL) students and to test the applicability of the lexical quality hypothesis framework. Participants included 94 EL1 and 178 ELL Grade 5 students from diverse home-language backgrounds. Latent profile analyses conducted separately for ELLs and EL1s provided support for the lexical quality hypothesis in both groups, with the emergence of two profiles: A poor comprehenders profile was ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 28, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: O'Connor M, Geva E, Koh PW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Analysis of the Trajectories and Predictors of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension Development Among At-Risk Readers.
This study explored the developmental trajectories and predictors of word reading and reading comprehension among young at-risk readers. In fall of first grade, 185 students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assessed on measures of domain-specific skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and vocabulary), domain-general skills (working memory, nonverbal reasoning, and processing speed), and word reading and reading comprehension. Word reading and reading comprehension were assessed again in spring of grades 1-4. Individual growth curve modeling showed that the children demonstrated decelerated gro...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Peng P, Fuchs D, Fuchs LS, Elleman AM, Kearns DM, Gilbert JK, Compton DL, Cho E, Patton S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: Abstract Erbeli, F., Hart, S. A., & Taylor, J. (2018). Genetic and environmental influences on achievement outcomes based on family history of learning disabilities status. Journal of Learning Disabilites. Advance online publication. (Original doi: 10.1177/0022219418775116 ) In the version of this article originally published OnlineFirst, an error was made in the coding of missing data for math fluency. The mistake is limited to the math fluency measure only (a miscode of the data resulted in missing data being set to 0), and is limited to the specific numbers reported for the math achievement measur...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Partial Read-Aloud Test Accommodation to Assess Reading Comprehension in Students With a Reading Disability.
Abstract This experiment examined whether a partial read-aloud accommodation with pacing (PRAP) would improve the reading comprehension of poor decoders but not average decoders compared to standard testing procedures. Participants were 82 third graders with at least average listening comprehension skills: 28 were poor decoders, and 54 were average decoders; mean age 8 years, 9 months (8:9). In the PRAP condition, students' were paced through the Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension test. The examiner read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and questions with multiple choice answers while students read the pas...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Giusto M, Ehri LC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining the Impact of Group Size on the Treatment Intensity of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention Within a Systematic Framework of Replication.
This study examined whether the treatment intensity and overall intervention effects of an empirically validated Tier 2 mathematics intervention varied between intervention groups with 2:1 and 5:1 student-teacher ratios. Student practice opportunities and the quality of explicit instruction served as treatment intensity metrics. A total of 465 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 136 intervention groups participated. Results suggested comparable performances between the 2:1 and 5:1 intervention groups on six outcome measures. Observation data indicated that student practice differed by group size. Stude...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Doabler CT, Clarke B, Kosty D, Kurtz-Nelson E, Fien H, Smolkowski K, Baker SK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Stability of Risk Status During Preschool.
Abstract The current study investigated the stability of children's risk status across the preschool year. A total of 1,102 preschool children attending Title 1 schools ( n = 631) and non-Title 1 schools ( n = 471) participated in this study. Using averaged standard scores for two measures of language, print knowledge, and phonological awareness administered at the beginning of preschool (Time 1) and midyear (Time 2), children were classified as at-risk or not at each time point. Prevalence rates were determined for four categories of risk status: (1) always at risk, (2) only at risk at Time 1, (3) never at risk, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Milburn TF, Lonigan CJ, Phillips BM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research