Conditional Longitudinal Relations of Elementary Literacy Skills to High School Reading Comprehension.
Abstract The present study explores the longitudinal development between Grade 3 word level reading skills and higher level semantic skills to Grade 10 reading comprehension for 3,157 students. In particular, this work focused on how the developmental relations varied for subsamples of students who are English learners (EL; N = 308), students identified as specific learning disability (SLD; N = 133), and general education (Gen Ed; N = 2,716) students who have no formal classification or diagnoses. Multiple group structural equation modeling showed that the relation between Grade 3 vocabulary and Grade 10 reading c...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 19, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Petscher Y, Solari EJ, Catts HW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Embedding Self-Regulation Instruction Within Fractions Intervention for Third Graders With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of fractions intervention with and without an embedded self-regulation (SR) component for third-grade students at risk for mathematics disabilities. Fractions intervention focused on magnitude understanding and word problems. Embedded SR was designed to support a growth mindset (fostering belief that intellectual and academic abilities can be developed) along with SR processes in which students set goals, self-monitor, and use strategies to engage motivationally, metacognitively, and behaviorally through challenging tasks. Students ( n = 69) were rando...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 29, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Wang AY, Fuchs LS, Fuchs D, Gilbert JK, Krowka S, Abramson R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Stereotype Threat Deteriorate Academic Performance of High School Students With Learning Disabilities? The Buffering Role of Psychological Disengagement.
Abstract The academic underperformance of high school students with learning disabilities may reduce their access to higher education and decrease their employment opportunities. Based on stereotype threat hypothesis, the present study examined the role of stereotype threat in academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities and the moderating role of psychological disengagement in this relation. In Study 1, 120 students with learning disabilities finished the measures of stereotype threat vulnerability and psychological disengagement, and their academic score at two time points were collected. Re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 23, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Zhao F, Li S, Li T, Yu G Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Kindergarten Training in Phonological Awareness: Fluency and Comprehension Gains Are Greatest for Readers at Risk in Grades 1 Through 9.
Abstract Training in phonological awareness has brought about well-documented positive effects on learning to read in lower-primary grades. Less is known about long-term gains extending to upper-primary and junior high school. The few longitudinal studies covering at least 5 years suggest that gains in decoding are sustained, whereas effects on reading comprehension have either not been studied or produced equivocal results. The present study followed up the reading development of 209 Finland Swedish students from kindergarten until Grade 9, half of whom participated in an 8-month phonological intervention in kind...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 17, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Kjeldsen AC, Educ L, Saarento-Zaprudin SK, Niemi PO Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Identifying Children With Clinical Language Disorder: An Application of Machine-Learning Classification.
In this study, we identified child- and family-level characteristics most strongly associated with clinical identification of language disorder for preschool-aged children. We used machine learning to identify variables that best classified children receiving therapy for language disorder among a sample of 483 3- to 5-year-old children (54% affected). Using a dichotomous outcome based on receipt of language therapy, we applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) classification approach to a range of background data available on the children, including teacher and caregiver ratings of communication a...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 7, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Justice LM, Ahn WY, Logan JAR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Attitudes and Knowledge About Learning Disabilities: A Comparison Between Arabic- and Hebrew-Speaking University Students.
Abstract Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in postsecondary institutions. The current study investigated attitudes toward and knowledge about SLD among students from different cultural and educational backgrounds. The study included 113 students (63 Arabic speakers and 50 Hebrew speakers) working toward bachelor's degrees in different faculties and departments at a university in northern Israel. Findings indicated that both Arabic- and Hebrew-speaking students had some knowledge regarding SLD and agreed with positive statements about...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 3, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Shecter-Lerner M, Lipka O, Khouri M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Are Reading Interventions for English Language Learners Effective? A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Despite concerted efforts to improve the reading skills of English language learners (ELLs), it remains unclear if the interventions they have been receiving produce any positive results. Thus, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine how effective reading interventions are in improving ELLs' reading skills and what factors may influence their effectiveness. Twenty-six studies with reported outcomes for pretest and posttest were selected, and four moderators (group size, intensity of intervention, students' risk status, and type of intervention) were coded. The results of random-effects analyses s...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 29, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Ludwig C, Guo K, Georgiou GK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Student Practice Opportunities in Core Mathematics Instruction: Exploring for a Goldilocks Effect for Kindergartners With Mathematics Difficulties.
This study explored whether there is an optimal amount of student practice that teachers should provide in core mathematics instruction to maximize the mathematics achievement of kindergarten students with MD, a so called "Goldilocks effect," as opposed to simply "more is better." Results from observation data collected in a large-scale efficacy trial supported the latter rather than the former. Specifically, we found that three individual practice opportunities for every explicit teacher demonstration of mathematical content was associated with increased mathematics achievement for students with MD rel...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2019 Category: Disability Authors: Doabler CT, Gearin B, Baker SK, Stoolmiller M, Kennedy PC, Clarke B, Nelson NJ, Fien H, Smolkowski K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Reading Comprehension Profiles of Grade 5 Monolinguals and English Language Learners Through the Lexical Quality Hypothesis Lens.
This study set out to compare patterns of relationships among phonological skills, orthographic skills, semantic knowledge, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension in English as a first language (EL1) and English language learners (ELL) students and to test the applicability of the lexical quality hypothesis framework. Participants included 94 EL1 and 178 ELL Grade 5 students from diverse home-language backgrounds. Latent profile analyses conducted separately for ELLs and EL1s provided support for the lexical quality hypothesis in both groups, with the emergence of two profiles: A poor comprehenders profile was ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 28, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: O'Connor M, Geva E, Koh PW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Analysis of the Trajectories and Predictors of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension Development Among At-Risk Readers.
This study explored the developmental trajectories and predictors of word reading and reading comprehension among young at-risk readers. In fall of first grade, 185 students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assessed on measures of domain-specific skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and vocabulary), domain-general skills (working memory, nonverbal reasoning, and processing speed), and word reading and reading comprehension. Word reading and reading comprehension were assessed again in spring of grades 1-4. Individual growth curve modeling showed that the children demonstrated decelerated gro...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Peng P, Fuchs D, Fuchs LS, Elleman AM, Kearns DM, Gilbert JK, Compton DL, Cho E, Patton S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: Abstract Erbeli, F., Hart, S. A., & Taylor, J. (2018). Genetic and environmental influences on achievement outcomes based on family history of learning disabilities status. Journal of Learning Disabilites. Advance online publication. (Original doi: 10.1177/0022219418775116 ) In the version of this article originally published OnlineFirst, an error was made in the coding of missing data for math fluency. The mistake is limited to the math fluency measure only (a miscode of the data resulted in missing data being set to 0), and is limited to the specific numbers reported for the math achievement measur...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Partial Read-Aloud Test Accommodation to Assess Reading Comprehension in Students With a Reading Disability.
Abstract This experiment examined whether a partial read-aloud accommodation with pacing (PRAP) would improve the reading comprehension of poor decoders but not average decoders compared to standard testing procedures. Participants were 82 third graders with at least average listening comprehension skills: 28 were poor decoders, and 54 were average decoders; mean age 8 years, 9 months (8:9). In the PRAP condition, students' were paced through the Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension test. The examiner read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and questions with multiple choice answers while students read the pas...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Giusto M, Ehri LC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining the Impact of Group Size on the Treatment Intensity of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention Within a Systematic Framework of Replication.
This study examined whether the treatment intensity and overall intervention effects of an empirically validated Tier 2 mathematics intervention varied between intervention groups with 2:1 and 5:1 student-teacher ratios. Student practice opportunities and the quality of explicit instruction served as treatment intensity metrics. A total of 465 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 136 intervention groups participated. Results suggested comparable performances between the 2:1 and 5:1 intervention groups on six outcome measures. Observation data indicated that student practice differed by group size. Stude...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Doabler CT, Clarke B, Kosty D, Kurtz-Nelson E, Fien H, Smolkowski K, Baker SK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Stability of Risk Status During Preschool.
Abstract The current study investigated the stability of children's risk status across the preschool year. A total of 1,102 preschool children attending Title 1 schools ( n = 631) and non-Title 1 schools ( n = 471) participated in this study. Using averaged standard scores for two measures of language, print knowledge, and phonological awareness administered at the beginning of preschool (Time 1) and midyear (Time 2), children were classified as at-risk or not at each time point. Prevalence rates were determined for four categories of risk status: (1) always at risk, (2) only at risk at Time 1, (3) never at risk, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Milburn TF, Lonigan CJ, Phillips BM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Cross-Modal Working Memory Binding Span Deficit in Reading Disability.
Abstract Successful reading demands the ability to combine visual-phonological information into a single representation and is associated with an efficient short-term memory. Reading disability may consequently involve an impaired working memory binding of visual and phonological information. The present study proposes two span tasks for assessing visual-phonological working memory binding. The tasks involved memorizing cross-modal associations between nonsense figures and nonwords, and they were administered, with other working memory measures, to children with and without a reading disability. The tasks required...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Toffalini E, Marsura M, Garcia RB, Cornoldi C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Representational Bias in the Radial Axis in Children With Dyslexia: A Landmarks Alignment Study.
Abstract To better identify the distinctive characteristics of space representation in the radial dimension, we have proposed a new paradigm: the landmarks alignment task where two parallel aluminum bars were radially presented. Children had to move a landmark along one bar and place it at the same location as the reference landmark placed by the examiner on the parallel bar. The major interest of this task was its capacity to assess space representation in the radial dimension when considering a spatial landmark that oriented the subject's attention toward the orthogonal dimension. The most important result showe...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Michel C, Quercia P, Joubert L Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 29924672 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2018 Category: Disability Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents With Learning Problems: Development and Validation of the LD/QOL15 Scale.
Abstract Learning problems (LP) can have wider implications than the academic deficits per se. The goal of the present series of studies was to develop a reliable and valid quality-of-life measure targeted to children and adolescents with LP. In Study 1, using a 35-item questionnaire, we surveyed 151 parents/guardians of children referred for assessment of learning disorders. Exploratory factor analysis identified a three-factor model: Academic Performance, School Understanding, and Child/Family Psychological. These factors were validated against standardized measures of academic achievement and psychosocial funct...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Waber DP, Boiselle EC, Forbes PW, Girard JM, Sideridis GD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Quality of Explanation as an Indicator of Fraction Magnitude Understanding.
Abstract Students' explanations of their mathematical thinking and conclusions have become a greater part of the assessment landscape in recent years. With a sample of 71 fourth-grade students at risk for mathematics learning disabilities, we investigated the relation between student accuracy in comparing the magnitude of fractions and the quality of students' explanations of those comparisons, as well as the relation between those measures and scores on a criterion test: released fraction items from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. We also considered the extent to which reasoning and language cont...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Foreman-Murray L, Fuchs LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Word- and Text-Based Intervention for Students With Significant Reading Difficulties.
Abstract We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment con...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Vaughn S, Roberts GJ, Miciak J, Taylor P, Fletcher JM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Achievement Outcomes Based on Family History of Learning Disabilities Status.
Abstract A risk to develop a learning disability has been shown to run in families. Having a positive family history of learning disability seems to account for mean differences in achievement outcomes (reading, math) in that children with a positive family history score significantly lower compared to their peers with no such family history. However, the role of family history status in explaining etiological (genetic and environmental) differences among these subgroups of children has yet to be established. The present study of 872 twins ( Mage = 13.30, SDage = 1.40) from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, Beh...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Erbeli F, Hart SA, Taylor J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Career and Technical Education, Inclusion, and Postsecondary Outcomes for Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract We used longitudinal data from Washington State to investigate the relationships among career and technical education (CTE) enrollment, inclusion in general education, and high school and postsecondary outcomes for students with learning disabilities. We replicated earlier findings that students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a "concentration" of CTE courses had higher rates of employment after graduation than observably similar students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in fewer CTE courses. We also found that students with learning disabilities who spent more time i...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Theobald RJ, Goldhaber DD, Gratz TM, Holden KL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Specific Language Impairment and Reading Disability: Categorical Distinction or Continuum?
Abstract Specific language impairment (SLI) and reading disability (RD) are familial, moderately heritable comorbid developmental disorders. The key deficit of SLI is oral language, whereas children with RD exhibit impairment in learning to read. The present study examines the possible co-occurrence of RD and SLI and the nature of this co-occurrence at a linguistic and a cognitive level in an orthographically consistent language. Four groups of children participated in the study: an RD group ( n = 10), an SLI group ( n = 13), a possible comorbid group ( n = 9), and a control-no deficit group ( n = 20). Analysis sh...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Spanoudis GC, Papadopoulos TC, Spyrou S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Replication of an Experimental Study Investigating the Efficacy of a Multisyllabic Word Reading Intervention With and Without Motivational Beliefs Training for Struggling Readers.
This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week). When we combined performance of students in both MWR conditions, intervention students significantly outperformed controls on proximal measures of affix reading and MWR, as well as standardized measures of decoding, spelling, and text comprehension. Furthermore, there was a noted interaction between English learner status and tre...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Toste JR, Capin P, Williams KJ, Cho E, Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Can the Relationship Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Word Reading Be Explained by a Catastrophe? Empirical Evidence From Students With and Without Reading Difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory. Result...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Sideridis GD, Simos P, Mouzaki A, Stamovlasis D, Georgiou GK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Associations Between Childhood Learning Disabilities and Adult-Age Mental Health Problems, Lack of Education, and Unemployment.
n T Abstract We studied the impact of diverse subtypes of learning disabilities (LD) on adult-age mental health, education, and employment by comparing the LD group ( n = 430) with a matched control group without a known history of LD ( n = 2,149). The clinical archived data were merged with lifelong register data on sickness allowances/disability pensions granted on the basis of psychiatric illnesses, reimbursements for psychoactive medication, having a degree after compulsory education, and having received unemployment allowances. Differences emerged between the LD and control groups in all outcome...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Aro T, Eklund K, Eloranta AK, Närhi V, Korhonen E, Ahonen T Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Current Evidence on the Effects of Intensive Early Reading Interventions.
Abstract Many students at risk for or identified with reading disabilities need intensive reading interventions. This meta-analysis provides an update to the Wanzek and Vaughn synthesis on intensive early reading interventions. Effects from 25 reading intervention studies are analyzed to examine the overall effect of intensive early reading interventions as well as relationships between intervention and student characteristics related to outcomes. The weighted mean effect size (ES) estimate (ES = 0.39), with a mean effect size adjusted for publication bias (ES = 0.28), both significantly different from zero, sugge...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Wanzek J, Stevens EA, Williams KJ, Scammacca N, Vaughn S, Sargent K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Cognitive Dimensional Approach to Understanding Shared and Unique Contributions to Reading, Math, and Attention Skills.
Abstract Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Child AE, Cirino PT, Fletcher JM, Willcutt EG, Fuchs LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Class Percentage of Students With Reading Difficulties on Content Knowledge and Comprehension.
We examined the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension intervention implemented in eighth-grade social studies classrooms. Using a within-teacher randomized control design, 18 eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to a treatment or comparison condition. Teachers taught all their classes (treatment and comparison) using the same content; however, in the treatment classes, teachers used instructional practices that included comprehension canopy, essential words, knowledge acquisition, and team-based learning. Students with reading comprehension difficulties in the treatment...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Vaughn S, Fall AM, Roberts G, Wanzek J, Swanson E, Martinez LR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Difficulties of Drivers With Dyslexia When Reading Traffic Signs: Analysis of Reading, Eye Gazes, and Driving Performance.
Abstract A group of adult individuals with dyslexia and a matched group of normally reading individuals participated in a driving simulation experiment. Participants were asked to read the word presented on every direction traffic sign encountered along a route, as far as possible from the sign, maintaining driving performance. Word frequency and word length were manipulated as within-subject factors. We analyzed (a) reading accuracy, (b) how far the sign was when the participant started to give the response, (c) where the participant looked during the time leading up to the response, and (d) the variability of th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 1, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Tejero P, Insa B, Roca J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Inaugural Editorial.
PMID: 29368546 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 27, 2018 Category: Disability Authors: Al Otaiba S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fraction Intervention for Students With Mathematics Difficulties: Lessons Learned From Five Randomized Controlled Trials.
Abstract In this article, the authors summarize results from 5 randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of intervention to improve the fraction performance of fourth-grade students at risk for difficulty in learning about fractions. The authors begin by explaining the importance of competence with fractions and why an instructional focus on fractions magnitude understanding may improve learning. They then describe an intervention that relies strongly on this type of understanding about fractions instruction, and they provide an overview of the intervention's overall effects. This is followed by an overvi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Fuchs LS, Malone AS, Schumacher RF, Namkung J, Wang A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Editor Farewell.
PMID: 29017428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Swanson HL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Developmental Dyscalculia in Adults: Beyond Numerical Magnitude Impairment.
l V Abstract Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control pa...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: De Visscher A, Noël MP, Pesenti M, Dormal V Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reading and Phonological Awareness in Africa.
Abstract Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learn...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Alcock KJ, Ngorosho DS, Jukes MCH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Unpacking Direct and Indirect Relationships of Short-Term Memory to Word Reading: Evidence From Korean-Speaking Children.
We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN. ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Kim YG, Cho JR, Park SG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Slope in Upper Elementary Grades Using Quantile Regression.
This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance. However, ORF slope was differentially predictive of a passage-level comprehension assessment based on students' reading skills when controlling for initial ORF status. Results showed that ORF explained unique varia...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Cho E, Capin P, Roberts G, Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.
Abstract This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cros...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Arden SV, Pentimonti JM, Cooray R, Jackson S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Reading Model from the Perspective of Japanese Orthography: Connectionist Approach to the Hypothesis of Granularity and Transparency.
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relative...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Ijuin M, Wydell TN Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

MAWRID: A Model of Arabic Word Reading in Development.
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic wo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Saiegh-Haddad E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

First-Grade Cognitive Predictors of Writing Disabilities in Grades 2 Through 4 Elementary School Students.
Abstract The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach. Data analysis primarily involved...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Costa LJ, Green M, Sideris J, Hooper SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Models of Reading in Different Orthographies: An Introduction.
Abstract The authors provide a summary of the articles in the special series on reading development in different orthographies from various writing systems and scripts. PMID: 28720026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Joshi RM, McCardle P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Growth of Word and Pseudoword Reading Efficiency in Alphabetic Orthographies: Impact of Consistency.
Abstract Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Caravolas M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Learning to Read a Semitic Abjad: The Triplex Model of Hebrew Reading Development.
Abstract We introduce a model of Hebrew reading development that emphasizes both the universal and script-specific aspects of learning to read a Semitic abjad. At the universal level, the study of Hebrew reading acquisition offers valuable insights into the fundamental dilemmas of all writing systems-balancing the competing needs of the novice versus the expert reader (Share, 2008). At the script-specific level, pointed Hebrew initially employs supplementary vowel signs, providing the beginning reader a consistent, phonologically well-specified script while helping the expert-to-be unitize words and morphemes via ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Share DL, Bar-On A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Behavioral Executive Functions Among Adolescents With Mathematics Difficulties.
This study investigates behavioral executive functions (EFs) in the mathematics classroom context among adolescents with different mathematics performance levels. The EF problems were assessed by teachers using a behavioral rating inventory. Using cutoff scores on a standardized mathematics assessment, groups with mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 124), low mathematics performance (LA; n = 140), and average or higher scores (AC; n = 355) were identified. Results showed that the MD group had more problems with distractibility, directing attention, shifting attention, initiative, execution of action, planning, and evaluation...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Holm ME, Aunio P, Björn PM, Klenberg L, Korhonen J, Hannula MS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

What Reading Disability? Evidence for Multiple Latent Profiles of Struggling Readers in a Large Russian Sibpair Sample With at Least One Sibling at Risk for Reading Difficulties.
In this study, we performed a latent profile analysis of reading and related skills in a large ( n = 733) sibpair sample of Russian readers at risk for reading difficulties. The analysis suggested the presence of seven latent profiles, of which two were characterized by relatively high performance on measures of spelling and reading comprehension and the remaining five included severely as well as moderately affected readers with deficits in the domains of phonological, orthographic, and morphological processing. The results suggest that the development and manifestation of reading difficulties in Russian is mappable on a ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Kornilov SA, Grigorenko EL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Toward a Graded Psycholexical Space Mapping Model: Sublexical and Lexical Representations in Chinese Character Reading Development.
Abstract Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the in...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Tong X, McBride C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Investigating the Asymmetrical Roles of Syllabic and Phonemic Awareness in Akshara Processing.
This study builds on a growing body of literature on the akshara orthographies to shed light on the precise nature of the developmental asymmetry in the dual syllabic and phonemic representation in akshara reading. PMID: 28685668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Nakamura PR, Joshi RM, Ji XR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Difficulties in Comprehending Affirmative and Negative Sentences: Evidence From Chinese Children With Reading Difficulties.
This study looks at how young poor readers, speakers of Mandarin Chinese, comprehend affirmative and negative sentences as compared with a group of age-matched typical readers. Forty-four Chinese children were tested with a truth value judgment task. The results reveal that negative sentences were harder to process than affirmative ones, irrespective of the distinction between poor and typical readers. Moreover, poor readers performed worse than typical readers in comprehending sentences, regardless of whether they were affirmative or negative sentences. We interpret the results as (a) confirming the two-step simulation hy...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Hu S, Vender M, Fiorin G, Delfitto D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Suicide Attempts Among Individuals With Specific Learning Disorders: An Underrecognized Issue.
Abstract Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey ( n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with an SLD was much higher than those without (11.1% vs. 2.7%, p
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: Fuller-Thomson E, Carroll SZ, Yang W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research