Epigenetic Therapy as a Putative Molecular Target to Modulate B Cell Biology and Behavior in the Context of Immunological Disorders.
Authors: da Costa TP, El-Cheikh MC, Carneiro K Abstract Histone Deacetylase- (HDAC-) dependent epigenetic mechanisms have been widely explored in the last decade in different types of malignancies in preclinical studies. This effort led to the discovery and development of a range of new HDAC inhibitors (iHDAC) with different chemical properties and selective abilities. In fact, hematological malignancies were the first ones to have new iHDACs approved for clinical use, such as Vorinostat and Romidepsin for cutaneous T cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Besides these promising already approved iHDA...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Absorption of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Is Related to IgG Blood Levels of Neonatal Pigs during the First 48 Hours Postpartum.
Authors: Pierzynowska K, Woliński J, Weström B, Jazwiec R, Shmigel H, Pierzynowski SG Abstract The current study is aimed at highlighting the impact of enterally or parenterally applied immunoglobulins (Igs) on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) absorption in newborn pigs. Piglets were chosen as the appropriate model since they are born agammaglobulinemic and any effects of Ig addition can thus be easily monitored. Twenty-one, new born piglets were used in the study. Plasma levels of PUFAs, ARA, DHA, and EPA dropped (similarly to that seen in human infants) by between 40 and 50% in newborn, unsuckled piglets f...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

In Vitro ELISA and Cell-Based Assays Confirm the Low Immunogenicity of VNAR Therapeutic Constructs in a Mouse Model of Human RA: An Encouraging Milestone to Further Clinical Drug Development.
Authors: Ubah OC, Porter AJ, Barelle CJ Abstract Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), specific for biotherapeutic drugs, are associated with reduced serum drug levels and compromised therapeutic response. The impact of ADA on the bioavailability and clinical efficacy of blockbuster anti-hTNF-α monoclonal antibodies is well recognised, especially for adalimumab and infliximab treatments, with the large and complex molecular architecture of classical immunoglobulin antibody drugs, in part, responsible for the immunogenicity seen in patients. The initial aim of this study was to develop solid-phase enzyme-linked immunos...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Genetic Background of Hypertension in Connective Tissue Diseases.
In this study, 104 patients with CTD and 103 gender- and age-matched controls were genotyped for Pro12Ala and C1431T polymorphisms of the PPAR gamma-2 gene and Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB gene. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were evaluated, followed by genotyping using TaqMan® SNP genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The prevalence of analyzed genotypes and alleles was comparable between patients with CTD and the control group, as well as hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Patients with CTD have lower body fat and higher body water amount, ser...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Predicting Outcomes of Rat Vascularized Composite Allotransplants through Quantitative Measurement of Chimerism with PCR-Amplified Short Tandem Repeat.
Authors: Cheng HY, Huang XT, Lin CF, Al Deek NF, Shih LY, Lin CH, Wei FC Abstract Chimerism has been associated with the induction and maintenance of tolerance to vascularized composite allotransplants (VCA). Although most VCA studies have examined chimerism using flow cytometry, we proposed that precision in the measurement of chimerism may be better approximated when complimentary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is applied to a specific short tandem repeat (STR). We identified a STR, D10Rat25, which exhibited a ~20 bp difference in length between two rat strains (BN and LEW) often utilized as the donor and...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Upregulation of CD146 in Pediatric B-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia and Its Implications on Treatment Outcomes.
Conclusion: CD146 was expressed significantly in children's B-ALL and associated with poor prognostic features including poor response and treatment outcomes and could be a possible poor prognostic factor in pediatric B-cell ALL. PMID: 32090132 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Anti-PLA2R1 Antibodies Containing Sera Induce In Vitro Cytotoxicity Mediated by Complement Activation.
Authors: Lateb M, Ouahmi H, Payré C, Brglez V, Zorzi K, Dolla G, Zaidan M, Boyer-Suavet S, Knebelmann B, Crépin T, Courivaud C, Jourde-Chiche N, Esnault V, Lambeau G, Seitz-Polski B Abstract The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN). However, the pathogenic role of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of anti-PLA2R1 antibodies mediated by complement. Forty-eight patients with PLA2R1-related MN from the prospective cohort SOURIS were included. Anti-PLA2R1 titer, epitope profile, and anti-...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

HLA Polymorphisms and Haplotype Diversity in Transylvania, Romania.
Authors: Vică ML, Matei HV, Bondor CI, Nicula GZ, Siserman CV, Loga L, Dican L Abstract Transylvania is a historical region in the northwestern part of Romanian with a rather heterogeneous population. Our study is the first to determine human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profiles in a large population sample from this region and to compare them with other European population groups. HLA genes were examined in 2,794 individuals using the Single Specific Primer-Polymerase Chain Reaction (SSP-PCR) and Polymerase Chain Reaction Sequence-Specific Oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) methods. All samples were tested for the HLA-A locus...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Vesicle-Mediated Dendritic Cell Activation in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolate, which Contributes to Th2 Response.
Authors: Cai W, Kesavan DK, Cheng J, Vasudevan A, Wang H, Wan J, Abdelaziz MH, Su Z, Wang S, Xu H Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii, as a nonfermentation Gram-negative bacterium, mainly cause nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. With the widespread of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, the urgency of developing effective therapy options has been emphasized nowadays. Outer membrane vesicles derived from bacteria show potential vaccine effects against bacterial infection in recent study. Our present research is aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved in immune protection of mice after out...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Preliminary Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Antimalarial Vaccine Candidate Modified Peptide (IMPIPS) Mixture in a Murine Model.
Authors: Lambraño J, Curtidor H, Avendaño C, Díaz-Arévalo D, Roa L, Vanegas M, Patarroyo ME, Patarroyo MA Abstract Malaria continues being a high-impact disease regarding public health worldwide; the WHO report for malaria in 2018 estimated that ~219 million cases occurred in 2017, mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The disease cost the lives of more than 400,000 people, mainly in Africa. In spite of great efforts aimed at developing better prevention (i.e., a highly effective vaccine), diagnosis, and treatment methods for malaria, no efficient solution to this disease ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Immunotherapy Deriving from CAR-T Cell Treatment in Autoimmune Diseases.
Authors: Chen Y, Sun J, Liu H, Yin G, Xie Q Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells are T cells engineered to express specific synthetic antigen receptors that can recognize antigens expressed by tumor cells, which after the binding of these antigens to the receptors are eliminated, and have been adopted to treat several kinds of malignancies. Autoimmune diseases (AIDs), a class of chronic disease conditions, can be broadly separated into autoantibody-mediated and T cell-mediated diseases. Treatments for AIDs are focused on restoring immune tolerance. However, current treatments have little effect on imm...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Efficient Acquisition of Fully Human Antibody Genes against Self-Proteins by Sorting Single B Cells Stimulated with Vaccines Based on Nitrated T Helper Cell Epitopes.
In this study, we constructed a nitrated T-cell epitope named NitraTh by incorporating p-nitrophenylalanine into a universal T helper epitope. NitraTh had enhanced ability to activate CD4+ T cells and can be recognized by CD4+ T cells with different HLA class II haplotypes. This NitraTh can also break immune tolerance to autoantigens, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and cannabinoid receptor 1, and induce strong specific IgM+ B cell responses in vitro. HER2-NitraTh vaccine can also stimulate the generation of HER2-specific IgG+ B cells in human immune system mice, which was established by cotransplan...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Innate Lymphoid Cells: Regulators of Gut Barrier Function and Immune Homeostasis.
Authors: Fan H, Wang A, Wang Y, Sun Y, Han J, Chen W, Wang S, Wu Y, Lu Y Abstract Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), identified in the early years of this century as a new class of leukocyte family unlike the B or T lymphocytes, play a unique role bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses in mucosal immunity. Their origin, differentiation, and activation process and functions have caught global interest. Recently, accumulating evidence supports that ILCs are vital regulators for gastrointestinal mucosal homeostasis through interactions with other structural and stromal cells in gut epithelial barriers. This revi...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

TLR7 Modulated T Cell Response in the Mesenteric Lymph Node of Schistosoma japonicum-Infected C57BL/6 Mice.
In this study, T lymphocytes from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) of S. japonicum-infected mice were isolated and the expression and roles of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were compared. We found that the expression of TLR7 was increased in the MLN cells of S. japonicum-infected mice, particularly in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (P
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Effects of AHCC ®, a Standardized Extract of Cultured Lentinura edodes Mycelia, on Natural Killer and T Cells in Health and Disease: Reviews on Human and Animal Studies.
The Effects of AHCC®, a Standardized Extract of Cultured Lentinura edodes Mycelia, on Natural Killer and T Cells in Health and Disease: Reviews on Human and Animal Studies. J Immunol Res. 2019;2019:3758576 Authors: Shin MS, Park HJ, Maeda T, Nishioka H, Fujii H, Kang I Abstract Mushrooms have been used for various health conditions for many years by traditional medicines practiced in different regions of the world although the exact effects of mushroom extracts on the immune system are not fully understood. AHCC® is a standardized extract of cultured shiitake or Lentinula edodes mycelia (ECLM) ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 Attenuates Macrophage Aging Induced by D-Galactose and Promotes M2 Macrophage Polarization.
Authors: Zhang DY, Pan ZY, Yu XK, Chen YF, Gao CH, Yang YT, Jiang XF, Li N, Pan JP Abstract Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring in innate and adaptive immune systems, and macrophage aging plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunosenescence. However, function and polarization changes in aging macrophages have not been fully evaluated, and no effective method for delaying macrophage senescence is currently available. The results of this study reveal that D-galactose (D-gal) can promote J774A.1 macrophage senescence and induce macrophage M1 polarization differentiation. Bifidobact...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Amiselimod (MT-1303), a Novel Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor-1 Modulator, Potently Inhibits the Progression of Lupus Nephritis in Two Murine SLE Models.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of MT-1303 on the progression of lupus nephritis in two well-known murine systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) models, MRL/lpr and NZBWF1 mice, compared with those of FK506. Daily oral doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg MT-1303 not only inhibited the development of lupus nephritis when administered before onset in MRL/lpr and NZBWF1 mice but also improved symptoms of lupus nephritis when administered after onset in MRL/lpr mice. Its efficacy in these models was more potent or comparable to that of FK506 (1 and 3 mg/kg). In histological analysis, treatment with MT-1303 inhibited i...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A Promising Candidate: Heparin-Binding Protein Steps onto the Stage of Sepsis Prediction.
Authors: Yang Y, Liu G, He Q, Shen J, Xu L, Zhu P, Zhao M Abstract Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection. With high morbidity and mortality of this disease, there is a need to find early effective diagnosis and assessment methods to improve the prognosis of patients. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a granular protein derived from polynuclear neutrophils. The biosynthetic HBP in neutrophils is rapidly released under the stimulation of bacteria, resulting in increased vascular permeability and edema. It is reasonable to speculate that the HBP in plasma may serve as a novel diagnosti...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Clinical Features, Risk Factors, and Outcome of Aneurysmal Lesions in Behcet's Disease.
Conclusion: Aneurysmal lesions are severe complications in BD. Pathergy reaction, arterial stenosis or occlusion, and arterial thrombosis are the risk factors of aneurysmal lesions in BD. Achieving BD remission and performing surgical or interventional procedures are both important in the treatment of these patients. PMID: 31930152 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Sildenafil Citrate Influences Production of TNF- α in Healthy Men Lymphocytes.
Sildenafil Citrate Influences Production of TNF-α in Healthy Men Lymphocytes. J Immunol Res. 2019;2019:8478750 Authors: Zych M, Roszczyk A, Kniotek M, Kaleta B, Zagozdzon R Abstract The aim of our study was to determine whether sildenafil citrate influences the production of Th1- (TNF-α, INF-γ) or Th2-type (TGF-β, IL-10) cytokines by lymphocytes of healthy men. Sildenafil citrate (SC) is a selective blocker of phosphodiesterase 5, by competing for the binding site with cGMP. It was reported that a higher risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) could be correlated with a recre...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Expression of USP18 and IL2RA Is Increased in Individuals Receiving Latent Tuberculosis Treatment with Isoniazid.
Conclusions: Changes in the profiles of USP18, IL2RA, IFNA, CCL4, and CXCL11 expressions during INH treatment in TST-positive individuals, regardless of IGRA status, are potential tools for monitoring latent tuberculosis treatment. PMID: 31886294 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

43  kDa Glycoprotein (gp43) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Induced IL-17A and PGE2 Production by Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4.
43 kDa Glycoprotein (gp43) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Induced IL-17A and PGE2 Production by Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4. J Immunol Res. 2019;2019:1790908 Authors: Gardizani TP, Della Coletta AM, Romagnoli GG, Puccia R, Serezani APM, de Campos Soares ÂMV, Dias-Melicio LA Abstract The glycoprotein gp43 is the major antigenic/diagnostic component of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Gp43 has protective roles in mice, but due to adhesive properties, this glycoprotein has also been associated...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Impact of SNPs/Haplotypes of IL10 and IFNG on the Development of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Authors: Marangon AV, Colli CM, Cardozo DM, Visentainer JEL, Sell AM, Guimaraes F, Marques SBD, Lieber SR, Aranha FJP, Zulli R, de Souza VH, de Souza CA Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on cytokine genes in the development of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One hundred and twelve patients and 221 controls were investigated. Among them, 97 patients treated with R-CHOP were subdivided into two groups: (i) complete remission of the disease and (ii) patients who progressed to death, relapsed, or had disease progression. The SNPs investigated...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Nod2 Agonist Muramyl Dipeptide Cooperates with the TLR4 Agonist Lipopolysaccharide to Enhance IgG2b Production in Mouse B Cells.
Authors: Lee SH, Park JH, Park SR Abstract Many studies have shown that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) were expressed in B cells and their signaling affects B cell functions. Nonetheless, the roles played by these receptors in B cell antibody (Ab) production have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of the Nod2 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in combination with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known B cell mitogen, on B cell viability, proliferation, and activation, and Ab production by in vitro culture of purified mouse spleen rest...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Functional Polymorphisms and Gene Expression of TLR9 Gene as Protective Factors for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Severity and Progression.
This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of TLR9 functional polymorphisms (TLR9-1486 T/C and TLR9-1237 T/C) and TLR9 mRNA expression in NPC severity and progression at diagnosis and after treatment. This study included 322 patients with NPC. RFLP-PCR and real-time PCR were used to assess, respectively, the genotypes and the mRNA expression of TLR9 gene. The genotyping analysis showed that the presence of mutated allele -1237C (TLR9-1237 TC+CC) was associated with large tumor size (p = 0.017; OR (CI 95%) = 1.888 (1.11-3.19)) at diagnosis. After treatment, the -1237C allele was associated with a better chance of c...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule in Primary Sj ögren's Syndrome Patients: Characterization and Evaluation of a Potential Biomarker.
Conclusion: This study first found the aberrant expression pattern of EpCAM in LSG of pSS patients. The IHC scores of subcellular EpEX/EpICD were demonstrated to have the potential to act as diagnostic biomarkers for pSS. PMID: 31886299 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Analysis of Toll-Like Receptors in Human Milk: Detection of Membrane-Bound and Soluble Forms.
Authors: Cattaneo C, Caramaschi A, Uga E, Braghin M, Cosi G, Peila C, Strozzi MC, Sabatini M, Gazzolo D, Manfredi M, Cavaletto M Abstract The bioactive and anti-inflammatory role of human milk components has been recognized; active milk components include soluble forms of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Preterm babies are more susceptible to infections and may succumb to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal disease which is exacerbated by an excessive inflammatory response after TLR activation. Here, we investigated the presence of Toll-like receptors TLR1/2/4/6 in colostrum and mature milk of women who ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Clinical Characterization of Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria according to Anti-TPO IgE Levels.
Conclusion: Anti-TPO IgE is a useful biomarker for differentiating between clinical phenotypes of patients with CSU. Elevation of anti-TPO IgE during exacerbation periods supports an association between this autoantibody and the pathogenesis of urticaria. PMID: 31886301 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Classification of Wheezing Children in Rural Bangladesh by Intensity of Ascaris Infection, Total and Specific IgE Levels, History of Pneumonia, and Other Risk Factors.
Authors: Takeuchi H, Khan MA, Zaman K, Takanashi S, Hasan SMT, Yunus M, Iwata T Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth and infects 447 million people in impoverished areas worldwide. It causes serious morbidity including wheezing and influences various aspects of human immunity, such as type 2 innate lymphoid cells, regulatory T cell function, and acquired immunity. Thus, it is crucial to elucidate its influence on human immunity. We aimed to classify wheezing children based on their Ascaris infection intensity and other risk factors using hierarchical cluster analysis to determi...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Vascular Macrophages in Atherosclerosis.
This article reviews the functions of macrophages in different stages of atherosclerosis, as well as the phenotypes and functions of macrophage subsets. New treatment strategies based on macrophage-related inflammation are also discussed. PMID: 31886303 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) Activates Macrophages and Promotes Liver Fibrosis in Schistosoma japonicum-Infected Mice.
This study is aimed at understanding the effect of CHOP on liver fibrosis induced by Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) in vivo and clarifying its mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were infected with cercariae of S. japonicum through the abdominal skin. The liver fibrosis was examined. The level of IL-13 was observed. The expressions of CHOP, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), phosphorylation STAT6, interleukin-13 receptor alpha 1 (IL-13Rα1), and interleukin-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) were analysed. The eosinophilic granuloma and collagen deposition were found ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Detection by Flow Cytometry of Anti-DNA Autoantibodies and Circulating DNA Immune Complexes in Lupus Erythematosus.
Authors: Abuaf N, Desgruelles C, Moumaris M, Boussa-Khettab F, Rostane H, Bellec E, Frances C Abstract A new method for the detection by flow cytometry of anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies and of circulating immune complexes (IC) containing endogenous DNA (IC-eDNA) is described. From each serum sample, two samples were taken, one was used to detect IC-eDNA. The other to detect anti-DNA antibodies was incubated with calf thymus DNA. ICs were isolated by polyethylene glycol precipitation or by cryoprecipitation, after which immunoglobulins were labeled with FITC-conjugated anti-human globulin. Serum samples from 63...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Preoperative Risk Assessment of Lymph Node Metastasis in cT1 Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study from Eastern China.
Conclusion: In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both N1 and N2 metastases and built a predictive model to evaluate possibilities of N2 metastasis of clinical T1 lung cancers before the surgery. Our model will help to select patients with low probability of N2 metastasis and assist in clinical decision to further management. PMID: 31886306 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Sm16, A Schistosoma mansoni Immunomodulatory Protein, Fails to Elicit a Protective Immune Response and Does Not Have an Essential Role in Parasite Survival in the Definitive Host.
Authors: Bernardes WPOS, de Araújo JM, Carvalho GB, Alves CC, de Moura Coelho AT, Dutra ITS, Teixeira SSF, de Azambuja Ribeiro RIM, de Moraes Mourão M, da Silva-Pereira RA, Fonseca CT Abstract Sm16 is an immunomodulatory protein that seems to play a key role in the suppression of the cutaneous inflammatory response during Schistosoma mansoni penetration of the skin of definitive hosts. Therefore, Sm16 represents a potential target for protective immune responses induced by vaccination. In this work, we generated the recombinant protein rSm16 and produced polyclonal antibodies against this protein to e...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review and Update on the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Authors: Guan Q Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and life-threating inflammatory disease of gastroenteric tissue characterized by episodes of intestinal inflammation. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex. Recent studies have greatly improved our knowledge of the pathophysiology of IBD, leading to great advances in the treatment as well as diagnosis of IBD. In this review, we have systemically reviewed the pathogenesis of IBD and highlighted recent advances in host genetic factors, gut microbiota, and environmental factors and, especially, in abnormal innate and adaptive immune responses and thei...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

An Overview of the Intrinsic Role of Citrullination in Autoimmune Disorders.
Authors: Alghamdi M, Alasmari D, Assiri A, Mattar E, Aljaddawi AA, Alattas SG, Redwan EM Abstract A protein undergoes many types of posttranslation modification. Citrullination is one of these modifications, where an arginine amino acid is converted to a citrulline amino acid. This process depends on catalytic enzymes such as peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes (PADs). This modification leads to a charge shift, which affects the protein structure, protein-protein interactions, and hydrogen bond formation, and it may cause protein denaturation. The irreversible citrullination reaction is not limited to a specific pro...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of Echinocandin Combination with Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole and Clindamycin for the Treatment of AIDS Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that treatment with echinocandins in combination with the standard TMP-SMZ and clindamycin regimen can improve the prognosis and reduce the mortality rate in patients with mild to moderate AIDS-PCP disease. PMID: 31886310 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Advances in the Research on Anticardiolipin Antibody.
Authors: Wang D, Lv W, Zhang S, Zhang J Abstract Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) is a kind of autoantibody and is one of the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). Phospholipids with a negative charge on platelets and endothelial cell membranes are ACA target antigens. ACA is common in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases and is closely associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and spontaneous abortion. In 1983, Harris established a method for detecting ACA, and research on the antibody has gained worldwide attention and has developed rapidly. For this review, we browsed articles that cover mo...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Autoimmune Hepatitis-Immunologically Triggered Liver Pathogenesis-Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies.
Authors: Sucher E, Sucher R, Gradistanac T, Brandacher G, Schneeberger S, Berg T Abstract Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe liver disease that arises in genetically predisposed male and female individuals worldwide. Diagnosis of AIH is made clinically applying diagnostic scores; however, the heterotopic disease phenotype often makes a rapid determination of disease challenging. AIH responds favorably to steroids and pharmacologic immunosuppression, and liver transplantation is only necessary in cases with acute liver failure or end-stage liver cirrhosis. Recurrence or development of de novo AIH after transplan...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Dendritic Cells Loaded with Heat Shock-Conditioned Ovarian Epithelial Carcinoma Cell Lysates Elicit T Cell-Dependent Antitumor Immune Responses In Vitro.
Authors: Flores I, Hevia D, Tittarelli A, Soto D, Rojas-Sepúlveda D, Pereda C, Tempio F, Fuentes C, Falcón-Beas C, Gatica J, Falcón-Beas F, Galindo M, Salazar-Onfray F, González FE, López MN Abstract Ovarian epithelial carcinoma (OEC) is the most frequent ovarian tumor, characterized by a high mortality in advanced stages where conventional therapies are not effective. Based on the role of the immune system in the progression of this disease, immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade has been considered as a therapeutic alternative. Nevertheless, its results do not match up to the p...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

miR-98 Modulates Cytokine Production from Human PBMCs in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Targeting IL-6 mRNA.
Conclusion: The current study revealed that miR-98 could ameliorate STAT3-mediated cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production via its target gene IL-6 in patients with SLE. These results suggest that miR-98 might serve as a potential target for SLE treatment and other IL-6-mediated diseases. PMID: 31886314 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A Novel Adjuvant "Sublancin" Enhances Immune Response in Specific Pathogen-Free Broiler Chickens Inoculated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine.
In conclusion, these findings suggested that sublancin could promote both humoral and cellular immune responses and has the potential to be a promising vaccine adjuvant. PMID: 31871952 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: The Complexity of Host's Effective Immune Response against a Polymorphic Parasitic Disease.
Authors: Gabriel Á, Valério-Bolas A, Palma-Marques J, Mourata-Gonçalves P, Ruas P, Dias-Guerreiro T, Santos-Gomes G Abstract This review is aimed at providing a comprehensive outline of the immune response displayed against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the more common zoonotic infection caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Although of polymorphic clinical presentation, classically CL is characterized by leishmaniotic lesions on the face and extremities of the patients, which can be ulcerative, and even after healing can lead to permanent injuries and disfigurement, affecting ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Endothelial Protein C Receptor Could Contribute to Experimental Malaria-Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
In conclusion, we identified that increased iRBC cytoadherence in the lungs underlies malaria-associated ARDS in DBA/2-infected mice and that inflammation increased cytoadherence capacity, suggesting a participation of EPCR and a conceivable target for drug development. PMID: 31871954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

PM2.5 Exposure in the Respiratory System Induces Distinct Inflammatory Signaling in the Lung and the Liver of Mice.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the immune cell migratory response in the lung and the liver of intratracheally PM2.5-inoculated mice. To investigate the migration trajectory of immune cells in the lung and the liver tissues of mice, we employed microscopic tools including two-photon intravital imaging, histological analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Our data from two-photon intravital imaging showed that there was no significant difference in the number of infiltrated neutrophils in the lung and the liver of PM2.5-treated mice, compared to the nontreated condition. However, from the histological analys...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Programmed Cell Death Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Authors: Yang F, He Y, Zhai Z, Sun E Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by excessive inflammatory and immune responses and tissue damage. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the important role of programmed cell death in SLE pathogenesis. When apoptosis encounters with defective clearance, accumulated apoptotic cells lead to secondary necrosis. Different forms of lytic cell death, including secondary necrosis after apoptosis, NETosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, contribute to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and autoantigens, ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Efficacy of Shenqi Pollen Capsules for High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome via Suppression of the Reoxygenation Injury and Inflammatory Response.
Authors: He B, Hu M, Liang Z, Ma Q, Zi Y, Dong Z, Li Q, Luo Y, Qian G, Guo L, Lin K, Liu Z, Wang G Abstract High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is involved in hypoxia-reoxygenation injury and inflammatory response, induced a series of symptoms, and has emerged as a severe public health issue. Here, we investigated the mechanism as well as potential means to prevent HADAS using Shenqi pollen capsules (SPCs) in subjects with HADAS in a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. All subjects were at the same high altitude (3650 m) for 4-8 months before returning to lower alt...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Iguratimod Inhibits the Aggressiveness of Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes.
Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the therapeutic effects of iguratimod on RA might be, in part, due to targeting the aggressive behavior and apoptosis of RA-FLSs. PMID: 31828173 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Decrease the Expression of RANKL in Collagen-Induced Arthritis Rats via Reducing the Levels of IL-22.
Authors: Li F, Li X, Liu G, Gao C, Li X Abstract Objective: To investigate the transplantation effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the expression of interlukin-22 (IL-22) and RANKL in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Methods: 32 CIA models were established. 16 CIA rats were transplanted with MSCs, and others were used as nontreatment CIA controls. The concentrations of IL-22 and RANKL in serum were detected by ELISA and those in synovial tissue of rats' joints by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the expression of RANKL mRNA was measured by RT-PCR in the fibroblast-like synovio...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Zika Virus Alters the Viscosity and Cytokines Profile in Human Colostrum.
Authors: de Quental OB, França EL, Honório-França AC, Morais TC, Daboin BEG, Bezerra IMP, Komninakis SV, de Abreu LC Abstract The resurgence of cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, accompanied by epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, has aroused worldwide interest in understanding the biological mechanisms of the virus that allow patient management and the viral dissemination control. Colostrum and human milk are possible sources of virus spread. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the repercussions of ZIKV infection on rheological parameters and inflammatory cytokines of colos...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research