Sex-Related Differences in Immune Response and Symptomatic Manifestations to Infection with Leishmania Species.
Authors: Lockard RD, Wilson ME, Rodríguez NE Abstract Worldwide, an estimated 12 million people are infected with Leishmania spp. and an additional 350 million are at risk of infection. Leishmania are intracellular parasites that cause disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. Infection can remain asymptomatic or lead to a spectrum of diseases including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Ultimately, the combination of both pathogen and host factors determines the outcome of infection. Leishmaniasis, as well as numerous other infectious diseases, exhibits sex-related differe...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A Novel Anti-EGFR mAb Ame55 with Lower Toxicity and Better Efficacy than Cetuximab When Combined with Irinotecan.
Authors: Qiu W, Zhang C, Wang S, Yu X, Wang Q, Zeng D, Du P, Ma J, Zheng Y, Pang B, Yu Y, Long F, Pang X, Sun Z Abstract To improve efficacy and minimize toxicity of EGFR inhibition treatment, we developed Ame55, a novel anti-EGFR IgG1 with lower affinity to EGFR than cetuximab (C225) from a human phage library. Ame55 had lower bioactivity than cetuximab in vitro but similar antitumor efficacy as cetuximab in vivo. Moreover, Ame55 was more efficacious than cetuximab in a Lovo cell xenograft tumor model when combined with irinotecan (CPT-11). Ame55 concentrates in the mouse xenograft tumor and has less toxicity than...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

High-Titre Neutralizing Antibodies to H1N1 Influenza Virus after Mouse Immunization with Yeast Expressed H1 Antigen: A Promising Influenza Vaccine Candidate.
In this study, we demonstrate that the recombinant H1 vaccine based on the hydrophilic haemagglutinin (HA) domain and produced in the yeast system elicited high titres of serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in mice. Transmission electron microscopy showed that H1 antigen oligomerizes into functional higher molecular forms similar to rosette-like structures. Analysis of the N-linked glycans using mass spectrometry revealed that the H1 protein is glycosylated at the same sites as the native HA. The recombinant antigen was secreted into a culture medium reaching approximately 10 mg/l. These results suggest th...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Functionalisation of Virus-Like Particles Enhances Antitumour Immune Responses.
This study showed that functionalisation of RHDV VLP by addition of an epitope-processing linker and mannosylation of the surface facilitates the efficacy of VLP as vaccination vectors for tumour immunotherapy. PMID: 30729137 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

MTOR-Mediated Autophagy Is Involved in the Protective Effect of Ketamine on Allergic Airway Inflammation.
Authors: Zou H, Wang LX, Wang M, Cheng C, Li S, Shen Q, Fang L, Liu R Abstract Unresolved inflammation underpins the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases, such as asthma. Ketamine, accepted as a promising therapy for resistant asthma, has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism by ketamine in this setting is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate whether autophagy was involved in the protective effect of ketamine on allergic airway inflammation. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with ketamine at 25, 50, or 100&thins...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Kidney Transplant Outcome Is Associated with Regulatory T Cell Population and Gene Expression Early after Transplantation.
Authors: Krajewska M, Kościelska-Kasprzak K, Kamińska D, Żabińska M, Myszka-Kozłowska M, Gomułkiewicz A, Dzięgiel P, Klinger M Abstract Successful long-term kidney allograft survival with parallel reduction of complications resulting from prolonged immunosuppressive treatment is a goal in kidney transplantation. We studied the immune changes in cell phenotypes and gene expression induced by kidney transplantation. Our goal was to find a phenotypic and/or transcriptional pattern that might be considered prognostic for the kidney transplant outcome. The analysis was performed prospectively on 36 KTx recipients...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Crosstalk between Fat Homeostasis and Liver Regional Immunity in NAFLD.
In conclusion, immunotherapy could be an effective way to treat NAFLD. PMID: 30719457 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Inflamm-Aging: A New Mechanism Affecting Premature Ovarian Insufficiency.
Authors: Huang Y, Hu C, Ye H, Luo R, Fu X, Li X, Huang J, Chen W, Zheng Y Abstract The normal function of ovaries, along with the secretion of sex hormones, is among the most important endocrine factors that maintain the female sexual characteristics and promote follicular development and ovulation. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common cause in the etiology of female infertility. It is defined as the loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. The characteristics of POI are menstrual disorders, including amenorrhea and delayed menstruation, accompanied by a raised gonadotrophin level and decreased e...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Functions and Mechanism of a New Oligopeptide BP9 from Avian Bursa on Antibody Responses, Immature B Cell, and Autophagy.
In this study, we isolated a new oligopeptide with nine amino acids Leu-Met-Thr-Phe-Arg-Asn-Glu-Gly-Thr from avian bursa following RP-HPLC, MODIL-TOP-MS, and MS/MS, which was named after BP9. The results of immunization experiments showed that mice injected with 0.01 and 0.05 mg/mL BP9 plus JEV vaccine generated the significant increased antibody levels, compared to those injected with JEV vaccine only. The microarray analysis on the molecular basis of BP9-treated immature B cell showed that vast genes were involved in various immune-related biological processes in BP9-treated WEHI-231 cells, among which the regulat...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Sj ögren's Syndrome: Concerted Triggering of Sicca Conditions.
Conclusions: Abundant immunohistochemical signs of mumps virus protein in the salivary glands and depletion of circulating immune cells make a background for thought of presumable mumps or/and other virus participation in epithelial damage causing sicca syndrome in predisposed patients. PMID: 30723748 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

KIR/HLA Gene Profile Implication in Systemic Sclerosis Patients from Mexico.
Conclusion: The results suggest that KIR2DL2 and 2DS4del could have a risk role in the development of SSc, but not with clinical manifestations. PMID: 30723749 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Microbial Agents as Putative Inducers of B Cell Lymphoma in Sj ögren's Syndrome through an Impaired Epigenetic Control: The State-of-The-Art.
Conclusions: Microorganisms may epigenetically modify target cells and induce their transcriptome to generate an activated or transformed phenotype. The occurrence of lymphoma in more than 15% of SS patients may be the end result of a combination of genetics, epigenetics, and dysbiosis or latent infections. PMID: 30723750 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Skin-Resident γδ T Cells Exhibit Site-Specific Morphology and Activation States.
Skin-Resident γδ T Cells Exhibit Site-Specific Morphology and Activation States. J Immunol Res. 2019;2019:9020234 Authors: Marshall AS, Silva JR, Bannerman CA, Gilron I, Ghasemlou N Abstract Skin-resident γδ T cells play an important role in maintaining the immune barrier at the epithelial surface. Their roles in wound healing, regulation of immune response to injury, and reepithelialization have been characterized extensively in the mouse, though their function in human skin remains largely unknown. Human skin-resident γδ T cells sparsely populate the skin and are o...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Assessment of Postvaccine Immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae in Patients with Asplenia, including an Analysis of Its Impact on Bacterial Flora of the Upper Respiratory Tract and Incidence of Infections.
Authors: Olender A, Małkińska K, Roliński J, Grywalska E, Pels E, Tabarkiewicz J Abstract S. pneumoniae is a microorganism that may cause a serious threat in postsplenectomy patients due to a potentially invasive course of infection. In order to assess a protective activity after vaccination with the 23-valent vaccine, we made an analysis of the level of antibodies in patients with asplenia compared to a control group of healthy donors. Additionally, colonization by potentially pathogenic microorganisms of the upper respiratory tract was analyzed to determine the carrier state by strains with vaccine serotype. N...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Intravenous Cyclophosphamide Therapy for Anti-IFN-Gamma Autoantibody-Associated Mycobacterium abscessus Infection.
Authors: Chetchotisakd P, Anunnatsiri S, Nanagara R, Nithichanon A, Lertmemongkolchai G Abstract Introduction: Anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) autoantibodies are increasingly recognized as a cause of adult-onset immunodeficiency (AOID) worldwide. These patients are susceptible to various intracellular pathogens especially nontuberculous mycobacteria. Most of the patients have a refractory clinical course. Herein, we report the use of immunotherapy with pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) in patients who had progressive, refractory Mycobacterium abscessus infection. Method: We included patients, seen a...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Hypocomplementemia as a Risk Factor for Organ Damage Accrual in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Authors: Raymond W, Eilertsen G, Nossent J Abstract While it is a common practice to monitor complement levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus to aid in flare prediction and detection, it is unclear if this strategy is helpful in preventing subsequent organ damage. We studied longitudinal complement levels in 102 SLE patients during a median follow-up of 13.8 years (IQR 7.0, 23.1). Low complement was defined as C3 
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Novel Application of Radotinib for the Treatment of Solid Tumors via Natural Killer Cell Activation.
This study provides the first evidence that radotinib could be used as an effective and strong therapeutic to treat solid tumors via upregulation of NK cell cytotoxicity, suggesting that radotinib has indirect killing mechanisms via upregulation of antitumor innate immune responses as well as direct killing activities for CML cells. PMID: 30687767 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Evidence for Toll-Like Receptor Activation in Sj ögren's Syndrome.
Current and Emerging Evidence for Toll-Like Receptor Activation in Sjögren's Syndrome. J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:1246818 Authors: Kiripolsky J, Kramer JM Abstract While the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is well established in many autoimmune diseases, the role of TLR activation in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is poorly understood. Studies in mice and humans reveal that TLRs are potent mediators of inflammation in SS. TLRs are expressed and functional in salivary tissue, and TLRs in peripheral blood cells of SS patients are also upregulated and hyperresponsive to ligation. In this...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

M1-Polarized Macrophages Promote Self-Renewing Phenotype of Hepatic Progenitor Cells with Jagged1-Notch Signalling Involved: Relevance in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.
Authors: Li H, Sun S, Lei Q, Lei P, Cai X, Wan C, Shen G Abstract The immunologic interaction between parenchyma cells and encircling inflammatory cells is thought to be the most important mechanism of biliary damage and repair in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Monocytes/macrophages as master regulators of hepatic inflammation have been demonstrated to contribute to PSC pathogenesis. Macrophages coordinate with liver regeneration, and multiple phenotypes have been identified with diverse expressions of surface proteins and cytokine productions. We analyzed the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 in polarized ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Effect of Natural Compounds on NK Cell Activation.
Authors: Grudzien M, Rapak A Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that survey the body for stressed and abnormal cells. The integration of signals that they receive through various inhibitory and activating cell surface receptors controls their activation and ability to kill target cells and produce cytokines. In this manner, phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of NK cells help protect against microbial infections and cancer and shape the adaptive immune response. NK cells can use two different mechanisms to kill their targets, either by cytotoxic granule exocy...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Urokinase Attenuates Pulmonary Thromboembolism in an Animal Model by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response.
Authors: Shi Y, Zhang Z, Cai D, Kuang J, Jin S, Zhu C, Shen Y, Feng W, Ying S, Wang L Abstract Inflammatory response is an important determining factor for the mortality of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism. Inflammatory mediators can promote thrombus formation and increase hemodynamic instability. Urokinase is a commonly used drug for the treatment of PTE. The effect of urokinase on inflammatory reaction in PTE is still unclear. Our study was aimed at evaluating the effects of the intervention of urokinase and urokinase combined with aspirin in PTE rats. Results revealed that a large amount of infiltrated in...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Alda-1 Ameliorates Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 and Enhancing Autophagy in Mice.
Authors: Li M, Xu M, Li J, Chen L, Xu D, Tong Y, Zhang J, Wu H, Kong X, Xia Q Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme for metabolism of reactive aldehydes, but its role during liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ALDH2 activator, Alda-1, in liver IRI and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Mice were pretreated with Alda-1 and subjected to a 90 min hepatic 70% ischemia model, and liver tissues or serum samples were collected at indicated time points after reperfusion. We demonstrated that Alda-1 pretreatment had a...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Recent Development and Clinical Application of Cancer Vaccine: Targeting Neoantigens.
Authors: Pan RY, Chung WH, Chu MT, Chen SJ, Chen HC, Zheng L, Hung SI Abstract Recently, increasing data show that immunotherapy could be a powerful weapon against cancers. Comparing to the traditional surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, immunotherapy more specifically targets cancer cells, giving rise to the opportunities to the patients to have higher response rates and better quality of life and even to cure the disease. Cancer vaccines could be designed to target tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), cancer germline antigens, virus-associated antigens, or tumor-specific antigens (TSAs), which are also called neo...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

TNFAIP3 F127C Coding Variation in Greek Primary Sjogren's Syndrome Patients.
Authors: Nezos A, Gkioka E, Koutsilieris M, Voulgarelis M, Tzioufas AG, Mavragani CP Abstract Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene encodes the A20 protein, an important negative feedback regulator of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) pathway. A coding TNFAIP3 variant, namely rs2230926, has been previously linked to B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) development in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) of French and UK origin. Herein, we aimed to determine the prevalence of rs2230926 in a Greek primary SS cohort and explore possible associations...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Fn14 Deficiency Ameliorates Anti-dsDNA IgG-Induced Glomerular Damage in SCID Mice.
Authors: Wu J, Min X, Wang L, Yang J, Wang P, Liu X, Xia Y Abstract Many studies have demonstrated that anti-dsDNA IgG is closely associated with lupus nephritis. Recently, it was found that activation of the fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) signaling pathway damages glomerular filtration barrier in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. However, MRL/lpr mice have high titers of serum autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA IgG. The aim of this study was to further explore the effect of Fn14 deficiency on anti-dsDNA IgG-induced glomerular damage in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that have no endogenous Ig...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

miRNA Expression and Interaction with Genes Involved in Susceptibility to Pristane-Induced Arthritis.
Authors: Fernandes JG, Borrego A, Jensen JR, Cabrera WHK, Correa MA, Starobinas N, Ribeiro OG, Ibañez OM, De Franco M Abstract Pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in mice is an experimental model that resembles human rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic autoimmune disease that affects joints and is characterized by synovial inflammation and articular cartilage and bone destruction. AIRmax and AIRmin mouse lines differ in their susceptibility to PIA, and linkage analysis in this model mapped arthritis severity QTLs in chromosomes 5 and 8. miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules that have been extensively studied in...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Tight Junction in the Intestinal Epithelium: Its Association with Diseases and Regulation by Phytochemicals.
Authors: Lee B, Moon KM, Kim CY Abstract The intestine plays an essential role in integrating immunity and nutrient digestion and absorption. Adjacent intestinal epithelia form tight junctions (TJs) that are essential to the function of the physical intestinal barrier, regulating the paracellular movement of various substances including ions, solutes, and water across the intestinal epithelium. Studies have shown that TJ dysfunction is highly associated with metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Thus, molecular and nutritional factors that improve TJ activity have gained attention in the pharmaceutical and medicinal...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Defensive Driving: Directing HIV-1 Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immunity to the Mucosa with Chemokine Adjuvants.
Authors: Gary EN, Kutzler MA Abstract A myriad of pathogens gain access to the host via the mucosal route; thus, vaccinations that protect against mucosal pathogens are critical. Pathogens such as HIV, HSV, and influenza enter the host at mucosal sites such as the intestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts. All currently licensed vaccines mediate protection by inducing the production of antibodies which can limit pathogen replication at the site of infection. Unfortunately, parenteral vaccination rarely induces the production of an antigen-specific antibody at mucosal surfaces and thus relies on transudation of...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Total HLA Class I Antigen Loss with the Downregulation of Antigen-Processing Machinery Components in Two Newly Established Sarcomatoid Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines.
We report for the first time HLA class I antigen loss with underlying B2M gene deficiency and APM defects in 50% (2 of 4) of the sHCC cell lines tested. These findings may have implications for a proper design of T cell immunotherapy for the treatment of sHCC patients. PMID: 30648121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Effect of CXCR2 Inhibition on Behavioral Outcomes and Pathology in Rat Model of Neuromyelitis Optica.
Conclusions: CXCR2 inhibitor blocks neutrophil migration into the spinal cord during EAE but does not significantly reduce inflammation or AQP4 lesions in the Lewis rat model of NMO. PMID: 30648122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Antitumor Immunity and Tumor Responses of Chemotherapy with or without DC-CIK for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in China: A Meta-Analysis of 28 Randomized Controlled Trials.
Conclusions: DC-CIK therapy can simultaneously improve the antitumor immunity and tumor responses. DC-CIK therapy, especially DC-CIK cells, can improve antitumor immunity through increasing the T lymphocyte subsets, CIK cell, and NK cells in peripheral blood. The one cycle to two cycles may be optimal cycle, and the NP or GP may be optimal combination. PMID: 30648123 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Identification of Cross-Protective Potential Antigens against Pathogenic Brucella spp. through Combining Pan-Genome Analysis with Reverse Vaccinology.
In this study, we employed a reverse vaccinology strategy to compute the core proteome of 90 completed genomes: 55 B. melitensis, 17 B. abortus, and 18 B. suis. The core proteome was analyzed by a metasubcellular localization prediction pipeline to identify surface-associated proteins. The identified proteins were thoroughly analyzed using various in silico tools to obtain the most potential protective antigens. The number of core proteins obtained from analyzing the 90 proteomes was 1939 proteins. The surface-associated proteins were 177. The number of potential antigens was 87; those with adhesion score ≥&thins...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Obesity May Provide Pro-ILC3 Development Inflammatory Environment in Asthmatic Children.
Authors: Wu Y, Yue J, Wu J, Zhou W, Li D, Ding K, Barnie PA, Xu X, Xu H, Shi W Abstract The prevalence of obesity in children has dramatically increased in the last few decades, and obesity has also emerged as an important risk factor for asthma. Innate mechanisms have been shown to be involved in both diseases, particularly through the recently described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), in which ILC3s have been linked to obesity both in human and in murine models. The aim of this study was to explore whether being overweight in asthmatic children was associated with elevated circulating ILC3 or elevated messenger RNA...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Low Serum IGF-1 in Boys with Recent Onset of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.
Conclusion: We report a sex-dependent deficiency in serum IGF-1 in boys with early JIA, which argues for sex-related differences in biological mechanisms involved in the disease pathogenesis. PMID: 30622975 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Variation in Expression of Inflammation-Related Signaling Molecules with Profibrotic and Antifibrotic Effects in Cutaneous and Oral Mucosa Scars.
Authors: Bucur M, Dinca O, Vladan C, Popp C, Nichita L, Cioplea M, Stînga P, Mustatea P, Zurac S, Ionescu E Abstract Wound healing is a complex biologic process evolving in three phases: inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling controlled by numerous growth factors and cytokines. Oral mucosa wounds heal with significantly less important scars with less numerous macrophages and mast cells and more numerous myofibroblasts than cutaneous counterparts. We analyzed 32 cutaneous and 32 oral mucosa scars for TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, TGFbeta3, TNFalpha, PDGF BB and FGF1 expression in mesenchymal cells, endotheli...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Persistence of Brucella abortus in the Bone Marrow of Infected Mice.
Authors: Gutiérrez-Jiménez C, Hysenaj L, Alfaro-Alarcón A, Mora-Cartín R, Arce-Gorvel V, Moreno E, Gorvel JP, Barquero-Calvo E Abstract Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial infection that may persist for long periods causing relapses in antibiotic-treated patients. The ability of Brucella to develop chronic infections is linked to their capacity to invade and replicate within the mononuclear phagocyte system, including the bone marrow (BM). Persistence of Brucella in the BM has been associated with hematological complications such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and pancytopenia...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Zinc in Keratinocytes and Langerhans Cells: Relevance to the Epidermal Homeostasis.
Authors: Ogawa Y, Kinoshita M, Shimada S, Kawamura T Abstract In the skin, the epidermis is continuously exposed to various kinds of external substances and stimuli. Therefore, epidermal barriers are crucial for providing protection, safeguarding health, and regulating water balance by maintaining skin homeostasis. Disruption of the epidermal barrier allows external substances and stimuli to invade or stimulate the epidermal cells, leading to the elicitation of skin inflammation. The major components of the epidermal barrier are the stratum corneum (SC) and tight junctions (TJs). The presence of zinc in the epiderm...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Role of Zinc and Zinc Homeostasis in Macrophage Function.
Authors: Gao H, Dai W, Zhao L, Min J, Wang F Abstract Zinc has long been recognized as an essential trace element, playing roles in the growth and development of all living organisms. In recent decades, zinc homeostasis was also found to be important for the innate immune system, especially for maintaining the function of macrophages. It is now generally accepted that dysregulated zinc homeostasis in macrophages causes impaired phagocytosis and an abnormal inflammatory response. However, many questions remain with respect to the mechanisms that underlie these processes, particularly at the cellular and molecular le...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Inhibition of Neutrophil Recruitment.
Authors: Li S, Zheng X, Li H, Zheng J, Chen X, Liu W, Tai Y, Zhang Y, Wang G, Yang Y Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major problem in organ transplantation, which represents the main cause of graft dysfunction posttransplantation. Hepatic IRI is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response within the liver. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to be immunomodulatory cells and have the therapeutic action on IRI in several organs. However, the mechanism of regulatory effect of MSCs on IRI remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the impact of MSCs on hepatic inflammatory...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

An O-Antigen Glycoconjugate Vaccine Produced Using Protein Glycan Coupling Technology Is Protective in an Inhalational Rat Model of Tularemia.
Authors: Marshall LE, Nelson M, Davies CH, Whelan AO, Jenner DC, Moule MG, Denman C, Cuccui J, Atkins TP, Wren BW, Prior JL Abstract There is a requirement for an efficacious vaccine to protect people against infection from Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of F. tularensis is suboptimally protective against a parenteral lethal challenge in mice. To develop a more efficacious subunit vaccine, we have used a novel biosynthetic technique of protein glycan coupling technology (PGCT) that exploits bacterial N-linked glycosylation to recombinantly conjugate F. tular...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Neutrophil Function in an Inflammatory Milieu of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Authors: Chen W, Wang Q, Ke Y, Lin J Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against citrullinated protein antigens and proinflammatory cytokines which cause chronic synovitis, bone erosion, and eventual deformity; however, the precise etiology of RA is unclear. In the early stage of RA, neutrophils migrate into the articular cavity, become activated, and exert their function in an inflammatory process, suggesting an essential role of neutrophils in the initial events contributing to the pathogenesis of RA. Solid evidence exists that s...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

EGFR-Targeted Immunotoxin Exerts Antitumor Effects on Esophageal Cancers by Increasing ROS Accumulation and Inducing Apoptosis via Inhibition of the Nrf2-Keap1 Pathway.
Authors: Yang Y, Tian Z, Ding Y, Li X, Zhang Z, Yang L, Zhao F, Ren F, Guo R Abstract Previously, we developed a novel EGFR-targeted antibody (denoted as Pan), which has superior antitumor activity against EGFR-overexpressed tumors. However, it shows marginal effect on the growth of esophageal cancers. Therefore, the variable region of Pan was fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) to create the immunotoxin, denoted as Ptoxin (PT). Results indicated that PT shows more effective antitumor activity as compared with Pan both on EGFR-overexpressed KYSE-450 and KYSE-150 esophageal cancer cells, especially ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis and Neutrophil Infiltration Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Alcoholic Cirrhosis.
In conclusion, RIPK3-mediated necroptosis and neutrophil-mediated alcoholic liver inflammatory response are highly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with end-stage alcoholic cirrhosis. RIPK3 and MPO might serve as potential predictors for poor prognosis in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. PMID: 30596105 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovarian Condition May Be a Risk Factor for Ovarian Tumor Development in the Laying Hen Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.
Authors: Lee HJ, Bahr JM, Bitterman P, Basu S, Sharma S, Abramowicz JS, Barua A Abstract Chronic inflammation and long-standing oxidative stress are potential predisposing factors for developing malignancies, including ovarian cancer (OVCA). Information on the association of ovarian chronic abnormal conditions, including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), with the development of OVCA is unknown. The goal of this study was to examine if polycystic ovarian conditions are associated with OVCA development. In the exploratory study, 3-4-year-old laying hens were randomly selected and examined for the presence of polycy...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

HLA-A2-Restricted Epitopes Identified from MTA1 Could Elicit Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response.
Authors: Wu Y, Zhai W, Zhou X, Wang Z, Lin Y, Ran L, Qi Y, Gao Y Abstract Overexpression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) has been observed in many human malignancies and is significantly related to tumor invasion and metastasis, therapeutic resistance to radiation and chemotherapy, making MTA1 an ideal candidate tumor antigen. We identified several human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) A2-restricted epitopes in MTA1 and evaluated their binding ability to HLA-A∗0201 molecules. Subsequently, a recombinant fragment encompassing the dominant epitopes, MTA1(1-283), was expressed, and the abilities of the sele...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Role of Zinc Signaling in the Regulation of Mast Cell-, Basophil-, and T Cell-Mediated Allergic Responses.
Authors: Nishida K, Uchida R Abstract Zinc is essential for maintaining normal structure and physiological function of cells. Its deficiency causes growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and neuronal degeneration. Zinc homeostasis is tightly regulated by zinc transporters and metallothioneins that control zinc concentration and its distribution in individual cells and contributes to zinc signaling. The intracellular zinc signaling regulates immune reactions. Although many molecules involved in these processes have zinc-binding motifs, the molecular mechanisms and the role of zinc in immune responses have not been el...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Food-Grade Saponin Extract as an Emulsifier and Immunostimulant in Emulsion-Based Subunit Vaccine for Pigs.
This study presents a modified version of OW-14 prepared with food-grade Quillaja saponin extract (OWq). In new OWq emulsion, saponin extract served as an emulsifier for stabilization of emulsion droplets and as an immunoactive compound. The use of saponins allowed to reduce the required amount of emulsifier in the original OW-14. However, emulsion stabilized with saponins demonstrated extended physical stability even at elevated temperature (37°C). The two-dose vaccination with a classical swine fever virus (CSFV) glycoprotein E2-based vaccine formulated with OWq produced higher levels of E2-specific IgG and virus neu...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Serum Galectin-9 and Soluble CD155 Levels in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.
Authors: Chihara M, Kurita M, Yoshihara Y, Asahina A, Yanaba K Abstract Signaling through coinhibitory receptors downregulates the immune response to prevent excessive immune activation and maintain optimal immunity and tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of the soluble forms of coinhibitory receptors and their ligands, namely, galectin-9 (the ligand of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3) and CD155 (the ligand of T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain), and their association with clinical features in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The se...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Intra-Amnionic Threonine Administered to Chicken Embryos Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Cecal Counts and Improves Posthatch Intestinal Development.
This study assessed the effect of in ovo threonine supplementation on the response of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in cecal contents, intestinal morphology, body weight, and weight gain. Fertilized eggs were inoculated in the amniotic fluid with saline (NT) or 3.5% threonine (T) solution at day 17.5 of incubation. At hatch, chicks were individually weighed and cloacal swabs were screened for Salmonella. At 2 days of age, half of the birds from each in ovo treatment were given either 0.5 mL of nutrient broth (sham-inoculated) or nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonell...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus AI (H5) Vaccine in Preventing Transmission of Heterologous Highly Pathogenic H5N8 Clade 2.3.4.4b Challenge Virus in Commercial Broilers and Layer Pullets.
Authors: Palya V, Tatár-Kis T, Walkóné Kovács E, Kiss I, Homonnay Z, Gardin Y, Kertész K, Dán Á Abstract Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 subtype clade 2.3.4.4 were first reported in 2014 in South Korea then spread very rapidly in Asia, to Europe, and for the first time, to North America. Efficacy of a recombinant HVT-AI (H5) vaccine (rHVT-H5) to provide clinical protection as well as to significantly reduce the shedding of an H5N8 challenge virus has already been demonstrated in SPF chickens. The aim of our studies was to ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - December 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research