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The Differential Contribution of the Innate Immune System to a Good Pathological Response in the Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes Induced by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Large and Locally Advanced Breast Cancers.
Authors: Kaewkangsadan V, Verma C, Eremin JM, Cowley G, Ilyas M, Satthaporn S, Eremin O Abstract The tumour microenvironment consists of malignant cells, stroma, and immune cells. The role of adaptive immunity in inducing a pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is well studied. The contribution of innate immunity, however, is poorly documented. Breast tumours and axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) from 33 women with large and locally advanced breast cancers (LLABCs) undergoing NAC were immunohistochemically assessed for tumour-infiltrating macrophages (TIMs: M1 and M2), ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Efficacy of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Combined with IFN- α in Chinese Resected Stage III Malignant Melanoma.
CONCLUSION: Patients who undergo surgical excision of stage III MM appear to enjoy prolonged DFS and OS when treated with TIL + IFN-α compared to IFN-α alone. PMID: 28913367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Erratum to "Low Baseline Interleukin-17A Levels Are Associated with Better Treatment Response at 12 Weeks to Tocilizumab Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients".
Erratum to "Low Baseline Interleukin-17A Levels Are Associated with Better Treatment Response at 12 Weeks to Tocilizumab Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients". J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:7869412 Authors: Lee SJ, Park W, Park SH, Shim SC, Baek HJ, Yoo DH, Kim HA, Lee SK, Lee YJ, Park YE, Cha HS, Park JK, Lee EY, Lee EB, Song YW Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/487230.]. PMID: 28913368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

SIAE Rare Variants in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Primary Antibody Deficiencies.
Authors: Sevdali E, Tsitsami E, Tsinti M, Farmaki E, Papadopoulou-Alataki E, Germenis AE, Speletas M Abstract Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) deficiency was suggested to lower the levels of ligands for sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like receptors, decreasing the threshold for B-cell activation. In humans, studies of rare heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SIAE gene in common autoimmune diseases, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yielded inconsistent results. Considering the distinct pathogenesis of the two main subtypes of JIA, autoinflammatory systemic (sJIA) and autoimmune oligo/polyar...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Natural Modulators of Endosomal Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Psoriatic Skin Inflammation.
Authors: Lai CY, Su YW, Lin KI, Hsu LC, Chuang TH Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can be initiated by excessive activation of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs), particularly TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. Therefore, inhibitors of endosomal TLR activation are being investigated for their ability to treat this disease. The currently approved biological drugs adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, ustekinumab, ixekizumab, and secukizumab are antibodies against effector cytokines that participate in the initiation and development of psoriasis. Several immune modulatory oligonucleotides and s...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Cereblon: A Protein Crucial to the Multiple Functions of Immunomodulatory Drugs as well as Cell Metabolism and Disease Generation.
Authors: Shi Q, Chen L Abstract It is well known that cereblon is a key protein in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Studies have reported that it has an intermediary role in helping immunomodulatory drugs perform their immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects. In addition, cereblon also regulates the expression, assembly, and activities of other special proteins related to cell proliferation and metabolism, resulting in the occurrence and development of metabolic diseases. This review details the multiple functions of cereblon and the underlying mechanisms. We also put forward some unsolved prob...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Intracellular pH Regulates TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Endothelial Cells.
Authors: Zhang ZX, Gan I, Pavlosky A, Huang X, Fuhrmann B, Jevnikar AM Abstract During ischemia or inflammation of organs, intracellular pH can decrease if acid production exceeds buffering capacity. Thus, the microenvironment can expose parenchymal cells to a reduced extracellular pH which can alter pH-dependent intracellular functions. We have previously shown that while silencing caspase-8 in an in vivo ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) model results in improved organ function and survival, removal of caspase-8 function in a donor organ can paradoxically result in enhanced receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/3...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Beneficial Effects of Prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan on Allergic Asthma Mouse Models.
Authors: Lew DB, Michael CF, Overbeck T, Robinson WS, Rohman EL, Lehman JM, Patel JK, Eiseman B, LeMessurier KS, Samarasinghe AE, Gaber MW Abstract One of the unmet needs for asthma management is a new therapeutic agent with both anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling effects. The mannose receptor (MR) family plays an important role in allergen uptake and processing of major allergens Der p 1 and Fel d 1. We have previously reported that ASM cells express a mannose receptor (ASM-MR) and that mannan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-MN) inhibits mannosyl-rich lysosomal hydrolase-induced bo...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Microbiome in Connective Tissue Diseases and Vasculitides: An Updated Narrative Review.
CONCLUSIONS: Numerous studies suggest that alterations in human microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritides as a result of the aberrant activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Only a few studies have explored the involvement of dysbiosis in other CTDs or vasculitides, and further research is needed. PMID: 28835902 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Safety of Human Papillomavirus 9-Valent Vaccine: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.
Authors: Costa APF, Cobucci RNO, da Silva JM, da Costa Lima PH, Giraldo PC, Gonçalves AK Abstract Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries for approximately 10 years. In order to increase the protection of the vaccines, a 9-valent vaccine (HPV9) was developed, which provides protection against nine types of the virus. Studies evaluating its safety are rare. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of three clinical trials assessing adverse effects on women randomly vaccinated with HPV9 or tetravalent vaccine (HPV4), with the objective of analyzin...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Saliva-Derived Host Defense Peptides Histatin1 and LL-37 Increase Secretion of Antimicrobial Skin and Oral Mucosa Chemokine CCL20 in an IL-1 α-Independent Manner.
In this study, we investigated the effect of two salivary HDPs, LL-37 and Hst1, on the inflammatory and antimicrobial response by skin and oral mucosa (gingiva) keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL27 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. Keratinocyte-fibroblast cocultures showed a synergistic increase in CCL20 secretion upon Hst1 and LL-37 exposure compared to monocultures. These cocultures also showed increased IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL2 secretion, which was IL-1α dependent. Secretion of the a...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Low Dose of Lipopolysaccharide Pretreatment Preventing Subsequent Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis Is Associated with PI3K/AKT Pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: LPS pretreatment can ameliorate endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. This protection of endotoxin tolerance against EIU is associated with PI3K/AKT pathway by reducing level of TNF-α in the aqueous humor. PMID: 28804726 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Synergistic Antitumour Properties of viscumTT in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Authors: Stammer RM, Kleinsimon S, Rolff J, Jäger S, Eggert A, Seifert G, Delebinski CI Abstract Aqueous mistletoe extracts from the European mistletoe (Viscum album) contain mainly mistletoe lectins and viscotoxins as cytotoxic compounds. Lipophilic triterpene acids, which do not occur in conventional mistletoe preparations, were solubilised with β-cyclodextrins. The combination of an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene-containing extract (TT) recreated a whole mistletoe extract (viscumTT). These extracts were tested on rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo with regard to anticancer effec...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Characterization of Interleukin-15-Transpresenting Dendritic Cells for Clinical Use.
In this study, we demonstrate that upon electroporation with both IL-15 and IL-15Rα-encoding messenger RNA, mature DC become highly positive for surface IL-15, without influencing the expression of prototypic mature DC markers and with preservation of their cytokine-producing capacity and their migratory profile. Functionally, we show that IL-15-transpresenting DC are equal if not better inducers of T-cell proliferation and are superior in tumor antigen-specific T-cell activation compared with DC without IL-15 conditioning. In view of the clinical use of DC vaccines, we evidence with a time- and cost-effective manner...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction Attenuates Th1 and Th2 Responses in the Treatment of Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Inflammation in a Rat Model of Allergic Rhinitis.
This study investigated the effect and possible therapeutic mechanisms of MFXD in the treatment of AR. A Wistar rat model of ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced AR was established and then treated with three doses of MFXD; AR symptoms, serum total immunoglobulin E, histamine, histopathological features, and release and expression of factors related to type 1 helper T (Th1) and type 2 helper T (Th2) responses were analyzed. Our study demonstrated that MFXD has a good therapeutic effect on OVA-induced allergic inflammation in an AR rat model as manifested in reduced frequencies of sneezing and nasal scratching and in reduced serum lev...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Effects of Taiwanese Neolitsea Species on Th1 and Th2 Functionality.
This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of ten Taiwanese Neolitsea plants on T helper (Th) cell functionality, especially Th1 and Th2. Most of the 29 crude extracts of Neolitsea were not toxic to splenocytes, except N. buisanensis roots. N. aciculata and N. villosa leaf extracts possessed differential immunomodulatory effects on Th1/Th2 balance. N. aciculata var. variabillima and N. hiiranensis leaf extracts attenuated both Th1 and Th2 cytokines while N. konishii dramatically suppressed IFN-γ production. As N. aciculata var. variabillima and N. konishii leaf extracts significantly attenuated Th1 ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Hypoxic Modulation of HLA-G Expression through the Metabolic Sensor HIF-1 in Human Cancer Cells.
Authors: Garziera M, Scarabel L, Toffoli G Abstract The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is considered an immune checkpoint molecule involved in tumor immune evasion. Hypoxia and the metabolic sensor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) are hallmarks of metastasization, angiogenesis, and intense tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this review was to examine original in vitro studies carried out in human cancer cell lines, which reported data about HLA-G expression and HIF-1 mediated-HLA-G expression in response to hypoxia. The impact of HLA-G genomic variability on the hypoxia responsive elements (HREs) specifi...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Airway Epithelial Repair by a Prebiotic Mannan Derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Michael CF, Waters CM, LeMessurier KS, Samarasinghe AE, Song CY, Malik KU, Lew DB Abstract In asthmatic airways, repeated epithelial damage and repair occur. No current therapy directly targets this process. We aimed to determine the effects of mannan derived from S. cerevisiae (SC-MN) on airway epithelial wound repair, in vitro. The presence of functional mannose receptors in bronchial epithelial cells was shown by endocytosis of colloidal gold-Man BSA via clathrin-coated pits in 16HBE cells. In primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC), SC-MN significantly facilitated wound closure. Treatme...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

New Insights for Immune-Based Diagnosis and Therapy for Infectious Diseases.
Authors: Sautto GA, Diotti RA, Wisskirchen K, Kahle KM PMID: 28758132 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains Stimulate the Inflammatory Response and Activate Human Macrophages.
In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which four different strains of probiotics affected innate immunity, such as regulation of ROS, cytokines, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, signaling by NF-κB pp65, and TLR2 activation. The production of ROS was dependent on the concentration and species of Lactobacillus. The results obtained from the tested strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus KLSD, L. helveticus IMAU70129, and L. casei IMAU60214) showed that strains induced early proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8,TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6. However, IL-1β expression was induced only by L. h...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Polymorphism rs2073618 of the TNFRSF11B (OPG) Gene and Bone Mineral Density in Mexican Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Authors: Nava-Valdivia CA, Saldaña-Cruz AM, Corona-Sanchez EG, Murillo-Vazquez JD, Moran-Moguel MC, Salazar-Paramo M, Perez-Guerrero EE, Vazquez-Villegas ML, Bonilla-Lara D, Rocha-Muñoz AD, Martín-Marquez BT, Sandoval-Garcia F, Martínez-García EA, Fajardo-Robledo NS, Ponce-Guarneros JM, Ramirez-Villafaña M, Alcaraz-Lopez MF, Gonzalez-Lopez L, Gamez-Nava JI Abstract Osteoporosis (OP) is highly prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is influenced by genetic factors. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene has been related...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Effect of Chitosan and Liposome Nanoparticles as Adjuvant Codelivery on the Immunoglobulin G Subclass Distribution in a Mouse Model.
CONCLUSIONS: The chitosan and liposome nanoparticles as adjuvant codelivery were successfully synthesized. These nanoparticles have different shapes in particle formation, liposome nanoparticle with their unilamellar shape and chitosan nanoparticles in large shape due to the aggregation of small-size particles. Codelivery of chitosan nanoparticles has more effect on the IgG subclass antibody production than that of liposome nanoparticles in a mouse model. PMID: 28758135 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Methanol Extract from Euphorbia kansui Radix on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis.
In conclusion, EKC ameliorated the symptoms of psoriasis through inhibition of Th17 differentiation and activation of dendritic cells. These effects are expected to be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of psoriasis. PMID: 28761880 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Are the Two Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Really Similar? A Systematic Review of Available Evidence: Efficacy of the Two Vaccines against HPV".
Corrigendum to "Are the Two Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Really Similar? A Systematic Review of Available Evidence: Efficacy of the Two Vaccines against HPV". J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:4583487 Authors: Di Mario S, Basevi V, Lopalco PL, Balduzzi S, D'Amico R, Magrini N Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/435141.]. PMID: 28744473 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Role of Interferons in the Development of Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Therapy for Tuberculosis.
Authors: Chin KL, Anis FZ, Sarmiento ME, Norazmi MN, Acosta A Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). About one-third of the world's population is latently infected with TB and 5-15% of them will develop active TB in their lifetime. It is estimated that each case of active TB may cause 10-20 new infections. Host immune response to Mtb is influenced by interferon- (IFN-) signaling pathways, particularly by type I and type II interferons (IFNs). The latter that consists of IFN-γ has been associated with the promotion of Th1 immune response which is associa...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Adoptive Cell Therapy of Induced Regulatory T Cells Expanded by Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells on Murine Autoimmune Arthritis.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the potential therapeutic utility of iTregmtDC in autoimmune arthritis and should facilitate the future design of iTreg immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID: 28702462 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Ethyl Caffeate Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Suppressing Th1 Immune Response.
Conclusion. Our results indicated that ECF exerted antiarthritic potential in collagen-induced arthritis by suppressing Th1 immune response and interferon-γ-related signaling. PMID: 28706956 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Controversial C5a Receptor C5aR2: Its Role in Health and Disease.
Authors: Zhang T, Garstka MA, Li K Abstract After the discovery of the C5a receptor C5aR1, C5aR2 is the second receptor found to bind C5a and its des-arginine form. As a heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor but devoid of the intracellular Gα signal, C5aR2 is special and confusing. Ramifications and controversies about C5aR2 are under debate since its identification, from putative ligands and cellular localization to intracellular signals and pathological roles in inflammation and immunity. The ruleless and even conflicting pro- or anti-inflammatory role of C5aR2 in animal models of diverse diseases makes o...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1.
Authors: Zakharchenko NS, Belous AS, Biryukova YK, Medvedeva OA, Belyakova AV, Masgutova GA, Trubnikova EV, Buryanov YI, Lebedeva AA Abstract Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1) have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract) sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Extracellular Immunomodulation Mediated by Infectious Agents.
Authors: Viejo-Borbolla A, Schildberg FA, Burgert HG PMID: 28685152 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Innate Immune Response in Kidney Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Potential Target for Therapy.
Authors: Kezić A, Stajic N, Thaiss F Abstract Acute kidney injury caused by ischemia and subsequent reperfusion is associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in kidney transplantation causes delayed graft function and is associated with more frequent episodes of acute rejection and progression to chronic allograft nephropathy. Alloantigen-independent inflammation is an important process, participating in pathogenesis of injurious response, caused by ischemia and reperfusion. This innate immune response is characterized by the activity of classical cells belonging to the imm...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Clinical Relevance of HLA Antibodies in Kidney Transplantation: Recent Data from the Heidelberg Transplant Center and the Collaborative Transplant Study.
Authors: Süsal C, Fichtner A, Tönshoff B, Mehrabi A, Zeier M, Morath C Abstract Herein, we summarize our recent findings from the international Collaborative Transplant Study (CTS) and Heidelberg Transplant Center regarding the role of HLA antibodies in kidney transplantation and their application into the clinical routine. Based on the antibody findings from the CTS serum study, an algorithm was developed in 2006 for the transplantation of high-risk sensitized patients at the Heidelberg Transplant Center which includes seven different pre- and posttransplant measures. Using this algorithm, the number of ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 (YKL-40) Reflects the Severity of Symptoms in Atopic Dermatitis.
This study has shown that YKL-40 serum level is increased in patients with atopic dermatitis and reflects the severity of symptoms. PMID: 28660216 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Validation of a Novel Immunoline Assay for Patient Stratification according to Virulence of the Infecting Helicobacter pylori Strain and Eradication Status.
Authors: Formichella L, Romberg L, Meyer H, Bolz C, Vieth M, Geppert M, Göttner G, Nölting C, Schepp W, Schneider A, Ulm K, Wolf P, Holster IL, Kuipers EJ, Birkner B, Soutschek E, Gerhard M Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection shows a worldwide prevalence of around 50%. However, only a minority of infected individuals develop clinical symptoms or diseases. The presence of H. pylori virulence factors, such as CagA and VacA, has been associated with disease development, but assessment of virulence factor presence requires gastric biopsies. Here, we evaluate the H. pylori recomLine test for risk stratifica...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Tumor-Related Exosomes Contribute to Tumor-Promoting Microenvironment: An Immunological Perspective.
Authors: Chen W, Jiang J, Xia W, Huang J Abstract Exosomes are a kind of cell-released membrane-form structures which contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These vesicular organelles play a key role in intercellular communication. Numerous experiments demonstrated that tumor-related exosomes (TEXs) can induce immune surveillance in the microenvironment in vivo and in vitro. They can interfere with the maturation of DC cells, impair NK cell activation, induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and educate macrophages into protumor phenotype. They can also selectively induce effector T cell apoptosis via Fas/Fa...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Genetic Polymorphisms of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 in Primary Biliary Cholangitis: A Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that the polymorphisms of rs231775 and rs231725 would be the risk factors of PBC. PMID: 28642883 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Cxcl8b and Cxcr2 Regulate Neutrophil Migration through Bloodstream in Zebrafish.
In conclusion, we identified different functions for both Cxcl8 paralogues, being the Cxcl8b/Cxcr2 axis that regulates neutrophil entry to the bloodstream, while Cxcl8a/Cxcr2 regulates the migration to the affected area. PMID: 28642884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Antitumor Effect of KML-B-Treated Dendritic Cells via Induction of Lymphocyte Activation.
In this study, we confirmed the ability of matured DCs by KML-B to stimulate cytotoxic T cells using OT-1 mouse-derived CD8(+) T cells. KML-B induced MHC I expression in DCs, stimulation of CD8(+) T cell activation and proliferation, and IFN-γ secretion. Moreover, tumor sizes were reduced by KML-B treatment during vaccination of OVA257-264-pulsed DCs. Here, we confirmed induction of CD8(+) T cell activation and the antitumor effect of KML-B treatment in DCs. PMID: 28634588 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

HLA Class Ia and Ib Polyreactive Anti-HLA-E IgG2a Monoclonal Antibodies (TFL-006 and TFL-007) Suppress Anti-HLA IgG Production by CD19+ B Cells and Proliferation of CD4+ T Cells While Upregulating Tregs.
Authors: Ravindranath MH Abstract The anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs, TFL-006 and TFL-007, reacted with all HLA-I antigens, similar to the therapeutic preparations of IVIg. Indeed, IVIg lost its HLA reactivity, when its HLA-E reactivity was adsorbed out. US-FDA approved IVIg to reduce antibodies in autoimmune diseases. But the mechanism underlying IVIg-mediated antibody reduction could not be ascertained due to the presence of other polyclonal antibodies. In spite of it, the cost prohibitive high or low IVIg is administered to patients waiting for donor organ and for allograft recipients for lowering antiallograft antibodie...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Immune Epitope Database: How Data Are Entered and Retrieved.
This article describes the process of capturing data from these sources and how the information is organized in the IEDB data. Different approaches for querying the data are then presented, using the home page search interface and the various specialized search interfaces. Specific examples covering diverse applications of interest are given to highlight the power and functionality of the IEDB. PMID: 28634590 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Examination of the Microbial Spectrum in the Etiology of Erythema Nodosum: A Retrospective Descriptive Study.
Authors: Ozbagcivan O, Akarsu S, Avci C, Inci BB, Fetil E Abstract Even though infections are the most common cause of erythema nodosum (EN), only certain microorganisms take the great interest such as streptococci in knowledge. Our aim was to examine the frequency and type of infections in EN, to determine the characteristics of patients with an infectious etiology, and to discuss the role of these microbes in EN pathology in the context of their interactions with humans. Charts of 81 patients with EN who were seen between 2003 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Identified etiological factors were classified ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

HLA Epitopes: The Targets of Monoclonal and Alloantibodies Defined.
Authors: El-Awar N, Jucaud V, Nguyen A Abstract Sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in organ transplant patients causes graft rejection, according to the humoral theory of transplantation. Sensitization is almost ubiquitous as anti-HLA antibodies are found in almost all sera of transplant recipients. Advances in testing assays and amino acid sequencing of HLA along with computer software contributed further to the understanding of antibody-antigen reactivity. It is commonly understood that antibodies bind to HLA antigens. With current knowledge of epitopes, it is more accurate to describe that antibodie...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Adenosine Triphosphate Promotes Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation and Th17 Cell Polarization in Neutrophilic Asthma.
Authors: Zhang F, Su X, Huang G, Xin XF, Cao EH, Shi Y, Song Y Abstract Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a key mediator to alert the immune dysfunction by acting on P2 receptors. Here, we found that allergen challenge caused an increase of ATP secretion in a murine model of neutrophilic asthma, which correlated well with neutrophil counts and interleukin-17 production. When ATP signaling was blocked by intratracheal administration of the ATP receptor antagonist suramin before challenge, neutrophilic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th17-type responses were reduced significantly. Also, neutrophili...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Genetics and Molecular Biology of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded BART MicroRNA: A Paradigm for Viral Modulation of Host Immune Response Genes and Genome Stability.
Authors: Dreyfus DH Abstract Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, is associated through epidemiologic evidence with common autoimmune syndromes and cancers. However, specific genetic mechanisms of pathogenesis have been difficult to identify. In this review, the author summarizes evidence that recently discovered noncoding RNAs termed microRNA encoded by Epstein-Barr virus BARF (BamHI A right frame) termed BART (BamHI A right transcripts) are modulators of human immune response genes and genome stability in infected and bystander cells. BART expression is apparently regulated by complex feedback loop...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Targets of Neutrophil Influx and Weaponry: Therapeutic Opportunities for Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease.
Authors: Mårdh CK, Root J, Uddin M, Stenvall K, Malmgren A, Karabelas K, Thomas M Abstract Neutrophils are important effector cells of antimicrobial immunity in an acute inflammatory response, with a primary role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens. However, in respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is excessive infiltration and activation of neutrophils, subsequent production of reactive oxygen species, and release of serine proteases, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloperoxidase-resulting in collateral damage as the cells infiltrate into the tis...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Advanced Role of Neutrophils in Common Respiratory Diseases.
Authors: Liu J, Pang Z, Wang G, Guan X, Fang K, Wang Z, Wang F Abstract Respiratory diseases, always being a threat towards the health of people all over the world, are most tightly associated with immune system. Neutrophils serve as an important component of immune defense barrier linking innate and adaptive immunity. They participate in the clearance of exogenous pathogens and endogenous cell debris and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases. However, the pathological mechanism of neutrophils remains complex and obscure. The traditional roles of neutrophils in severe asthma, chron...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Association of Toll-Like Cell Receptors TLR2 (p.Arg753GLN) and TLR4 (p.Asp299GLY) Polymorphisms with Indicators of General and Local Immunity in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.
Authors: Tyurin YA, Shamsutdinov AF, Kalinin NN, Sharifullina AA, Reshetnikova ID Abstract A whole group of polymorphisms of genes involved in the formation of the epidermal barrier, immune responses, and their regulation is important in the formation of atopic phenotype. The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship of polymorphisms of genes of Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 with clinical and immunological parameters in atopic dermatitis patients in a "case-control" study. Polymorphisms of genes TLR2 (p.Arg753Gln) and TLR4 (Asp299Gly) were detected by PCR. Parameters of the state of innate...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Th1/Th2 Balance and Th17/Treg-Mediated Immunity in relation to Murine Resistance to Dextran Sulfate-Induced Colitis.
CONCLUSIONS: The intrinsic congenital capacity of mouse strains with respect to T cell proliferation determines sensitivity to experimental colitis. PMID: 28584821 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Plasma Levels of High-Mobility Group Box 1 during Peptide Vaccination in Patients with Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.
Authors: Waki K, Kawano K, Tsuda N, Ushijima K, Itoh K, Yamada A Abstract High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that is known to be secreted into extracellular fluids from injured cells, activated macrophages, and tumor cells. The clinical correlation of circulating HMGB1 levels with various diseases including cancer has been reported. However, there is no information on HMGB1 levels in cancer patients treated with peptide vaccination. In the present study, we investigated the plasma levels of HMGB1 during personalized peptide vaccination in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Frozen plasma sam...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - May 26, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Neutrophilic Inflammation in the Immune Responses of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Lessons from Animal Models.
Authors: Huang G, Xu XC, Zhou JS, Li ZY, Chen HP, Wang Y, Li W, Shen HH, Chen ZH Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, which is characterized by chronic bronchitis, destruction of small airways, and enlargement/disorganization of alveoli. It is generally accepted that the neutrophilic airway inflammation observed in the lungs of COPD patients is intrinsically linked to the tissue destruction and alveolar airspace enlargement, leading to disease progression. Animal models play an important role in studying the underlying mechanisms of COPD as they address ques...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - May 26, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research