Type I/II Interferon in HIV-1-Infected Patients: Expression in Gut Mucosa and in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Its Modification upon Probiotic Supplementation.
Authors: Pinacchio C, Scheri GC, Statzu M, Santinelli L, Ceccarelli G, Innocenti GP, Vullo V, Antonelli G, Brenchley JM, d'Ettorre G, Scagnolari C Abstract Expression of type I and II interferon (IFN) was evaluated in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1-positive patients on long-term, suppressive, antiretroviral therapy before and after probiotic supplementation. IFNα subtypes and IFNβ were expressed at higher levels in GALT compared to PBMC, whereas an opposite trend of expression was recorded for IFNγ. An increase of IFNα6, IFN&alpha...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Assessing the Role of DNA Methylation-Derived Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Authors: Ambatipudi S, Sharp GC, Clarke SLN, Plant D, Tobias JH, Evans DM, Barton A, Relton CL Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease of chronic systemic inflammation (SI). In the present study, we used four datasets to explore whether methylation-derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (mdNLR) might be a marker of SI in new onset, untreated, and treated prevalent RA cases and/or a marker of treatment response to the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) etanercept. mdNLR was associated with increased odds of being a new onset RA case (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.95-2.80, P
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Frequency of Hospitalized Infections Is Reduced in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Who Received Biological and Targeted Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs after 2010.
Conclusions: This is the first report that the frequency of hospitalized infection significantly decreased when the patients were treated with a bDMARD or tsDMARD after 2010. Our results indicate that the updated announcement of diagnosis and treatment criteria might contribute to a reduced risk of hospitalized infection and a better understanding of the use of bDMARDs/tsDMARDs by rheumatologists. PMID: 30186881 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Effects of Systemic Simvastatin on the Concentrations of Visfatin, Tumor Necrosis Factor- α, and Interleukin-6 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis.
Conclusion: Periodontal destruction and diabetes have a synergistic effect on the elevation of inflammatory cytokine levels. Simvastatin may be beneficial in improving periodontal health among diabetic patients. PMID: 30186882 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

miR-34a Regulates Multidrug Resistance via Positively Modulating OAZ2 Signaling in Colon Cancer Cells.
Authors: Li Y, Gong P, Hou JX, Huang W, Ma XP, Wang YL, Li J, Cui XB, Li N Abstract Although aberrant expression of miR-34a, an essential tumor suppressor miRNA, has been frequently observed in colon cancer (CCa), whether miR-34a can regulate CCa progression by modulating other facets of this malignancy (such as multidrug resistance, MDR) remains unknown. Here, we report for the first time that miR-34a expression was significantly downregulated in clinical CCa samples from oxaliplatin-resistant patients and in experimentally established multidrug-resistant CCa cells. By using histoculture drug response assay, we fu...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - September 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Aberrant Expression of miR-362 Promotes Lung Cancer Metastasis through Downregulation of Sema3A.
In this study, we found that the level of miR-362 was higher in NSCLC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues and that the level of miR-362 expression was also elevated in five NSCLC cell lines (A549, 95-D, H1299, H292, and H460) relative to a human normal lung epithelial cell line (BEAS2B). Furthermore, miR-362 promoted NSCLC cell invasion, migration, and colony formation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Next, we identified the miR-362 target gene Sema3A, which is significantly correlated with metastasis. Sema3A expression was increased in normal tissues relative to NSCLC tissues. This result is consistent with the f...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Suppression of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Mediators in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages by Stem Extract of Alternanthera sessilis via the Inhibition of the NF- κB Pathway.
Suppression of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Mediators in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages by Stem Extract of Alternanthera sessilis via the Inhibition of the NF-κB Pathway. J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:3430684 Authors: Muniandy K, Gothai S, Badran KMH, Suresh Kumar S, Esa NM, Arulselvan P Abstract Alternanthera sessilis, an edible succulent herb, has been widely used as herbal drug in many regions around the globe. Inflammation is a natural process of the innate immune system, accompanied with the increase in the level of proinflammatory mediators, for example, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Description of CD8+ Regulatory T Lymphocytes and Their Specific Intervention in Graft-versus-Host and Infectious Diseases, Autoimmunity, and Cancer.
Authors: Vieyra-Lobato MR, Vela-Ojeda J, Montiel-Cervantes L, López-Santiago R, Moreno-Lafont MC Abstract Gershon and Kondo described CD8+ Treg lymphocytes as the first ones with regulating activity due to their tolerance ability to foreign antigens and their capacity to inhibit the proliferation of other lymphocytes. Regardless, CD8+ Treg lymphocytes have not been fully described-unlike CD4+ Treg lymphocytes-because of their low numbers in blood and the lack of specific and accurate population markers. Still, these lymphocytes have been studied for the past 30 years, even after finding difficulties during i...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

T-Regulatory Cells in Health and Disease.
Authors: Elkord E, Sasidharan Nair V PMID: 30155494 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Anti-Inflammatory Mediator, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Modulates the Differentiation and Function of Th Subsets in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Authors: Villanueva-Romero R, Gutiérrez-Cañas I, Carrión M, Pérez-García S, Seoane IV, Martínez C, Gomariz RP, Juarranz Y Abstract Genetic background, epigenetic modifications, and environmental factors trigger autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Several pathogenic infections have been related to the onset of RA and may cause an inadequate immunological tolerance towards critical self-antigens leading to chronic joint inflammation and an imbalance between different T helper (Th) subsets. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a mediator that modulates all the ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Anti-IL-22 Antibody Attenuates Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease via Increasing Foxp3+ T Cell through Modulation of CD11b+ Cell Function.
Authors: Wu J, Gu J, Zhou S, Lu H, Lu Y, Lu L, Wang X Abstract Transfer of splenocytes isolated from B6 mice into normal B6D2F1 mice induces acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), resulting in the expansion of donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes that eliminate recipient B cells. The cytokine IL-22, secreted by Th1 cells, Th17 cells, and innate immune cells, is structurally related to IL-10. To investigate the association between IL-22 and aGVHD, an anti-mouse IL-22 antibody (IL-22Ab) was used to ablate IL-22 activity in a mouse aGVHD model. Administration of IL-22Ab significantly reduced the progression of aGVHD in B6D...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A DNA-Methylated Sight on Autoimmune Inflammation Network across RA, pSS, and SLE.
In this study, we integrated 5 Cytokine-Chips from genome-wide DNA methylation datasets of the 3 kind of AIDs, delta-beta value was calculated for intergroup difference, and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of cytokine genes with aberrant methylations were performed. 125 shared differential methylation variabilities (DMVs) were identified. There were 102 shared DMVs with similar methylation status; 3 hypomethylated differential methylation regions (DMRs) across the AIDs were found, and all 3 DMRs were hypomethylated. DMRs (AZU1, LTBR, and RTEL1) were likely to serve as activator in the inflammatory process. Particular...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Impact of Purinergic System Enzymes on Noncommunicable, Neurological, and Degenerative Diseases.
In conclusion, changes in the activity of ectonucleotidases were verified in all reviewed diseases. Although the role of ectonucleotidases still remains to be further investigated, evidences reviewed here can contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of highly complex diseases, which majorly impact on patients' quality of life. PMID: 30159340 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Toward Personalized Medicine and Combination Strategies.
Authors: Sui H, Ma N, Wang Y, Li H, Liu X, Su Y, Yang J Abstract Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide with the poor prognosis. Encouragingly, immune checkpoint blockade targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has dramatically changed the landscape for treatments in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only a small proportion of NSCLC patients responded to monotherapy of anti-PD-1/PDL1 agents; together, the development of resistance to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy that leads to failure of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has significantly...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The LPS Responsiveness in BN and LEW Rats and Its Severity Are Modulated by the Liver.
Authors: Fang H, Jin H, Hua C, Liu A, Song Z, Chen X, Dirsch O, Dahmen U Abstract Differences in LPS responsiveness influence the outcome of patients with sepsis. The intensity of the response is highly variable in patients and strain dependent in rodents. However, the role of the liver for initiating the LPS response remains ill defined. We hypothesize that hepatic LPS uptake is a key event for initiating the LPS response. In the present study, the severity of the LPS-induced inflammatory response and the hepatic LPS uptake was compared in two rat strains (Lewis (LEW) rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats). Using a tran...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "New Mechanisms of Tumor-Associated Macrophages on Promoting Tumor Progression: Recent Research Advances and Potential Targets for Tumor Immunotherapy".
Corrigendum to "New Mechanisms of Tumor-Associated Macrophages on Promoting Tumor Progression: Recent Research Advances and Potential Targets for Tumor Immunotherapy". J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:6728474 Authors: Guo Q, Jin Z, Yuan Y, Liu R, Xu T, Wei H, Xu X, He S, Chen S, Shi Z, Hou W, Hua B Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/9720912.]. PMID: 30151395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Immunologic Role of Gut Microbiota in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection.
Authors: Yang R, Xu Y, Dai Z, Lin X, Wang H Abstract Hepatitis B can cause acute or chronic liver damage due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by chronic HBV infection often leads to increased mortality. However, the gut and liver have the same embryonic origin; therefore, a close relationship must exist in terms of anatomy and function, and the gut microbiota plays an important role in host metabolic and immune modulation. It is believed that structural changes in the gut microbiota, bacterial translocation, and the resulting immune injury may affect the occur...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Impact of Metabolism on Immune Responses.
Authors: Elkhal A, Rodriguez Cetina Biefer H, de la Fuente MA PMID: 30148174 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Influence of Biological Therapeutics, Cytokines, and Disease Activity on Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Conclusions: A variety of both biological and social factors influences depressive symptoms in RA. IL-10 and IL-6 are likely to be involved, since IL-10 concentration was associated with depression and Tocilizumab decreased depressive symptoms in the RA patients. The roles of these cytokines are different in RA and lupus, as high IL-10 in RA is associated with increased depressive symptoms, but high IL-10 in the lupus patients is associated with decreased depression. IL-6 was also associated with depressive symptoms in the patients with primary depression. These results strongly indicate that disease activity, including cy...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

NF- κB-94ins/del ATTG Genotype Contributes to the Susceptibility and Imbalanced Th17 Cells in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia.
NF-κB-94ins/del ATTG Genotype Contributes to the Susceptibility and Imbalanced Th17 Cells in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia. J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:8170436 Authors: Yu J, Hua M, Zhao X, Wang R, Zhong C, Zhang C, Wang R, Li G, He N, Hou M, Ma D Abstract Background: The NLRP3 inflammasome plays important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unclear. Methods: RT-PCR was used to examine the polymorphism and expression of genes involved in the NLRP3 inflammasome in ITP ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Host Immunological Effects of Partial Splenic Embolization in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis.
Conclusions: In patients with cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia, PSE not only promoted the recovery of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia but also induced activation of host immunity. PMID: 30116748 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Venom from Bothrops lanceolatus, a Snake Species Native to Martinique, Potently Activates the Complement System.
Authors: Delafontaine M, Villas-Boas IM, Pidde G, van den Berg CW, Mathieu L, Blomet J, Tambourgi DV Abstract Bothrops lanceolatus snake venom causes systemic thrombotic syndrome but also local inflammation involving extensive oedema, pain, and haemorrhage. Systemic thrombotic syndrome may lead to fatal pulmonary embolism and myocardial and cerebral infarction. Here, we investigated the ability of B. lanceolatus venom to activate the Complement system (C) in order to improve the understanding of venom-induced local inflammation. Data presented show that B. lanceolatus venom is able to activate all C-pathways. In hu...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

CD4hiCD8low Double-Positive T Cells Are Associated with Graft Rejection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Islet Transplantation.
Authors: Choi YJ, Park HJ, Park HJ, Jung KC, Lee JI Abstract Peripheral CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) T cells are associated with autoimmune disorders, cancer, and viral infection. However, the relationship between organ transplantation and DP T cells is unclear. Here, we examined the functional characteristics of peripheral DP T cells and analyzed their significance with respect to islet graft rejection in a nonhuman primate model of islet transplantation. DP T cells were functionally equivalent to conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells in terms of helper and cytotoxic activity, respectively. DP T cells expressed high le...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Distinct Changes of BTLA and HVEM Expressions in Circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.
Authors: Liu J, Li J, He M, Zhang GL, Zhao Q Abstract BTLA/HVEM (B and T lymphocyte attenuator/herpes virus entry mediator) pathways play a critical role in T cell suppression in tumor. However, its dynamic changes in different T cell subsets in peripheral blood and their clinical significance are largely unclear in cancer patients. In the current study, we showed distinct changes of BTLA and HVEM expressions on peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); BTLA expression were significantly upregulated on circulating CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. In sharp contrast, the levels...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Peptide-Based Immunotherapeutics and Vaccines 2017.
Authors: Reche P, Flower DR, Fridkis-Hareli M, Hoshino Y PMID: 30116752 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Protective Role of γδ T Cells in Different Pathogen Infections and Its Potential Clinical Application.
Protective Role of γδ T Cells in Different Pathogen Infections and Its Potential Clinical Application. J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:5081634 Authors: Zhao Y, Lin L, Xiao Z, Li M, Wu X, Li W, Li X, Zhao Q, Wu Y, Zhang H, Yin J, Zhang L, Cho CH, Shen J Abstract γδ T cells, a subgroup of T cells based on the γδ TCR, when compared with conventional T cells (αβ T cells), make up a very small proportion of T cells. However, its various subgroups are widely distributed in different parts of the human body and are attractive effectors for infectious disease immunity. &...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

PPAR- γ Agonist Alleviates Liver and Spleen Pathology via Inducing Treg Cells during Schistosoma japonicum Infection.
Conclusions: Our study reveals a previously unrecognized role for PPAR-γ/Foxp3 signaling in regulating the immunopathology that occurs during Schistosoma infection through induction of Treg cells. PMID: 30116754 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Neuroblastoma Origin and Therapeutic Targets for Immunotherapy.
Authors: Kholodenko IV, Kalinovsky DV, Doronin II, Deyev SM, Kholodenko RV Abstract Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid cancer of heterogeneous clinical behavior. The unique features of this type of cancer frequently hamper the process of determining clinical presentation and predicting therapy effectiveness. The tumor can spontaneously regress without treatment or actively develop and give rise to metastases despite aggressive multimodal therapy. In recent years, immunotherapy has become one of the most promising approaches to the treatment of neuroblastoma. Still, only one drug for targeted immunotherapy of neurob...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

DNA Damage and Deficiencies in the Mechanisms of Its Repair: Implications in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Authors: Mireles-Canales MP, González-Chávez SA, Quiñonez-Flores CM, León-López EA, Pacheco-Tena C Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a perplexing and potentially severe disease, the pathogenesis of which is yet to be understood. SLE is considered to be a multifactorial disease, in which genetic factors, immune dysregulation, and environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation, are involved. Recently, the description of novel genes conferring susceptibility to develop SLE even in their own (monogenic lupus) has raised the interest in DNA dynamics since many of the...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Naturally Derived Anti-HIV Polysaccharide Peptide (PSP) Triggers a Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Antiviral Immune Response.
Conclusion: Taken together, these findings put forward the first evidence that PSP exerts an anti-HIV activity mediated by TLR4 and key antiviral chemokines. Elucidating these new molecular mediators may reveal additional drug targets and open novel therapeutic avenues for HIV-1 infection. PMID: 30116757 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Analysis of Sodium Chloride Intake and Treg/Th17 Lymphocytes in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Authors: Vitales-Noyola M, Layseca-Espinosa E, Baranda L, Abud-Mendoza C, Niño-Moreno P, Monsiváis-Urenda A, Rosenstein Y, González-Amaro R Abstract We assessed different immune parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with low (LSI) and high (HSI) sodium intake. Thirty-eight patients with RA, thirty-seven with SLE, and twenty-eight healthy subjects were studied and classified as LSI or HSI. Levels and suppressive function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD69+Foxp3- Treg cells were determined by flow cytometry in blood samples. Levels and in vitro ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Construction and Characterization of Adenovirus Vectors Encoding Aspartate- β-Hydroxylase to Preliminary Application in Immunotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
In conclusion, the gateway recombinant cloning technology is a powerful method of constructing adenovirus vector, and the product Ad-AAH-IRES2-EGFP may present as a potential candidate for DC-based immunotherapy of HCC. PMID: 30116759 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Neutrophil Migration and Adhesion Molecule Expression after Acute High-Intensity Street Dance Exercise.
Authors: Borges L, Dermargos A, Gray S, Barros Silva MB, Santos V, Pithon-Curi TC, Gorjão R, Hatanaka E Abstract The physical demands of street dancing may result in inflammation and changes in leukocyte numbers/function, impairing the health of dancers. Herein, we investigated the effect of street dancing on inflammation, adhesion molecules, and neutrophil function. Fifteen amateur dancers (mean ± SE: age 22.4 ± 1.08 years, BMI 24.8 ± 0.69 kg/m2, and body fat 12.3 ± 1.52%) participated in a single high-intensity stree...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Sirtuin1 Targeting Reverses Innate and Adaptive Immune Tolerance in Septic Mice.
Authors: Martin AN, Alexander-Miller M, Yoza BK, Vachharajani V, McCall CE Abstract Resistance and tolerance to infection are two universal fitness and survival strategies used by inflammation and immunity in organisms and cells to guard homeostasis. During sepsis, however, both strategies fail, and animal and human victims often die from combined innate and adaptive immune suppression with persistent bacterial and viral infections. NAD+-sensing nuclear sirtuin1 (SIRT1) epigenetically guards immune and metabolic homeostasis during sepsis. Pharmacologically inhibiting SIRT1 deacetylase activity in septic mice revers...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Comparison of RPR and ELISA with TPHA for the Diagnosis of Syphilis: Implication for Updating Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests in Ethiopia.
Conclusion: We found a characteristically variable performance of DIALAB-ELISA test and the currently available traditional ECOTEST-RPR test in the study area. The use of ECOTEST-RPR as a diagnostic test is confronted by its false positivity. Thus, neither the ECOTEST-RPR nor the DIALAB-ELISA test stands on its own to be used either as screening or confirmatory test for syphilis diagnosis. Consequently, thorough studies should be conducted aiming on a change of the current diagnostic scheme in the community. PMID: 30069486 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Longitudinal Evaluation of Humoral Immunity and Bacterial and Clinical Parameters Reveals That Antigen-Specific Antibodies Suppress Inflammatory Responses in Active Tuberculosis Patients.
Authors: Niki M, Yoshiyama T, Miyamoto Y, Okumura M, Niki M, Oinuma KI, Kaneko Y, Matsumoto S, Sasaki Y, Ogata H, Goto H, Kudoh S, Hoshino Y Abstract A novel tuberculosis vaccine to replace BCG has long been desired. However, recent vaccine trials focused on cell-mediated immunity have failed to produce promising results. It is worth noting that most commercially available successful vaccines rely on humoral immunity. To establish a basic understanding of humoral immunity against tuberculosis, we analyzed and evaluated longitudinal levels and avidity of immunoglobulin to various tuberculosis antigens compared with ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

PYR-41 and Thalidomide Impair Dendritic Cell Cross-Presentation by Inhibiting Myddosome Formation and Attenuating the Endosomal Recruitments of p97 and Sec61 via NF- κB Inactivation.
In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PYR-41 and thalidomide on DC cross-presentation by observing Myddosome formation, endosomal recruitment of p97 and Sec61, NF-κB activation, and cross-priming ability. We demonstrated that the inhibition of endosomal recruitment of p97 and Sec61, together with attenuated NF-κB activation and Myddosome formation, contributes to PYR-41- and thalidomide-impaired cross-presentation and thereby reverses cross-activation of T cells. These observations suggest that NF-κB signaling and p97 and Sec61 molecules are candidates for dealing with the side effect...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Solute Carrier Transporter SLC15A3 Participates in Antiviral Innate Immune Responses against Herpes Simplex Virus-1.
In this study, we found that SLC15A3 was significantly induced by DNA virus herpes simplex virus-1(HSV-1) in monocytes from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Aside from monocytes, it can also be induced by HSV-1 in 293T, HeLa cells, and HaCaT cells. Overexpression of SLC15A3 in 293T cells inhibits HSV-1 replication and enhances type I and type III interferon (IFN) responses, while silencing SLC15A3 leads to enhanced HSV-1 replication with reduced IFN production. Moreover, we found that SLC15A3 interacted with MAVS and STING and potentiated MAVS- and STING-mediated IFN production. These results demonstrate that SLC1...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Expression of PD-1 on CD4+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Tumor Microenvironment Associated with Pathological Characteristics of Breast Cancer.
This study aimed to investigate the correlation of CD4+/PD-1+ or CD4+/PD-1- tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes with pathological characteristics in breast cancer patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study consecutively recruited 133 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. The expression of CD4, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), CK7, CK20, E-cadherin, or Ki-67 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The associations between CD4+/PD-1+ or CD4+/PD-1- tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and pathological characteristics were evaluated. Results: Elderly patients intended to have a lower level of CD4+/PD-1- tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (p
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Differential Gene Expression Profile of Human Neutrophils Cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-Parasitized Erythrocytes.
Authors: Terkawi MA, Takano R, Kato K Abstract Neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant cellular component of our innate immune system, where they play central roles in the pathogenesis of and resistance to a broad range of diseases. However, their roles in malarial infection remain poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the transcriptional gene profile of human PMNs in response to Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes (iRBCs) by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Results revealed that PMNs induced a broad and vigorous set of changes in gene expression in response to malarial parasites, represented by 1...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Impact of Bone Marrow Aspirate Tregs on the Response Rate of Younger Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients.
Authors: Delia M, Carluccio P, Mestice A, Brunetti C, Albano F, Specchia G Abstract Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is widely considered a distinct clinical entity with a well-defined molecular and genetics-based prognosis. Particularly in a younger patient, the therapeutic approach depends largely on diagnostic risk stratification, which has an impact on the outcome after therapy. We added Treg evaluation to the usual molecular and cytogenetics profile in the AML younger patients' diagnostic bone marrow aspirate (dBMA) in order to search for any correlation between Tregs and overall response (OR) as well as survival ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - August 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

CTLA4Ig Improves Murine iTreg Induction via TGF β and Suppressor Function In Vitro.
CTLA4Ig Improves Murine iTreg Induction via TGFβ and Suppressor Function In Vitro. J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:2484825 Authors: Pilat N, Mahr B, Gattringer M, Baranyi U, Wekerle T Abstract Blockade of the CD28:CD80/86 costimulatory pathway has been shown to be potent in blocking T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. The costimulation blocker CTLA4Ig has been approved for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. The therapeutic application of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has recently gained much attention for its potential of improving allograft survival. However, neither costimu...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Macrophage Activation and Functions during Helminth Infection: Recent Advances from the Laboratory Mouse.
Authors: Rolot M, Dewals BG Abstract Macrophages are highly plastic innate immune cells that adopt an important diversity of phenotypes in response to environmental cues. Helminth infections induce strong type 2 cell-mediated immune responses, characterized among other things by production of high levels of interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-13. Alternative activation of macrophages by IL-4 in vitro was described as an opposite phenotype of classically activated macrophages, but the in vivo reality is much more complex. Their exact activation state as well as the role of these cells and associated molecules in type 2 immu...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Role of Phospholipase C Signaling in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Response.
Authors: Zhu L, Jones C, Zhang G Abstract Macrophages are crucial members of the mononuclear phagocyte system essential to protect the host from invading pathogens and are central to the inflammatory response with their ability to acquire specialized phenotypes of inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) and to produce a pool of inflammatory mediators. Equipped with a broad range of receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, and Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), macrophages can efficiently recognize and phagocytize invading pathogens and secrete cytokines by triggering various secondary signaling pat...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Immunosuppressive Drugs on MDSCs in Transplantation.
Authors: Yang F, Li Y, Zhang Q, Tan L, Peng L, Zhao Y Abstract Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of innate immune cells that regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In recent years, MDSCs were shown to play an important negative regulatory role in transplant immunology even upstream of regulatory T cells. In certain cases, MDSCs are closely involved in transplantation immune tolerance induction and maintenance. It is known that some immunosuppressant drugs negatively regulate MDSCs but others have positive effects on MDSCs in different transplant cases. We herein summarized our recen...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Immune Dysfunction and Coinfection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Schistosoma japonicum in Yi People.
Conclusions: People coinfected with HIV and S. japonicum might have a suppressed immune function because of a decrease in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, a lowered ratio of CD4+/CD8+, and an increase in CD8+ T lymphocyte counts. Coinfection with HIV and S. japonicum would alter the level of IFN-γ in plasma. PMID: 30057918 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Role of Regulatory T Cells in Tumor-Bearing Mice Treated with Allo-Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Plus Thymus Transplantation.
Authors: Hosaka N Abstract We recently developed a new allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation method (allo-HSCT) combined with thymus transplantation (TT) from the same donor (allo-HSCT + TT). This method induces elevated T cell function with mild graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in comparison to conventional HSCT alone and HSCT + donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). This new method is effective against several intractable diseases, including malignant tumors, for which conventional treatments are ineffective. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the enhanced graft...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

The Role of Dendritic Cells in the Differentiation of T Follicular Helper Cells.
Authors: Zou X, Sun G, Huo F, Chang L, Yang W Abstract T follicular helper cells (TFH) are a subset of recently discovered CD4+ T cells. Their major function is to participate in the formation of germinal centres (GCs) and promote B cell proliferation and differentiation to play important roles in the production of antibodies. Currently, the functions of TFH cells are clear. However, the early differentiation of these cells is not clear. Dendritic cells (DCs) participate in the differentiation of TFH cells. Therefore, this article reviewed the research progress regarding the influence of DCs on the differentiation ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Diverse Profiles of Toll-Like Receptors 2, 4, 7, and 9 mRNA in Peripheral Blood and Biopsy Specimens of Patients with Celiac Disease.
Conclusions: The alteration of TLR4 and TLR9 expression in the blood and biopsy samples of patients with CD supports the critical role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of this disease. Upregulation of TLR4 and TLR9 suggests the contribution of gut microbiota or dysregulation of the immune response to commensal flora in small bowel mucosa in celiac patients. PMID: 30057921 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Fagonia indica Repairs Hepatic Damage through Expression Regulation of Toll-Like Receptors in a Liver Injury Model.
In conclusion, the current study not only proposes Fagonia indica, a strong hepatoprotective candidate, but also recommends an immune regulatory toll-like receptor pathway as an important therapeutic target in liver diseases. PMID: 30057922 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research