How can we evaluate whether an association is truly inter-generational?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply to ‘Meta-analyses in hypertension: simple mathematics are always welcome’
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Meta-analysis in hypertension: simple mathematics are always welcome
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Differences in blood pressure among three measurement techniques: physiologic, pathologic, or artificial?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Association between hypertension and pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 in Mexican population
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: VIEWS ON COVID-19 INFECTION Source Type: research

Treatment-resistant hypertension in the hemodialysis population: a 44-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-based study
Conclusion: TRH occurs in about one in four treated hypertensive patients on hemodialysis. Fluid overload per se only in part explains TRH and the 67% of these patients show no fluid overload. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Resistant hypertension Source Type: research

Prevalence of primary aldosteronism and association with cardiovascular complications in patients with resistant and refractory hypertension
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of primary aldosteronism and its association with cardiometabolic complications in patients with resistant and refractory hypertension. Methods: One hundred and ten consecutive patients with true resistant hypertension [insufficient blood pressure control despite appropriate lifestyle measures and treatment with at least three classes of antihypertensive medication, including a diuretic] and without previous cardiovascular events were screened for secondary hypertension. Refractory hypertension was diagnosed in case of uncontrolled blood pressure despite the use of at least five an...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Resistant hypertension Source Type: research

Heart failure and renal outcomes according to baseline and achieved blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from EMPA-REG OUTCOME
Background: The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalizations in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in addition to a reduction of SBP. As heart failure patients often present with low SBP, which can challenge treatment initiation, we explored if empagliflozin's effect on SBP was independent of baseline SBP and heart failure status, and if the effect on cardiovascular and heart failure outcomes was influenced by updated mean SBP or by an early change in SBP after drug initiation. Methods and results: A total of 7020 patients were treated with empaglifl...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

What is the optimal blood pressure level for patients with atrial fibrillation treated with direct oral anticoagulants?
Conclusion: SBP values below 161 mmHg are associated higher all-cause mortality, but lower event risk in patients with atrial fibrillation on DOAC therapy. The nadir SBP for lowest event rate was 120 mmHg, for lowest cardiovascular mortality was 130 mmHg and for lowest all-cause mortality was 160 mmHg. This demonstrates a need for a prospective interventional study of BP control after initiation of anticoagulation. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Effects of dapagliflozin and gliclazide on the cardiorenal axis in people with type 2 diabetes
Conclusion: Dapagliflozin seemingly influences systemic and renal hemodynamics independently and beyond glucose lowering in people with type 2 diabetes. This clinical trial was registered at https://clinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02682563). (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Combined treatment with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist provides substantial hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Objectives: The global morbidity and mortality related to hypertension and associated disorders increases continuously and novel therapeutic strategies are still in high demand. Increasing evidence suggests the important role in blood pressure regulation of cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) induce vasodilation and natriuresis, and have renoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. 20-HETE is an arachidonic acid metabolite with both prohypertensive and antihypertensive activities. To explore the pathophysiological role of arachidonic acid metabolites in more de...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Masked morning hypertension correlated with target organ damage in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease
Conclusion: The prevalence of masked morning hypertension in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients was high, and masked morning hypertension was associated with target organ damage in chronic kidney disease patients. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage Source Type: research

Associations between carotid-femoral and heart-femoral pulse wave velocity in older adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study
Discussion: Findings suggest good agreement between hfPWV and cfPWV. hfPWV is a simpler alternative to cfPWV that is less likely to be confounded by individual-level factors. Considering the greater variability for higher PWV values, further work is warranted to determine the importance of local artery mechanics to both measures. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage Source Type: research

Increased aortic augmentation index is associated with reduced exercise capacity after heart transplantation
Conclusion: In the present study, increased aortic augmentation index was associated with reduced exercise capacity after heart transplantation. Therefore, this simple measurement of aortic stiffness should be periodically used for the evaluation of exercise capacity after heart transplantation. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage Source Type: research

Chronic exercise mediates epigenetic suppression of L-type Ca2+ channel and BKCa channel in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats
Conclusion: Our results indicate that exercise suppresses LTCC and BKCa channel function via hypermethylation of α1c and β1 subunits, which contributes to the restoration of mesenteric arterial function and vasodilation during hypertension. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors for progression from prehypertension to hypertension: a 12-year Korean Cohort Study
Conclusion: This study identified various risk factors for progression from prehypertension to hypertension among middle-aged and elderly Korean adults. This information may help researchers develop comprehensive and effective strategies for managing prehypertension. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Risk factors Source Type: research

Association of plasma cyclooxygenase-2 levels and genetic polymorphisms with salt sensitivity, blood pressure changes and hypertension incidence in Chinese adults
Conclusion: This study shows that dietary salt intake affects plasma COX-2 levels and that COX-2 may play a role in salt sensitivity, BP progression and development of hypertension in the Chinese populations studied. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Risk factors Source Type: research

Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without previous history of cardiovascular disease
Objective: Visit-to-visit variability in SBP is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) but little is known on whether in T2DM this differs according to presence or absence of previous CVD. Methods: We retrospectively assessed the coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean) of mean SBP (SBP-CV) in 970 patients (44% with established CVD) attending at least four times our secondary care diabetes clinic in 2015–2016 to estimate their risk of CVD-related events using the 10-year UKPDS Risk Engine. Results: Patients with established CVD had a higher SBP-CV (10.3 ±...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: BP variability Source Type: research

In-hospital day-by-day systolic blood pressure variability during rehabilitation: a marker of adverse outcome in secondary prevention after myocardial revascularization
Objective: Although it is known that increased visit-to-visit or home day-by-day variability of blood pressure (BP), independently of its average value, results in an increased risk of cardiovascular events, the prognostic value of in-hospital day-by-day BP variability in secondary cardiovascular prevention has not yet been established. Methods: We studied 1440 consecutive cardiac patients during a cardiovascular rehabilitation program of about 12 days after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve surgery. We measured auscultatory BP at the patient bed in each rehabilitation day twice, in the morning and the ...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: BP variability Source Type: research

Blood pressure variability at midlife is associated with all-cause, coronary heart disease and stroke long term mortality
Conclusion: In this cohort of tenured male workers, BPV taken over 5 years was clearly associated with 18-year all-cause, CHD and stroke mortality. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: BP variability Source Type: research

Ambulatory blood pressure variability and risk of cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and progression of kidney disease
Conclusion: Greater ambulatory SBP variabilities were associated with increased risks for nonfatal cardiovascular diseases, all-cause mortality, and rapid kidney function decline in patients with CKD. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: BP variability Source Type: research

Clinical impact of sleep-disordered breathing on very short-term blood pressure variability determined by pulse transit time
Conclusion: SDB severity was closely associated with very short-term BP variability, and diastolic PTT-BP SD might be an important factor linked to subclinical organ damage. PTT-BP measurement may be useful to evaluate very short-term BPV during the night. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: BP variability Source Type: research

Immunity, inflammation and the vasculature in the COVID-19 era
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Is there something up your sleeve?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Vascular consequences of inflammation: a position statement from the ESH Working Group on Vascular Structure and Function and the ARTERY Society
Inflammation is a physiological response to aggression of pathogenic agents aimed at eliminating the aggressor agent and promoting healing. Excessive inflammation, however, may contribute to tissue damage and an alteration of arterial structure and function. Increased arterial stiffness is a well recognized cardiovascular risk factor independent of blood pressure levels and an intermediate endpoint for cardiovascular events. In the present review, we discuss immune-mediated mechanisms by which inflammation can influence arterial physiology and lead to vascular dysfunction such as atherosclerosis and arterial stiffening. We...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CONSENSUS DOCUMENT Source Type: research

Beta-blockers in hypertension: overview and meta-analysis of randomized outcome trials
Conclusion: Compared with other antihypertensive agents, beta-blockers appear to be substantially less protective against stroke and overall mortality. However, they exhibit a substantial risk-reducing ability for all events when prescribed to lower BP in patients with modest or more clear BP elevations, and therefore can be used as additional agents in hypertensive patients. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Global burden of hypertension among people living with HIV in the era of increased life expectancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: Cost-effective strategies to curb the dreadful burden of hypertension among PLHIV are needed. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Blood pressure measurements on a bare arm, over a sleeve or below a rolled-up sleeve: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: Measuring BP over a thick sleeve in the office may result in a small overestimation of recorded values but measuring over a thin sleeve does not appear to have a significant impact and, in any case, should be preferred to rolling it up. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and left ventricular hypertrophy: a meta-analysis of echocardiographic studies
Aim: We investigated the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and subclinical cardiac organ damage through a meta-analysis of echocardiographic studies that provided data on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), assessed as a categorical or continuous variable. Design: The PubMed, OVID-MEDLINE, and Cochrane library databases were systematically analyzed to search English-language articles published from 1 January 2000 to 15 August 2019. Studies were detected by using the following terms: ‘obstructive sleep apnea’, ‘sleep quality’, ‘sleep disordered breathing’, ‘car...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the hypertensive population: a systematic review
Conclusion: There are a certain number of cardiovascular risk prediction models in patients with hypertension. The risk of bias assessment showed several shortcomings in the methodological quality and reporting in both the development and validation studies. Most models developed in the hypertensive population have not been externally validated. Compared with models developed for the general population and other specific populations, models developed for the hypertensive population do not display a better performance when validated among patients with hypertension. Research is needed to validate and improve the existing ...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Highlights of the September issue
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - August 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: EDITOR'S CORNER Source Type: research

The relationship between aortic diameter and pulse wave velocity
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Considerations in study design and interpretation when assessing visit-to-visit blood pressure variability
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Hyponatremia accompanying volatile hypertension caused by baroreflex failure after neck surgery: case report and literature review
We report a case of a 48-year-old patient referred to our department for asymptomatic hyponatremia and volatile hypertension. His past medical history included nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with surgery and bilateral neck radiation. Following the diagnostic algorithm for hyponatremia, the diagnosis of SIADH was made. Ambulatory BP monitoring revealed highly variable BP; extensive autonomic nervous system function testing suggested baroreflex-cardiovagal failure. We propose the hypothesis that not only labile hypertension because of baroreflex failure but also hyponatremia can develop as a late consequence of neck trauma...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Food protein-derived antihypertensive peptides in the COVID-19 pandemic: friends of foes?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: VIEWS ON COVID-19 INFECTION Source Type: research

Hyperreninemia and low total body water may contribute to acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients in intensive care
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: VIEWS ON COVID-19 INFECTION Source Type: research

Influence of inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system on risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in Danish hospitalized COVID-19 patients
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: VIEWS ON COVID-19 INFECTION Source Type: research

Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension: characteristics and prevalence in a real-world environment of an integrated health system
Conclusion: The prevalence of aTRH increased using the more stringent BP goals of the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. The use of recommended therapy for aTRH was suboptimal suggesting a potential area for improvement. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of nano-fixed dose combination for hypertension
Conclusion: Once weekly oral dosing of nano-FDC of amlodipine, CNDT and hydrochlorothiazide provided adequate antihypertensive effect and was not statistically different from daily dosing of free drugs in dexamethasone-induced animal model. This study provides proof of concept of feasibility of once weekly dosing of a nano-FDC comprising three antihypertensive drugs, which can lead to significant improvement in patient adherence to therapy. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Antihypertensive polytherapy in Australia: prevalence of inappropriate combinations, 2013–2018
Conclusion: Antihypertensive polytherapy in Australia is common, but the prevalence of inappropriate combinations is low and decreasing over time, suggesting strong awareness of Australian clinical guidelines. However, in 2018, approximately 49 000 Australian adults experienced inappropriate polytherapy; prescribing of fixed-dose combinations in patients on dual or triple therapy may further reduce this inappropriate care, although increased vigilance treating patients with more than 3 antihypertensives is required. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Functional health and white matter hyperintensities as effect modifiers of blood pressure-lowering on cognitive function and vascular events in older Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes trial participants
Objective: To determine whether cerebral small vessel disease or disability modify the effect of SBP treatment on cognitive and vascular outcomes in older patients with recent lacunar stroke. Methods: Participants aged at least 65 years of the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Trial were randomized to a higher (130–149 mmHg) or lower ( (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Outcomes in adults with systolic blood pressure between 130 and 139 mmHg in Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure trial and Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial
Background: Patients with stage 1 systolic hypertension have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Methods: Using Cox models, we assess the effect of targeting an intensive SBP goal of less than 120 mmHg compared with standard SBP goal of less than 140 mmHg on the risk of CVD events in adults with stage 1 systolic hypertension with diabetes mellitus enrolled in Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure trial (ACCORD BP) (n = 1901) and without diabetes mellitus enrolled in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) (n = 3484) that used identical SBP goal inte...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

The U-shaped association between achieved blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in elderly and younger patients
Objective: The main objective is to assess the appropriate level of achieved SBP and DBP to prevent cardiovascular events. Methods: We used the National Sample Cohort from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea and analyzed data of 44 462 hypertensive patients aged 20--84 years. Achieved SBP and DBP were categorized according to average achieved SBP ( (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Treatment Source Type: research

Retinal arterial remodeling in patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma and its reversibility following surgical treatment
Objective: Structural abnormalities in resistance arteries are a hallmark of patients with hypertension. In hypertensive patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL), it is still a matter of debate whether structural vascular changes are because of elevated blood pressure (BP) or to toxic effects of elevated circulating catecholamines. Hence, the aim of our study was to assess whether catecholamine excess and/or elevated BP affect the structure of small retinal arteries in patients with catecholamine-producing tumors. Methods: The study included 27 patients with PPGL and 27 hypertensive patients. All patient...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage - clinical aspects Source Type: research

Blood pressure variability and microvascular dysfunction: the Maastricht Study
Conclusion: Greater systolic and diastolic BPV was associated with higher albuminuria, but not with CSVD features, flicker light-induced retinal arteriolar and venular dilation response, heat-induced skin hyperemia and plasma biomarkers of MVD. This suggests that the microvasculature of the kidneys is most vulnerable to the detrimental effects of greater BPV. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage - clinical aspects Source Type: research

Repeatability and reproducibility of pulse wave velocity in relation to hemodynamics and sodium excretion in stable patients with hypertension
This study examined the repeatability and reproducibility of PWV, and whether hemodynamics and sodium excretion impact on PWV in hypertensive patients remaining on stable medication. Methods: Office blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), carotid--femoral PWV and central BP (SphygmoCor device), impedance cardiography (HOTMAN device) and 24-h urinary sodium excretion (UNa) were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks in 74 hypertensive patients (age 56.8 ± 11.5 years, mean ± SD). Two PWV measurements were performed at each visit. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence i...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage - clinical aspects Source Type: research

The prognostic importance of right ventricular remodeling and the circadian blood pressure pattern on the long-term cardiovascular outcome
Conclusion: The present investigation showed that RV hypertrophy and the reverse dipping BP pattern were independent long-term predictors of the cardiovascular outcome. Detailed echocardiographic evaluation and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be performed even in low-risk hypertensive patients. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage - clinical aspects Source Type: research

Deficiency of cysteinyl cathepsin K suppresses the development of experimental intimal hyperplasia in response to chronic stress
Conclusion: These data indicate that CatK deletion protects against the development of experimental neointimal hyperplasia via the attenuation of inflammatory overaction, oxidative stress production, and VSMC proliferation, suggesting that CatK is a novel therapeutic target for the management of CPS-related restenosis after intravascular intervention therapies. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Organ damage - experimental models Source Type: research