Development of consensus based national antimicrobial stewardship competencies for UK undergraduate healthcare professional education
ConclusionGiven the consistently high levels of agreement reached on competency statements and their associated descriptors, this competency framework should be used to direct education for undergraduate healthcare professionals, and those working in new clinical roles to support healthcare delivery where an understanding of, and engagement with, AMS is important. Although the competencies target basic education, they can also be used for continuing education. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acinetobacter pittii isolated more frequently than Acinetobacter baumannii in blood cultures: the experience of a French hospital
This study assessed the characteristics of hospital-acquired Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii complex bloodstream infections (BSI). From 2010 to 2017, A. calcoaceticus–A. baumannii complex BSI were investigated. Of 73 cases, 54.8% were associated with Acinetobacter pittii, 39.7% with Acinetobacter baumannii and 5.5% with Acinetobacter nosocomialis. Multi-drug-resistant isolates were significantly higher in A. baumannii BSI. Thirty-day mortality was no different between A. baumannii or non-baumannii A. calcoaceticus–A. baumannii complex BSI. In contrast with other studies,...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Persistent contamination of heater–cooler units for extracorporeal circulation cured by chlorhexidine–alcohol in water tanks
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): S. Romano-Bertrand, M. Evrevin, C. Dupont, J.-M. Frapier, J.-C. Sinquet, E. Bousquet, B. Albat, E. Jumas-BilakSummaryRecently, surgical site infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been linked to heater–cooler unit contamination. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and manufacturers now recommend the use of hydrogen peroxide in filtered water to fill heater–cooler unit tanks. After implementation of these measures in our hospital, heater–cooler units became heavily contaminat...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Surface modifications for antimicrobial effects in the healthcare setting: a critical overview
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): C. Adlhart, J. Verran, N.F. Azevedo, H. Olmez, M.M. Keinänen-Toivola, I. Gouveia, L.F. Melo, F. CrijnsSummaryThe spread of infections in healthcare environments is a persistent and growing problem in most countries, aggravated by the development of microbial resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. In addition to indwelling medical devices (e.g. implants, catheters), such infections may also result from adhesion of microbes either to external solid–water interfaces such as shower caps, taps, drains, etc., or to ext...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Specialized cleaning associated with antimicrobial coatings for reduction of hospital-acquired infection: opinion of the COST Action Network AMiCI (CA15114)
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): S.S. Dunne, M. Ahonen, M. Modic, F.R.L. Crijns, M.M. Keinänen-Toivola, R. Meinke, C.W. Keevil, J. Gray, N.H. O'Connell, C.P. DunneSummaryRecognized issues with poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers and reports of recontamination of previously chemically disinfected surfaces through hand contact emphasize the need for novel hygiene methods in addition to those currently available. One such approach involves antimicrobial (nano) coatings (AMCs), whereby integrated active ingredients are responsible for eliminat...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pre–post evaluation of effects of a titanium dioxide coating on environmental contamination of an intensive care unit: the TITANIC study
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): B. de Jong, A.M. Meeder, K.W.A.C. Koekkoek, M.A. Schouten, P. Westers, A.R.H. van ZantenSummaryBackgroundAmong patients admitted to European hospitals or intensive care units (ICUs), 5.7% and 19.5% will encounter healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), respectively, and antimicrobial resistance is emerging. As hospital surfaces are contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria, environmental cleanliness is an essential aspect to reduce HAIs.AimTo address the efficacy of a titanium dioxide coating in reducing the microbial co...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Traffic flow and microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a major teaching hospital in Ghana
ConclusionThe study revealed high values of intraoperative airborne cfu exceeding recommended levels. Minimizing the number of door-openings and people present during surgery could be an effective strategy to reduce microbial air contamination in low- and middle-income settings. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of mobile laminar airflow units on airborne bacterial contamination during neurosurgical procedures
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): A.-C. von Vogelsang, P. Förander, M. Arvidsson, P. LöwenhielmSummaryBackgroundSurgical site infections (SSIs) after neurosurgery are potentially life-threatening and entail great costs. SSIs may occur from airborne bacteria in the operating room, and ultraclean air is desired during infection-prone cleaning procedures. Door openings and the number of persons present in the operating room affect the air quality. Mobile laminar airflow (MLAF) units, with horizontal laminar airflow, have previously been shown to reduce air...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of air exhausts for surgical body suits (space suits) and the potential for periprosthetic joint infection
ConclusionsSpace suit systems currently in use in joint replacement surgery differ significantly from traditional body exhaust systems; rather than removing contaminated air from the operating environment, modern systems exhaust this air into the operating room, in some cases potentially towards the sterile instrument tray and the surgical field. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Detection limit of Mycobacterium chimaera in water samples for monitoring medical device safety: insights from a pilot experimental series
ConclusionDepending on water volume and culture method, major differences exist in the detection limit of M. chimaera. In terms of sensitivity, 1000 mL water samples in MGIT media performed best. Our results have important implications for infection prevention and control strategies in mitigation of the M. chimaera outbreak and healthcare water safety in general. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Microbiological risks of reusing dummies for infants in hospital
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): D. Checklin, J. Gray (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mobile phones and computer keyboards: unlikely reservoirs of multidrug-resistant organisms in the tertiary intensive care unit
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): O.C. Smibert, A.K. Aung, E. Woolnough, G.P. Carter, M.B. Schultz, B.P. Howden, T. Seemann, D. Spelman, S. McGloughlin, A.Y. PelegSummaryFew studies have used molecular epidemiological methods to study transmission links to clinical isolates in intensive care units. Ninety-four multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) cultured from routine specimens from intensive care unit (ICU) patients over 13 weeks were stored (11 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), two vancomycin-resistant enterococci and 81 Gram-negative bacteria...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Assessment of theatre shoe contamination in an orthopaedic theatre
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): K. Clesham, P.R. Ryan, C.G. MurphySummaryProsthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of arthroplasty. Numerous protocols reduce potential risk for PJI peri-operatively, but none exist for the management of theatre shoes. Our aim was to assess for bacteria known to cause prosthetic infection on theatre shoes. Forty theatre shoes were analysed; there were coagulase-negative staphylococci on 65% (N = 25), meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus on 40% (N = 16), and meticillin-resistant S.&...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Use of ATP bioluminescence to survey the spread of aerosol and splatter during dental treatments
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): A. Watanabe, N. Tamaki, K. Yokota, M. Matsuyama, S. KokeguchiSummaryAerosol and splatter produced during dental treatments (ultrasonic scaling and professional mechanical tooth cleaning) are potential sources of infection. Contamination patterns on the mask, goggles, chest and gowned right arm of operators, and on the goggles of patients before and after dental treatments were investigated using ATP bioluminescence analysis. Contamination on every surface tested increased significantly after dental treatment. Maximum contaminatio...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preliminary study of the air quality in operating rooms: do textiles have a role?
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): M. Totaro, A. Porretta, A. Canale, E. Filippetti, A. Tulipani, F. Quattrone, S. Giorgi, A.L. Costa, P. Valentini, B. Casini, G. Privitera, A. Baggiani (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Laminar airflow system use across the operating surface for airborne infection prevention in office-based surgical procedures
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): J. Hooshmand, P. Allen, N. Pakrou, B.J. Vote (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review – a different view
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): M.G. Schmidt, C.D. Salgado, K.D. Freeman, J.F. John, J.R. Cantey, P.A. Sharpe, H.T. Michels (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Results from the third Scottish National Prevalence Survey: is a population health approach now needed to prevent healthcare-associated infections?
ConclusionHCAI continues to be a public health concern in Scotland. Urinary tract infection and pneumonia continue to place a significant burden on patients and on healthcare delivery, including those that develop in the community and require hospital admission. A broader population health approach which focuses on reducing the risk of infection upstream would reduce these infections in both community and hospital settings. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multi-hospital point prevalence study of healthcare-associated infections in 28 adult intensive care units in Brazil
ConclusionThis study found that the overall prevalence of ICU-acquired infections in surveyed Brazilian hospitals was higher than that reported in most European countries and the USA. A greater proportion of infections were caused by non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria. These observations, along with a high rate of antimicrobial use, illustrate the urgent need for HAIs to be a priority in the public health agenda of Brazil. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The first multi-centre point-prevalence survey in four Japanese university hospitals
ConclusionThis multi-centre PPS recorded detailed HCAI data and distinct antimicrobial use in Japanese university hospitals. Further surveillance is necessary to reduce HCAIs and formulate feasible plans to achieve the national action plan on antimicrobial resistance. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Investigation of nosocomial pneumocystis infections: usefulness of longitudinal screening of epidemic and post-epidemic pneumocystis genotypes
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): G. Nevez, S. Le Gal, N. Noel, A. Wynckel, A. Huguenin, Y. Le Govic, L. Pougnet, M. Virmaux, D. Toubas, O. BajoletSummaryBackgroundTwenty-five patients, of whom 22 were renal transplant recipients, developed Pneumocystis jirovecii infections at the nephrology department of Reims University Hospital (France) from September 2008 to October 2009, whereas only four sporadic cases had been diagnosed in this department over the 14 previous years.AimThis outbreak was investigated by analysing patient encounters and P. jirovecii type...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates colonizing and infecting haematology patients: clonality, and virulence and resistance profile
ConclusionE. faecium was predominant, and infection isolates were more virulent than colonization isolates and harboured more often the gene gelE. Infections caused by VRE carrying the asa1 gene appeared to be associated with a fatal outcome. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Does saline enema during the first stage of labour reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile colonization in neonates? A randomized controlled trial
This study was conducted at Cairo University Hospital, Egypt from January 2016 to July 2016. Asymptomatic mothers with uncomplicated vaginal delivery and their neonates without diarrhoea were included. The study group underwent saline enema, and the control group had no intervention. Stool samples were collected from neonates one week after delivery. The primary outcome was the detection of C. difficile in stool culture and direct detection of C. difficile Toxin A and Toxin B by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.FindingsThe two groups were comparable (P>0.05) in terms of age, gravidity, parity, body mass index...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Septic shock due to meropenem- and colistin-resistant Cupriavidus pauculus
Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 3Author(s): G. Bianco, M. Boattini, E. Audisio, R. Cavallo, C. Costa (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cleaning of inpatient nebuliser devices in cystic fibrosis patients-the urgent need for universal guidelines
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Journal of Hospital InfectionAuthor(s): Jane Bell, John E. Moore, B. Cherie Millar (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium difficile in a national geriatric hospital in Costa Rica
ConclusionBased on the abundance of strain types observed and their resistance to antibiotics in this geriatric hospital, these results contribute to a better overall understanding of the epidemiology of CDI worldwide, and to surveillance programmes targeting geriatric populations. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Routine screening for colonization by Gram-negative bacteria in neonates at intensive care units for the prediction of sepsis: systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionLimited evidence of very low quality exists regarding the prognostic value of neonatal screening for late-onset sepsis. Carefully planned and conducted prospective studies, including randomized trials, are needed to clarify the potential value of this measure for the prediction and prevention of late-onset sepsis. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An evaluation of a toolkit for the early detection, management, and control of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: a survey of acute hospital trusts in England
ConclusionCPE prevention and control requires robust IPC measures. Successful implementation can be hindered by a complex set of factors related to their practical execution, insufficient resources and a lack of confidence in the effectiveness of the guidance. Future CPE guidance would benefit from substantive user involvement, processes for ongoing feedback, and regular guidance updates. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Is cohorting the only solution to control carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreaks? A single-centre experience
ConclusionUnderstanding ward variables associated with CPE spread can help design suitable solutions. Colonization pressure and antibiotic consumption seems to be driving in-hospital transmission, along with caregiver:patient ratio. In presence of high colonization pressure, dedicated healthcare workers for managing CPE patients should be implemented. Co-ordination between ICT and antimicrobial stewardship team is also crucial to prevent CPE spread. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of active surveillance and infection control measures on carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial colonization and infections in intensive care
ConclusionEnhanced infection control measures including enhanced hand hygiene, active surveillance combined with contact precautions, education, audits and feedback policies and interventions could reduce CRKP and CRPA in endemic areas. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical factors predicting persistent carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients with known carriage
ConclusionThe results suggest that patients with KPC-producing CRE in clinical specimens who are using carbapenem, particularly those with multiple and prolonged hospitalizations, are more likely to remain carriers after six months of initial acquisition. This information is useful for coordinating strategies for pre-emptive isolation by predicting the CRE carriage status appropriately, and ensuring active surveillance through risk factor stratification. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Nosocomial transmission of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in an Italian university hospital: a molecular epidemiological study
ConclusionsA high incidence of KPC-Kp in patients with invasive infections was recorded at an Italian university hospital compared with the incidence measured before 2015. This study confirmed the importance of the KPC-3 carbapenemase variant, as reported by other Italian studies. High mortality and comorbidity rates appear to be associated with KPC-Kp infection. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Resistance patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in urines are similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): A. Romero Palacios, F. Al Dhufairi, C. Ellis, D. Smyth, L.M.D. Mieusement, A. McGeer, D. MertzSummaryAntibiograms of urine cultures are being used to guide empiric treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, roughly 50% of urine cultures are from patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). It is unclear whether Enterobacteriaceae in ABU patients have similar resistance patterns as UTI patients. Hence, we aimed to compare the antimicrobial resistance patterns in patients with ABU to patients with symptomatic UTI. W...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Duodenoscopy: an amplifier of cross-transmission during a carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreak in a gastroenterology pathway
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): C. Bourigault, F. Le Gallou, N. Bodet, N. Musquer, M.-E. Juvin, S. Corvec, N. Ferronnière, S. Wiesel, J. Gournay, G. Birgand, M. Le Rhun, D. LepelletierSummaryCarbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (OXA-48 CPE) were identified in five patients who underwent an endoscopy with the same duodenoscope in October 2015. The endoscope was the only epidemiological link between these cases. A transient contamination of the duodenoscope following a failure in the disinfection process may have been the cause of transmission. ...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A multi-disciplinary educational programme for the management of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak: an Italian experience
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): M. Fattorini, D. Rosadini, G. Messina, C. Basagni, A. Tinturini, M.F. De Marco (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Close long-term contacts between individuals with discordant colonization status of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae do not result in bacterial transmission
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): S. Borgmann, B. Rieß, Y. Pfeifer (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 of the same pulsotype of multi-drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): I.R. Gonçalves, P.A. Campos, M.L. Ferreira, S. Royer, L.G. Machado, B.F. Araújo, V.V.P. Almeida, D.W.F. Batistão, P.P. Gontijo-Filho, R.M. Ribas (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Response to ‘The start of another infection prevention learning curve: reducing healthcare-associated Gram-negative bloodstream infections’
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): A. Joseph, V. Weston, T. Boswell (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Reply to Joseph et al.
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): M.H. Wilcox (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Community-acquired Clostridium difficile: epidemiology, ribotype, risk factors, hospital and intensive care unit outcomes, and current and emerging therapies
ConclusionCommunity-acquired CDI represents a growing public health threat and burden on healthcare systems. A multi-disciplinary approach will be required to stem the tides. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infections with a specific probiotic combining Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, and L. rhamnosus strains: assessing the evidence
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): L.V. McFarland, N. Ship, J. Auclair, M. MilletteSummaryClostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become the leading healthcare-associated infection and cause of outbreaks around the world. Although various innovative treatments have been developed, preventive strategies using multi-faceted infection control programmes have not been successful in reducing CDI rates. The major risk factor for CDI is the disruption of the normally protective gastrointestinal microbiota, typically by antibiotic use. Supplementation with specific pr...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile classification overestimates hospital-acquired infections
ConclusionCurrent guidelines for classifying C. difficile infections overestimate the proportion of cases acquired in hospital in all model scenarios. To reduce misclassification bias, an infection should be classified as being acquired prior to admission if symptoms begin within five days of admission. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Examining the epidemiology and microbiology of Clostridium difficile carriage in elderly patients and residents of a healthcare facility in southern Ontario, Canada
ConclusionC. difficile colonization by ACF and LTCF residents was common, despite a low apparent incidence of CDI. The association with PPI provides further evidence of the potential importance of this widely used drug class in C. difficile colonization. Wide genetic diversity was present, highlighting the likelihood of multiple unidentified routes of C. difficile acquisition. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in children and adolescents
ConclusionFrom the perspective of the medical system, oral probiotics as a preventive strategy for CDAD in hospitalized children and adolescents receiving a therapeutic course of antibiotics reduced the risk of CDAD and represents a cost-saving strategy. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clearance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae vs vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage after faecal microbiota transplant: a prospective comparative study
ConclusionCRE and VRE clearance rates were not significantly different in this study, possibly due to the small sample size, but a trend was observed. These data should be confirmed by larger cohorts and randomized trials. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and toxigenic Clostridium difficile among patients transferred from long-term care facilities in Korea
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, Volume 99, Issue 4Author(s): J-H. Hwang, J.S. Park, E. Lee, J.Y. Bae, K-H. Song, P.G. Choe, W.B. Park, J.H. Bang, E.S. Kim, S.W. Park, N.J. Kim, M. Oh, H.B. KimSummaryA 10-month active surveillance study was conducted to assess carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization among patients transferred to hospital from long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Four (1.4%) patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (none of which were CPE), 59 (21%) pati...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sepsis programme successes are responsible for the increase in bacteraemia detection
Conclusion Success in one area (sepsis management) conflicts with “failure” in reducing E. coli bacteraemia. We argue that targets need to be carefully considered in the light of all available information, which currently have set the NHS up to fail. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - April 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pre-operative Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Risk Factor For Prosthetic Joint Infection?
Conclusion The association between ASB and PJI is statistically significant, but the urine isolates did not relate to the isolates in the prosthetic joint, suggestive the relationship is unlikely causal. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - April 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research