Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy decreases the risk of initial intestinal surgery after diagnosis of Crohn ’s disease of inflammatory type
AbstractBackgroundAnti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy induces and maintains clinical remission in patients with Crohn ’s disease (CD). However, the effect of anti-TNF therapy on the natural course of CD remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the effect of anti-TNF therapy on the initial intestinal surgery for CD.MethodsIn this single-center retrospective cohort study, clinical course of 199 CD patients of inflammatory type at the initial diagnosis (the period between 1973 and 2014) was precisely reviewed until the end of 2016. Patients were divided into TNF and non-TNF groups based on anti-TNF agent use....
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 22, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Progress in characterizing the linkage between Fusobacterium nucleatum and gastrointestinal cancer
AbstractMicrobiome research is a rapidly advancing field in human cancers.Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral bacterium, indigenous to the human oral cavity, that plays a role in periodontal disease. Recent studies have found thatF. nucleatum can promote gastrointestinal tumor progression and affect the prognosis of the disease. In addition,F. nucleatum may contribute to the chemo-resistance of gastrointestinal cancers. This review summarizes recent progress in the pathogenesis ofF. nucleatum and its impact on gastrointestinal cancer. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 22, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy decreases the risk of initial intestinal surgery after diagnosis of Crohn ’s disease of inflammatory type
AbstractBackgroundAnti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy induces and maintains clinical remission in patients with Crohn ’s disease (CD). However, the effect of anti-TNF therapy on the natural course of CD remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the effect of anti-TNF therapy on the initial intestinal surgery for CD.MethodsIn this single-center retrospective cohort study, clinical course of 199 CD patients of inflammatory type at the initial diagnosis (the period between 1973 and 2014) was precisely reviewed until the end of 2016. Patients were divided into TNF and non-TNF groups based on anti-TNF agent use....
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 22, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Tumor-specific genetic aberrations in cell-free DNA of gastroesophageal cancer patients
AbstractThe applicability of liquid biopsies is studied intensively in all types of cancer and analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently been implemented clinically for mutation detection in lung cancer. ctDNA may provide information about tumor quantity and mutations present in the tumor, and as such have many potential applications in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It has been suggested that ctDNA analysis may overcome the issue of intra-tumor heterogeneity faced by tissue biopsies and serve as an additional diagnostic tool. Furthermore, liquid biopsies are potentially helpful for monitoring of treatment...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in cystic fibrosis: a randomized case-controlled clinical trial with rifaximin
AbstractBackgroundScientific literature shows a high prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The role of SIBO in nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms in CF is not known. Our aim was to study epidemiology and clinical impact of SIBO while assessing the efficacy of rifaximin in eradicating SIBO in CF patients.MethodsSymptoms questionnaire and Glucose Breath Test (GBT) were given to 79 CF patients (median age 19.6  years; 9.2–36.9). Subjects with a positive GBT were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and received rifaximin 1200 mg for...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 19, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Correction to: A case –control study of the risk of upper gastrointestinal mucosal injuries in patients prescribed concurrent NSAIDs and antithrombotic drugs based on data from the Japanese national claims database of 13 million accumulated patients
The authors would like to correct the errors in the publication of the original article. The correction details are given below for your reading. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 19, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in cystic fibrosis: a randomized case-controlled clinical trial with rifaximin
AbstractBackgroundScientific literature shows a high prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The role of SIBO in nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms in CF is not known. Our aim was to study epidemiology and clinical impact of SIBO while assessing the efficacy of rifaximin in eradicating SIBO in CF patients.MethodsSymptoms questionnaire and Glucose Breath Test (GBT) were given to 79 CF patients (median age 19.6  years; 9.2–36.9). Subjects with a positive GBT were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and received rifaximin 1200 mg for...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 19, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Correction to: A case –control study of the risk of upper gastrointestinal mucosal injuries in patients prescribed concurrent NSAIDs and antithrombotic drugs based on data from the Japanese national claims database of 13 million accumulated patients
The authors would like to correct the errors in the publication of the original article. The correction details are given below for your reading. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 19, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Capsule endoscopy findings for the diagnosis of Crohn ’s disease: a nationwide case–control study
AbstractBackgroundCapsule endoscopy can be used to identify the early stage of small bowel Crohn ’s disease (CD). We evaluated significant small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) findings that can lead to early diagnosis of CD.MethodsWe retrospectively accumulated clinical and SBCE data of 108 patients (63 with and 45 without CD). Types of small bowel mucosal injuries, including erosion, ulceration, and cobblestone appearance, and the alignment of diminutive lesions were compared between patients with and without CD. Inter- and intra-observer agreement in the determination of lesions was assessed in 25 pairs of SBCE fro...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 15, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir –velpatasvir with or without ribavirin in HCV-infected Japanese patients with decompensated cirrhosis: an open-label phase 3 trial
ConclusionSofosbuvir –velpatasvir for 12 weeks provides a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy for Japanese patients with HCV and decompensated cirrhosis. Ribavirin did not improve efficacy but increased toxicity. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 10, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Correction to: Differences in gut microbiota associated with age, sex, and stool consistency in healthy Japanese subjects
The authors would like to correct the errors in the publication of the original article. The correction details are given below for your reading. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 6, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

A single-arm, phase II trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and S1 in patients with resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma: PREP-01 study
ConclusionsNAC-GS was feasible and actively prolonged survival following PDAC planned resection. Randomized control trials are needed to further clarify the survival benefit of NAC-GS in addition to surgery followed by adjuvant therapy. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 4, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Microbial biomarkers for immune checkpoint blockade therapy against cancer
AbstractThree major standard treatments, i.e., surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, were traditionally applied to the treatment of cancer and saved many patients. Meanwhile, clinical studies as well as basic research of immunotherapy are being actively conducted for intractable or advanced malignancies that cannot be cured by the conventional standard treatments. Remarkable therapeutic efficacies have been recently reported in clinical trials on some cancer types, and immunotherapy is now being recognized as the “fourth” standard therapy against cancer. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (IC...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - September 1, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Bowel wall healing assessed using magnetic resonance imaging predicts sustained clinical remission and decreased risk of surgery in Crohn ’s disease
ConclusionsMRI endpoints are predictive of favorable outcomes after medical therapy and could be used as therapeutic target in daily practice and clinical trials. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - August 30, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Adhesion molecules and pancreatitis
AbstractAcute and chronic pancreatitises are gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, the incidence of which is increasing worldwide. Most (~  80%) acute pancreatitis (AP) patients have mild disease, and about 20% have severe disease, which causes multiple organ failure and has a high mortality rate. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of normal pancreatic parenchyma, which leads to loss of exocrine and endocrine tissues. Patients with CP also have a higher incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Although a number of factors are associated with the development and p...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - August 23, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Long-term outcome of entecavir treatment of nucleos(t)ide analogue-na ïve chronic hepatitis B patients in Japan
AbstractBackgroundWe determined the antiviral potency and viral breakthrough rate after 10  years of continuous entecavir treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection.MethodsThe cumulative rates of undetectable hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA,
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - August 22, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire to identify environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: the Groningen IBD Environmental Questionnaire (GIEQ)
ConclusionsThe GIEQ is a reliable measurement tool to study the exposome in IBD, enabling consistent measurement of an extended number of environmental factors and their interactions. Use of the GIEQ across IBD cohorts will lead to more standardized, generalizable, and comparable results. Also, the GIEQ can be used for calculation of an exposome risk score, applicable for secondary prevention by identifying high-risk patients as well as to analyze interactions between the exposome and other aspects of IBD etiology. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

A randomized controlled trial of lusutrombopag in Japanese patients with chronic liver disease undergoing radiofrequency ablation
AbstractBackgroundThrombocytopenia represents an obstacle for invasive procedures in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. We aimed to estimate the appropriate dose and evaluate the efficacy and safety of lusutrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia before percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for primary hepatic cancer in patients with CLD.MethodsIn this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in Japan, 61 CLD patients with platelet count  
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - August 13, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Epithelial-stromal crosstalk and fibrosis in eosinophilic esophagitis
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergen-induced inflammatory disorder. EoE is increasingly recognized as a cause of swallowing dysfunction, food impaction and esophageal stricture. Inflammation of the esophageal mucosa involves immune cell infiltrate, reactive epithelial changes and fibroblast activation, culminating in robust tissue remodeling toward esophageal fibrosis characterized by excess collagen deposition in the subepithelial lamina propria. Fibrosis contributes to a unique mechanical property of the EoE-affected esophagus that is substantially stiffer than the normal esophagus. There is a great ...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - August 12, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Reply to: Sarcopenia definition in patients with NAFLD
(Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Sarcopenia definition in patients with NAFLD
(Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 24, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of elbasvir and grazoprevir in Japanese hemodialysis patients with genotype 1b hepatitis C virus infection
ConclusionsGrazoprevir and elbasvir combination is highly effective and safe for hemodialysis patients with genotype 1b HCV infection. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 17, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Hepatocellular carcinoma as a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
ConclusionsHCC-associated mortality risk was the highest among all cancers in Japanese T2D patients. Regular follow-up may be important for T2D patients with platelet counts  
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 13, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Microbial biomarkers for immune checkpoint blockade therapy against cancer
AbstractThree major standard treatments, i.e., surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, were traditionally applied to the treatment of cancer and saved many patients. Meanwhile, clinical studies as well as basic research of immunotherapy are being actively conducted for intractable or advanced malignancies that cannot be cured by the conventional standard treatments. Remarkable therapeutic efficacies have been recently reported in clinical trials on some cancer types, and immunotherapy is now being recognized as the “fourth” standard therapy against cancer. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (IC...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 12, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The state of the art on treatment of Crohn ’s disease
AbstractCrohn ’s disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Although its incidence appears to be stable or decreasing in most countries in the North America and Europe, the incidence is rising rapidly in Asian countries. Immunomodulators and biologics are incr easingly used to avoid long-term bowel damage and subsequent disability. Therapeutic drug monitoring facilitates optimizing thiopurines and anti-TNFs use. New biologic agents targeting various pathological pathways of CD are blooming in recent years, and the high cost of biologics and expiration of patents for...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 6, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The “real-world” efficacy and safety of DAAs for the treatment of HCV patients throughout Japan
(Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 6, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

A genetic variant located in the miR-532-5p-binding site of TGFBR1 is associated with the colorectal cancer risk
ConclusionsBased on these findings, the rs1590 variant in the 3 ′-UTR ofTGFBR1 may contribute to the susceptibility to colorectal cancer, predominantly by altering miR-532-5p binding. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - July 3, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma: introduction of Japan Esophageal Society classification of Barrett ’s esophagus
AbstractEndoscopic surveillance of Barrett ’s esophagus has become a foundation of the management of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Surveillance for Barrett’s esophagus commonly involves periodic upper endoscopy with biopsies of suspicious areas and random four-quadrant biopsies. However, targeted biopsies using narrow-band imaging can detect more dysplastic areas and thus reduce the number of biopsies required. Several specific mucosal and vascular patterns characteristic of Barrett’s esophagus have been described, but the proposed criteria are complex and diverse. Simpler classifications have recently...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 30, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Identification of marker genes and pathways specific to precancerous duodenal adenomas and early stage adenocarcinomas
The objective of this study was to identify genetic markers and pathways specific to precancerous duodenal adenomas and early stage adenocarcinomas through gene expression analysis.MethodsGene expression profiling was performed in 4 pairs of duodenal adenoma/adenocarcinomas and corresponding matched normal tissue. Genes with consistent expression differences were identified and confirmed in 7 independent pairs. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to characterize gene expression profiles of duodenal adenoma/adenocarcinomas, together with immunohistochemical staining of candidate oncogenic genes.Results626 prob...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Clinical guidelines for primary sclerosing cholangitis 2017
ConclusionsWe hope that these guidelines will contribute to the improvement and development of the medical care of PSC. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 27, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Efficacy of vonoprazan in prevention of bleeding from endoscopic submucosal dissection-induced gastric ulcers: a prospective randomized phase II study
ConclusionsVonoprazan efficaciously reduced the delayed bleeding rate in patients with an ESD-induced gastric ulcer. A large-scale, randomized, phase III study is warranted to definitively test the effectiveness of vonoprazan compared with proton pump inhibitors. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 25, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Differences in gut microbiota associated with age, sex, and stool consistency in healthy Japanese subjects
ConclusionsSeveral changes in gut microbiota were associated with age and sex. Stool consistency and gut microbiota associations emphasized the importance of stool consistency assessments to understand intestinal function. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 20, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

NUDT15 codon 139 is the best pharmacogenetic marker for predicting thiopurine-induced severe adverse events in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a multicenter study
ConclusionsGenotyping of NUDT15 codon 139 was sufficient to predict acute severe leukopenia and alopecia in Japanese patients with IBD. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 19, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Increase in the skeletal muscle mass to body fat mass ratio predicts the decline in transaminase in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
ConclusionsIn the patients with NAFLD, SMI was decreased, even in the early stages of NAFLD. Therapeutic strategies for NAFLD require a reduction in body fat mass and the maintenance of skeletal muscle is also needed. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

A case –control study of the risk of upper gastrointestinal mucosal injuries in patients prescribed concurrent NSAIDs and antithrombotic drugs based on data from the Japanese national claims database of 13 million accumulated patients
AbstractBackgroundWe aimed to identify the adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antithrombotics on the upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa in a clinical setting as a case –control study using a large-scale medical database in Japan.MethodsWe evaluated the risk of upper GI mucosal injuries in patients receiving NSAIDs and antithrombotics using the Japan Medical Data Center claims database with data for 13 million accumulated patients, from January 2009 to December 2014. Endoscopically evaluated upper GI mucosal injuries were peptic ulcers (n  =  143,271), upper GI bleeding ...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 12, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Surface microstructures are associated with mutational intratumoral heterogeneity in colorectal tumors
ConclusionsOur results suggest intratumoral pit pattern variation does not simply reflect the process of colorectal tumor evolution, but instead represents genetically diverse subclones, and this diversity may be associated with malignant potential. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 11, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Crohn ’s disease-specific mortality: a 30-year cohort study at a tertiary referral center in Japan
ConclusionThe SMRs for both all causes and CD-specific causes were high in CD patients. CD-specific causes including intestinal cancer, IF, perioperative complications, and amyloidosis showed especially high SMRs. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 9, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Systematic review with meta-analysis: real-world effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
ConclusionsVedolizumab demonstrated real-world effectiveness in patients with moderate-to-severely active UC or CD, with approximately one-half and one-third of patients, respectively, in remission at treatment month 12. These findings are consistent with clinical trial data and support the long-term benefit –risk profile of vedolizumab. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - June 4, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Correction to: The novel cutoff points for the FIB4 index categorized by age increase the diagnostic accuracy in NAFLD: a multi-center study
The coauthor Masashi Yoneda ’s affiliation has been incorrectly published in the original publication of the article. The correct affiliation is provided in this correction. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - May 25, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Anti-ganglionic AChR antibodies in Japanese patients with motility disorders
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate a significant prevalence of anti-gAChR antibodies in patients with achalasia and CIPO. Anti-gAChR Abs might mediate autonomic dysfunction, contributing to autoimmune mechanisms underlying these GI motility disorders. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - May 15, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Prevalence and predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsMore than one-third of IBS patients tested positive for SIBO, and the odds of SIBO in IBS were increased by nearly fivefold. The prevalence of SIBO varied according to the diagnostic modality performed. Female gender, older age, and IBS-diarrhea, but not PPI use, were associated with SIBO among individuals with IBS. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - May 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Liver transplantation: Japanese contributions
(Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - May 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Prediabetes and subsequent pancreatic fat accumulation
(Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - May 12, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Response to the letter by Dr. Tomoyuki Kawada regarding our manuscript: Independent association between prediabetes and future pancreatic fat accumulation: a 5-year Japanese cohort study
(Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - May 12, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research