Non-destructive DNA recovery from handwritten documents using a dry vacuum technique
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14696. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInvestigations of many crimes such as robberies, kidnappings, and terrorism are often associated with the recovery of a paper document which has been written by the perpetrator. Paper can provide a variety of forensic evidence such as DNA, latent fingermarks, and indented writing. The focus of this study was DNA recovery from handwritten notes through a vacuum suction device while preserving the other evidence types and the integrity of the document. Copy paper was used to create handwritten documents and sheets with deliberate fingerpr...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 3, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Patrick McLaughlin Christian Hopkins Eliot Springer Mechthild Prinz Source Type: research

The case for "investigate all": Assessing the cost-effectiveness of investigating no CODIS hit cases in a sexual assault kit initiative
This study enhances our understanding of the economic value of what comes after testing kits and investigating cases and provides a framework for jurisdictions for prioritizing resources and maximizing outcomes from testing.PMID:33650102 | DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.14686 (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 2, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Rachel E Lovell Mendel Singer Daniel J Flannery Margaret J McGuire Source Type: research

Evaluation of plasma cleaning as an approach for the preparation of soil minerals for forensic comparison by photon and electron microscopy
This study exposed grains of known mineral types to 20 min of a low-pressure O2 plasma generated by a 10 MHz frequency generator. Powder x-ray diffraction was chosen as an independent method to evaluate the minerals for chemical or structural changes caused by this ashing process. Side-by-side comparison of before and after diffractograms revealed minimal, if any, variation in the detected 2θ and subsequently calculated d-spacing: differences in d values were found to generally be less than 1%, and most were within Hanawalt Search Index uncertainties by no less than a full order of magnitude. Peak intensity changes w...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Anna S Duggar Thomas A Kubic Source Type: research

A comparison of the international protocols for the forensic assessment of conflict-related sexual violence victims
This study presents a comparative study of one such protocol, the International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict: Best Practice in the Documentation of Sexual Violence as a Crime or Violation of International Law. The protocol was used in a pilot study involving 20 victims of conflict-related sexual assault in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The results of the pilot study were compared with an existing database of 341 victims of sexual assault (also from the same region of the DRC) who were examined using another protocol developed and utilized by Medicins Sans Fron...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Debra Komar Sami El Jundi Roberto C Parra Pierre Perich Source Type: research

Self-reported levels of occupational stress and wellness in forensic practitioners: Implications for the education and training of the forensic workforce
This study surveyed 211 forensic practitioners from the American Academy of Forensic Sciences membership, the Clark County Office of the Coroner/Medical Examiner, and the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner to assess current wellness perceptions within forensics. The 22-question survey focused on (a) how the demands of daily casework affect self-perceived burnout levels, (b) whether mental health issues are adequately addressed during the education and training of the forensic workforce, and (c) whether forensic professionals are getting the wellness support that they themselves feel that they need. Basic descri...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Justin Z Goldstein Helen S Alesbury Source Type: research

Evaluation of plasma cleaning as an approach for the preparation of soil minerals for forensic comparison by photon and electron microscopy
This study exposed grains of known mineral types to 20 min of a low-pressure O2 plasma generated by a 10 MHz frequency generator. Powder x-ray diffraction was chosen as an independent method to evaluate the minerals for chemical or structural changes caused by this ashing process. Side-by-side comparison of before and after diffractograms revealed minimal, if any, variation in the detected 2θ and subsequently calculated d-spacing: differences in d values were found to generally be less than 1%, and most were within Hanawalt Search Index uncertainties by no less than a full order of magnitude. Peak intensity changes w...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Anna S Duggar Thomas A Kubic Source Type: research

A comparison of the international protocols for the forensic assessment of conflict-related sexual violence victims
This study presents a comparative study of one such protocol, the International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict: Best Practice in the Documentation of Sexual Violence as a Crime or Violation of International Law. The protocol was used in a pilot study involving 20 victims of conflict-related sexual assault in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The results of the pilot study were compared with an existing database of 341 victims of sexual assault (also from the same region of the DRC) who were examined using another protocol developed and utilized by Medicins Sans Fron...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Debra Komar Sami El Jundi Roberto C Parra Pierre Perich Source Type: research

Self-reported levels of occupational stress and wellness in forensic practitioners: Implications for the education and training of the forensic workforce
This study surveyed 211 forensic practitioners from the American Academy of Forensic Sciences membership, the Clark County Office of the Coroner/Medical Examiner, and the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner to assess current wellness perceptions within forensics. The 22-question survey focused on (a) how the demands of daily casework affect self-perceived burnout levels, (b) whether mental health issues are adequately addressed during the education and training of the forensic workforce, and (c) whether forensic professionals are getting the wellness support that they themselves feel that they need. Basic descri...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - March 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Justin Z Goldstein Helen S Alesbury Source Type: research

The influence of Close Non-Match fingerprints similar in delta regions of whorls on fingerprint identification
In this study, a database of ten-prints of 6.964 million individuals was used; 20 sets of 60 simulated fingermarks of different qualities were used and compared with fingerprints from the database. A total of 245 queries were conducted based on both the quality of each fingermark and the number of minutiae. Four types of results were obtained from these queries on the large database, and were categorized as follows: (A) Neither Same Source nor Close Non-Match appears in the candidate list, (B) Only Same Source appears, (C) Only Close Non-Matches appear, and (D) Both Same Source and Close Non-Matches appear. When the qualit...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 26, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kang Li Diling Wu Le Ai Yaping Luo Source Type: research

The influence of Close Non-Match fingerprints similar in delta regions of whorls on fingerprint identification
In this study, a database of ten-prints of 6.964 million individuals was used; 20 sets of 60 simulated fingermarks of different qualities were used and compared with fingerprints from the database. A total of 245 queries were conducted based on both the quality of each fingermark and the number of minutiae. Four types of results were obtained from these queries on the large database, and were categorized as follows: (A) Neither Same Source nor Close Non-Match appears in the candidate list, (B) Only Same Source appears, (C) Only Close Non-Matches appear, and (D) Both Same Source and Close Non-Matches appear. When the qualit...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 26, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kang Li Diling Wu Le Ai Yaping Luo Source Type: research

The influence of Close Non-Match fingerprints similar in delta regions of whorls on fingerprint identification
In this study, a database of ten-prints of 6.964 million individuals was used; 20 sets of 60 simulated fingermarks of different qualities were used and compared with fingerprints from the database. A total of 245 queries were conducted based on both the quality of each fingermark and the number of minutiae. Four types of results were obtained from these queries on the large database, and were categorized as follows: (A) Neither Same Source nor Close Non-Match appears in the candidate list, (B) Only Same Source appears, (C) Only Close Non-Matches appear, and (D) Both Same Source and Close Non-Matches appear. When the qualit...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 26, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kang Li Diling Wu Le Ai Yaping Luo Source Type: research

Evaluation of a fluorescent dye to visualize touch DNA on various substrates
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14695. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA wide variety of items are submitted as evidence in a forensic investigation. Identifying the location of DNA on such items is central to maximizing DNA profiling success and thus the ability to link a person of interest to a particular item or crime. Recent publications describe a fluorescent staining method using Diamond™ Dye (DD) to visualize cellular material on the surface of non-porous items (e.g., glass, plastic). However, substrates of varying porosity and background color have not yet been examined. Varying porous subst...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 25, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Jessica Champion Piyamas Kanokwongnuwut Roland A H van Oorschot Duncan Taylor Adrian Linacre Source Type: research

Evaluation of a fluorescent dye to visualize touch DNA on various substrates
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14695. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA wide variety of items are submitted as evidence in a forensic investigation. Identifying the location of DNA on such items is central to maximizing DNA profiling success and thus the ability to link a person of interest to a particular item or crime. Recent publications describe a fluorescent staining method using Diamond™ Dye (DD) to visualize cellular material on the surface of non-porous items (e.g., glass, plastic). However, substrates of varying porosity and background color have not yet been examined. Varying porous subst...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 25, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Jessica Champion Piyamas Kanokwongnuwut Roland A H van Oorschot Duncan Taylor Adrian Linacre Source Type: research

Comparison of DNA typing success in compromised blood and touch samples based on sampling swab composition
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14694. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSample collection at the crime scene can introduce variations in DNA recovery based upon the substrate from which a sample is collected, the material of the collection device used, or the storage conditions after collection. There are many factors during this process that can degrade the sample during drying and storage, and before DNA extraction can be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of standard cotton swab collection with the Bode BioSafe® swab, which includes both a desiccant at t...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 24, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Chastyn Smith Jordan O Cox Ciara Rhodes Carolyn Lewis Memunatu Koroma Brittany C Hudson Tracey Dawson Cruz Sarah J Seashols-Williams Source Type: research

Comparison of DNA typing success in compromised blood and touch samples based on sampling swab composition
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14694. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSample collection at the crime scene can introduce variations in DNA recovery based upon the substrate from which a sample is collected, the material of the collection device used, or the storage conditions after collection. There are many factors during this process that can degrade the sample during drying and storage, and before DNA extraction can be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of standard cotton swab collection with the Bode BioSafe® swab, which includes both a desiccant at t...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 24, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Chastyn Smith Jordan O Cox Ciara Rhodes Carolyn Lewis Memunatu Koroma Brittany C Hudson Tracey Dawson Cruz Sarah J Seashols-Williams Source Type: research

Factors influencing adjudicative competence and length of time to restoration
This study supports prior literature on restorability while distinguishing those treated for psychosis from those treated for substance use and personality disorder. In its novel focus on medication adherence, the study expands the remediable factors available to clinical and forensic professionals and supports interventions that improve treatment and shorten the time to restoration.PMID:33608904 | DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.14669 (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 20, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Cristina M Secarea Sean D Cleary Philip J Candilis Source Type: research

Cognitive bias in forensic pathology decisions
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14697. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTForensic pathologists' decisions are critical in police investigations and court proceedings as they determine whether an unnatural death of a young child was an accident or homicide. Does cognitive bias affect forensic pathologists' decision-making? To address this question, we examined all death certificates issued during a 10-year period in the State of Nevada in the United States for children under the age of six. We also conducted an experiment with 133 forensic pathologists in which we tested whether knowledge of irrelevant non-m...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 20, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Itiel Dror Judy Melinek Jonathan L Arden Jeff Kukucka Sarah Hawkins Joye Carter Daniel S Atherton Source Type: research

Cognitive bias in forensic pathology decisions.
Abstract Forensic pathologists' decisions are critical in police investigations and court proceedings as they determine whether an unnatural death of a young child was an accident or homicide. Does cognitive bias affect forensic pathologists' decision-making? To address this question, we examined all death certificates issued during a 10-year period in the State of Nevada in the United States for children under the age of six. We also conducted an experiment with 133 forensic pathologists in which we tested whether knowledge of irrelevant non-medical information that should have no bearing on forensic pathologists...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 20, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Dror I, Melinek J, Arden JL, Kukucka J, Hawkins S, Carter J, Atherton DS Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Factors influencing adjudicative competence and length of time to restoration.
This study supports prior literature on restorability while distinguishing those treated for psychosis from those treated for substance use and personality disorder. In its novel focus on medication adherence, the study expands the remediable factors available to clinical and forensic professionals and supports interventions that improve treatment and shorten the time to restoration. PMID: 33608904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 19, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Secarea CM, Cleary SD, Candilis PJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Modeling allelic analyte signals for aSTRs in NGS DNA profiles.
We describe an adaption of Bright et al.'s work modeling peak height variability in CE-DNA profiles to the modeling of allelic aSTR (autosomal short tandem repeats) read counts from NGS-DNA profiles, specifically for profiles generated from the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit, DNA Primer Mix B. Bright et al.'s model consists of three key components within the estimation of total allelic product-template, locus-specific amplification efficiencies, and degradation. In this work, we investigated the two mass parameters-template and locus-specific amplification efficiencies-and used MLE (maximum likelihood estimation) a...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 18, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Cheng K, Lin MH, Moreno L, Skillman J, Hickey S, Cuenca D, Hudlow WR, Just R, Bright JA, Buckleton J, Curran JM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Sexing the bony labyrinth: A morphometric investigation in a subadult and adult Belgian identified sample.
This study entails promising results to design a sex estimation method suitable for fragmented and/or subadult remains. Further metric approaches are needed to explore bony labyrinth sexual dimorphism. PMID: 33604887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 18, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Boucherie A, Polet C, Lefèvre P, Vercauteren M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Fatal methemoglobinemia in three suicidal sodium nitrite poisonings.
We report three cases of ingestion of sodium nitrite in two college students (one mildly decomposed) and one adult in early middle age. All of the decedents in these cases developed fatal methemoglobinemia. Sodium nitrite in chemical form was found near the bodies. MetHb was detected in the postmortem blood of each decedent. The MetHb concentrations in the two decedents with a short postmortem interval were less than MetHb concentrations reported in the current literature. The MetHb concentrations reported in the mildly decomposed person were greater than for the other two, but still less than the concentration previously ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 17, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Dean DE, Looman KB, Topmiller RG Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The effect of the Safer at Home order on the frequency of DUI breath alcohol tests in Los Angeles County.
Abstract With Los Angeles County having a population size of just over 10 million and an additional 471,000 people who commute into Los Angeles County for employment, many drivers are at risk of being injured or killed in an alcohol-impaired driving collision. On March 19, 2020, the County of Los Angeles issued the Safer at Home order as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This curtailed driving and decreased the number of breath alcohol tests that were conducted in Los Angeles County. The number of breath tests conducted in January-February of 2019 and 2020 and March-April of 2019 and 2020 were evaluated using Fis...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 16, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Apodaca JC, Desharnais RA, Mitchell LJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Non-destructive analysis in the study of historical photographs by pXRF and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies.
In conclusion, employing complementary techniques (elemental and molecular spectroscopies and image magnification) is essential in identifying the manufacturing materials of cultural heritage material, which is the basis of contemporary authentication procedures. These data provide to curators and historians fundamental information for cataloging, adding subsidies for the correct storage and preservation ("heritage appreciation"). Still, for professional photographers, they present information on the manufacturing processes of historical photographs. The data from the present study also emphasize its perspective ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 13, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zamboni CB, Redígolo MM, Miura VT, Costa I, Nagai MLE, Salvador PAV, Giovanni Nogueira da Silva D Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Veterinary forensic pathology standards.
PMID: 33576495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 12, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Stern AW, McEwen B, McDonough SP, Viner T, Brooks JW, Kagan R, Brower A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Drone aerial imagery for the simulation of a neonate burial based on the geoforensic search strategy (GSS).
Abstract A woman reporting the homicide and burial of an infant in 2004 prompted the creation of an experimental simulated neonate grave shortly before the real search commenced. The real case, documented here, did not use aerial imagery, but used ground-penetrating radar (calibrated to the test site described here) to identify two locations that were probed for gas release and the deployment of victim recovery dogs. We suggest technological advances in remotely sensed aerial imagery that have developed since 2004 will demonstrate their use in focusing such searches by informing a Geoforensic Search Strategy (GSS)...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 12, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Rocke B, Ruffell A, Donnelly L Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Optimization of novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification with colorimetric image analysis for forensic body fluid identification.
Abstract Accurate presumptive and confirmatory test use for forensic body fluid identification is essential for gaining contextual information for crime scene investigators. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an ideal method for forensic body fluid identification because it is highly specific and generates multi-sized amplicon DNA, and successful amplification results can be read out colorimetrically. Here, we show preliminary data on a LAMP method that rapidly identifies body fluids including venous blood, semen, and saliva, based on colorimetric response and image analysis. The method is designed f...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 9, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Layne T, Jackson K, Scott A, Tanner NA, Piland A, Haverstick DM, Landers JP Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Evidence of repeated mirtazapine poisoning in children by hair analysis.
Abstract Mirtazapine is an antidepressant drug, used to treat depression, but also, in some specific conditions, to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety. Although mirtazapine is not a hypnotic, it can make the subject feel drowsy. Children under the age of 18 should not take mirtazapine, but for some very special diseases, a physician can prescribe it for a limited period of time. The authors report a case involving 2 children (7- and 9-year-old) who were administered mirtazapine without consent by the mother, who was under daily therapy with this antidepressant. Hair specimens, collected from...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 9, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kintz P, Raul JS, Ameline A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Fingermark visualization exploiting electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA): The effect of the composition and age of the latent deposit.
Abstract Paper evidence usually undergoes two consecutive examinations in forensic laboratories: ESDA (electrostatic detection apparatus) to detect indented impressions and a subsequent search for fingermarks by optical, physical, and chemical techniques. The ability of ESDA in visualizing fingermarks is well known. The aim of the present study is to understand better how long fingermarks can be developed with ESDA and if the different constituents of fingermarks show a different susceptibility to being developed. Several types of marks were collected from six donors on A4 standard office copy paper and tested wit...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 8, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zampa F, Mancini L, Caligiore G Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Next-generation osteometric sorting: Using 3D shape, elliptical Fourier analysis, and Hausdorff distance to optimize osteological pair-matching.
Abstract Determining which bilateral bones belong to the same person based on shape and size similarity is called pair-matching and it is instrumental for sorting commingled skeletons. To date, pair-matching has popularly been accomplished by visual inspection and/or linear caliper measurements; however, attention is turning increasingly to computational analysis. In this paper, we investigate a fast three-dimensional (3D) computerized shape-analysis method for whole-bone pair-matching using a test sample of 14 individuals (23 femora, 26 humeri, and 26 tibiae). Specifically, the method aims to find bilateral pairs...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 6, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Fancourt HSM, Lynch JJ, Byrd JE, Stephan CN Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Benzoic acid derivatives as luminescent sublimation dyes in cyanoacrylate fuming of latent fingerprints.
Abstract Development of latent prints employing cyanoacrylate ester (CA) can be a multistep process including CA fuming and subsequent fluorescent staining to produce fingerprints of sufficient contrast for comparison work. To enable a single-step CA fuming-staining process, a selection of fluorophores have been developed as sublimation dyes in CA fuming. A greater array of such luminescent sublimation dyes would allow users greater flexibility in selecting a particular dye-CA combination to best suit their processing needs. Toward this end, six benzoic acid derivatives were evaluated for use as luminescent sublim...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 5, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Azaldegui C, Aguilar G, Enriquez S, Madonna C, Parish Fisher C, Burks R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Pattern of homicidal burns in Northern Tunisia: An autopsy-based study over 15 years (2005-2019).
This study aimed to analyze the victim profiles of homicidal burns in Northern Tunisia. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a retrospective data collection over 15 years (January 2005-December 2019). In total, 60 cases of homicidal burns were collected. The mean age was 40.22 ± 18.1 years (range 4-82 years). We noted a male predominance (sex ratio M/F = 1.3). Most of the victims were married (48.3%), unemployed (40%), and living in an urban area (63.3%). Homicidal burns occurred most frequently in private homes for female victims (80.8%) and in public places for male vi...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - February 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Belghith M, Ben Khelil M, Harzallah H, Kebsi D, Zhioua M, Hamdoun M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Quantification of methadone and its metabolites: EDDP and EMDP determined in autopsy cases using LC-MS/MS.
This study also describes 18 postmortem cases, where methadone concentrations ranged 2.3-1180 ng/ml in blood (n = 17), from 11.0 to>10,000 ng/ml in urine (n = 13) and 135.2-409.0 in vitreous humor (VH, n = 3). EDDP concentrations ranged from not detectable to 180 ng/mL in blood, from 42.4 to>10,000 ng/ml in urine and 18.3-36.5 in VH. EMDP concentrations were found in four cases in blood from below LLOQ to 1.8 ng/ml and in seven cases in urine, ranged 2.1-243.0 ng/ml. EMDP was not detected in VH samples. The EDDP/methadone ratios and blood/urine ratios for me...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 29, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Nowak K, Szpot P, Jurek T, Zawadzki M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A comparison on the detection accuracy of ante mortem computed tomography vs. autopsy for the diagnosis of pelvic ring injury in legal medicine.
schka B Abstract A detailed knowledge on the exact morphology of pelvic injuries provided crucial information in understanding the mechanisms of injury and has influence on the natural course and subsequent mortality. However, forensic medical literature investigating pelvic fractures in detail is scarce to date. This case series aims to compare the accuracy in detecting pelvic injuries using autopsy and ante mortem computed tomography (CT). Nineteen deceased patients with CT scans of pelvic fractures were included retrospectively. Pelvic injuries were independently assessed by a board-certified radiologist (R) an...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 29, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Höch A, Özkurtul O, Hammer N, Heinemann A, Tse R, Zwirner J, Henkelmann J, Fakler J, Ondruschka B Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Actor perspective and moral reasoning: Do levels of criminal thinking moderate this relationship among non-criminals?
This study sought to determine whether moral judgment is influenced by CT in the general population and if this relationship further depends on the type of scenario (i.e., immoral vs. illegal) and/or the actor orientation (i.e., self vs. other). Using a sample of 239 U.S. adults and hypothetical case vignettes, results showed that those who endorsed higher levels of CT rated socially deviant behaviors, regardless of the type of scenario, as significantly more morally acceptable than participants who endorsed lower levels of CT. However, this difference was more pronounced for the immoral dilemma compared to the illegal dil...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: K Miller O, Batastini AB, L Standridge R, Repke A, S Mohn R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Specific oral and maxillofacial identifiers in panoramic radiographs used for human identification.
Abstract Radiographically assisted dental identification is an important means for individual identification. Specific identifiers help to quickly filter some of the possible corresponding AM and PM images at the beginning. The study seeks specific oral and maxillofacial identifiers in panoramic radiographs. A total of 920 panoramic radiographs from 460 live patients were used. The most recent radiograph served as the surrogate post-mortem (PM) record of an unidentified person, and the earliest radiograph served as the ante-mortem (AM) record of the same person. We evaluated the following four groups of ident...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Du H, Li M, Li G, Lyu T, Tian XM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Forensic analysis of anabolic steroids tablets composition using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy ( µATR-FTIR) mapping.
Forensic analysis of anabolic steroids tablets composition using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (µATR-FTIR) mapping. J Forensic Sci. 2021 Jan 27;: Authors: Lemos VF, Ortiz RS, Limberger RP Abstract The use of falsified and unregistered drugs is a worldwide public health problem. Because these global market products usually do not follow the Good Manufacturing Practices required by health legislation, its composition may be completely different from the original or may contain relevant concentrations of impurities and toxic contaminants. Since anabolic st...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Lemos VF, Ortiz RS, Limberger RP Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Ear as an alternative sampling site for GSR analysis following shotgun discharge.
In conclusion, ear seems to be a valuable alternative for detection of GSR particles, due to its complex anatomical structure potentially preventing loss of GSR with daily cleaning. Findings suggested that crime scene investigation teams and criminal laboratory staff should consider ear as a valuable alternative for GSR detection. PMID: 33491186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 24, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Akçan R, Demircioglu D, Aydogan HC, Cavlak M, Erkan E, Demiray E, Mercan M, Rıza Tümer A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Random forests for predicting species identity of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) using geometric morphometric data: Proof of concept.
Abstract Wing shape variation has been shown to be useful for delineating forensically important fly species in two Diptera families: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae. Compared to DNA-based identification, the cost of geometric morphometric data acquisition and analysis is relatively much lower because the tools required are basic, and stable softwares are available. However, to date, an explicit demonstration of using wing geometric morphometric data for species identity prediction in these two families remains lacking. Here, geometric morphometric data from 19 homologous landmarks on the left wing of males from s...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 13, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Khang TF, Mohd Puaad NAD, Teh SH, Mohamed Z Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Latent fingerprint development by using silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate-A comparative study.
This study mainly focuses on the use of lower concentration of silver nitrate through new AgNP development method. The AgNPs were synthesized by wet chemical method with different molar concentrations (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 M) of silver nitrate, characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). The average diameter of AgNPs calculated by HR-TEM was 10.66 ± 1.22 nm at 0.1 M, 12.50 ± 2.64 nm at 0.01 M, and 14.44 ± 2.68 nm at 0.001 M, respectively. A comparative analysis was ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 8, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Prasad V, Prasad L, Lukose S, Agarwal P Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Automatic assessment of fingermarks quality: exploration of the possible application in the context of detection and comparison with human examiners.
cue A Abstract In forensic science, particularly in the context of latent fingermarks detection, forensic scientists are often faced with the need to assess the quality of the detected fingermarks to quantitatively interpret their results and express conclusions. Today this process is mainly carried out by human examiners referring to guidelines or provided quality scales. The largest the set of fingermarks (e.g., hundreds, thousands), the longest and the most labor-intensive this task becomes. Moreover, it is difficult to guarantee a fully objective process since the subjectivity of each individual is almost impo...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 8, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Bonnaz B, De Donno M, Anthonioz A, Bécue A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Detection of ɣ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ɣ-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic beverages via total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Abstract Total Vaporization Solid-Phase Microextraction (TV-SPME) relies on the same technique as standard SPME but completely vaporizes a sample extract, and analytes are sorbed directly from the vapor phase. On-fiber derivatization may also be performed using TV-SPME, where the fiber is first exposed to the headspace of a vial containing the derivatization agent, then exposed to a new vial containing the sample. ɣ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ɣ-butyrolactone (GBL) are drugs of concern in that they may be used in drug facilitated sexual assault by surreptitiously spiking them into a victim's beverage. These dr...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 5, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Davis KE, Hickey LD, Goodpaster JV Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Recovery of 3D footwear impressions using a range of different techniques.
Abstract Three-dimensional (plastic) footwear impressions are frequently found at, or in the vicinity of a crime scene, and may provide a valuable form of evidence or intelligence. This paper compares the traditional methods of casting and/or two-dimensional photography with Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. We focus both on the recovery of class characteristics (sole pattern) and randomly acquired characteristics caused by damage. We examine how different recovery techniques influence visualization of outsole features and discuss what effect this may have on evidential value. Five shoes and their associ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 4, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Larsen HJ, Bennett MR Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The fentanyl phase of the opioid epidemic in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States.
Abstract Since late 2014, fentanyl has become the major driver of opioid mortality in the United States. However, a descriptive analysis of fentanyl victims is limited. We studied the 2016 fentanyl and heroin overdose deaths and compared them to previously studied heroin-associated fatalities from 2012 over a wide range of demographic and investigative variables, including overdose scene findings, toxicology results, and prescription drug history. We observed a significant increase in fentanyl-related deaths (n = 421, 2016) versus heroin deaths (n = 160, 2012) but the baseline demographics betw...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 4, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Deo VS, Gilson TP, Kaspar C, Singer ME Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy use in the adult U.S. correctional setting: A case report and literature review.
Abstract Mr. C is a 45-year-old male inmate who was found in his cell unresponsive and mute. He had poor food and fluid intake for the last four days and was later found standing in place, frozen, and resistant to movement when encouraged by a corrections officer to rest in his bed. His symptoms were consistent with catatonia, a severe motor syndrome that can be life-threatening. The patient had a psychiatric history of bipolar I disorder with multiple past episodes of catatonia. Lorazepam was ineffective at reversing his catatonic symptoms, and his serum creatinine kinase level eventually began to rise, suggestiv...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 4, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Martin M, Ureste P Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Bloodstain pattern analysis: Does experience equate to expertise?
This study attempted to address these knowledge gaps as they relate to bloodstain pattern recognition. The aims were twofold: to establish whether practitioners would outperform lay non-practitioners, and whether practitioner experience influenced accuracy and error in determinations. Comparisons of practitioner responses under three scenarios (forced, casework, and definitive) were also made to assess conservatism/certainty in pattern recognition. Participants (both BPA practitioners and non-practitioners) analyzed photographs of bloodstain patterns and made determinations of the broad bloodstain category and specific blo...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 4, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Bettison A, Krosch MN, Chaseling J, Wright K Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Uniting and transforming forensic sciences in a monumental pandemic year and beyond.
PMID: 33389759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - January 1, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Ropero-Miller JD Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of 10 new psychoactive piperazine derivatives in urine using ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
In this study, ten piperazine derivatives were analyzed in urine samples after pre-treatment with ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-LDS-DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This simple approach involved the use of urine samples (1 mL) adjusted to pH 12, which was added to 100 µL of n-hexane and subjected to ultrasonication for 3 min to completely disperse the sample in the n-hexane solution. The resulting turbid suspension was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 3 min, and the supernatant was extracted and analyze...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 28, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zhu B, Meng L, Cao J, Yang W, Conlan XA Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of DNA yield and STR profiles from the diaphysis, mid-diaphysis, and metaphysis regions of femur and tibia long bones.
This study compared the DNA recovery and STR profiles from five anatomical locations in five femora and five tibiae. These locations include the proximal metaphysis, proximal diaphysis, mid-diaphysis, distal diaphysis, and distal metaphysis. Twenty-five femur samples and 25 tibia samples were analyzed using the Qiagen Investigator Quantiplex Pro RGQ Kit for quantitating the extracted DNA and the Qiagen Investigator 24plex QS Kit for STR DNA typing. The highest DNA recovery of the five regions tested in both the femur and the tibia was from the midshaft diaphysis. The femur samples resulted in a significantly higher DNA rec...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 28, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Klavens A, Kollmann DD, Elkins KM, Zeller CB Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Color determination method and evaluation of methods for the detection of cannabinoids by thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
Abstract Cannabis sativa is the drug of abuse most cultivated, trafficked, and consumed worldwide. One of several techniques used to detect cannabinoids is based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC). However, the designation of the colors observed can be inaccurate and not reproducible. The designation of colors goes beyond physical and physiological aspects, because what is conventionally called color is a socio-cultural construction. Thus, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the different TLC methods to detection of cannabinoids, and apply standardization method in naming of colors. TLC analysis perfor...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 28, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Mano-Sousa BJ, Maia GAS, Lima PL, Campos VA, Negri G, Chequer FMD, Duarte-Almeida JM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research