Forensic Footwear Reliability: Part II-Range of Conclusions, Accuracy, and Consensus.
Conclusions, Accuracy, and Consensus. J Forensic Sci. 2020 Sep 17;: Authors: Richetelli N, Hammer L, Speir JA Abstract Between February 2017 and August 2018, West Virginia University conducted a reliability study to determine expert performance among forensic footwear examiners in the United States. Throughout the study's duration, 70 examiners each performed 12 comparisons and reported a total of 840 conclusions. In order to assess the accuracy of conclusions, the similarities and differences between mated and nonmated pairs were evaluated according to three criteria: (i) inherent agreement/disagreem...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - September 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Richetelli N, Hammer L, Speir JA Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Forensic Footwear Reliability: Part I-Participant Demographics and Examiner Agreement.
Abstract In order to assess the extent of agreement between forensic footwear examiners in the United States, a reliability study was performed by West Virginia University between February 2017 and August 2018. Over the span of 19 months, 70 examiners each performed 12 comparisons and reported a total of 840 conclusions. For each comparison, participants were queried on a number of factors in order to determine the degree to which different types of features were identified, evaluated, and weighted, before arriving at a final decision regarding the strength of the association or disassociation between questio...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - September 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Speir JA, Richetelli N, Hammer L Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Cartridge Case Double-Casts.
Abstract Due to the shot-to-shot variability in tool mark reproduction on fired cartridge cases, a method of replication is needed for the creation of training and testing sets. Double-casting is one method that has been used for this application, but the accuracy and variability of this method needs to be characterized. Three firearms were used to fire 25 cartridges each to create the master cartridge cases. The double-casting method consists of creating a silicone mold of the master cartridge case. A plastic resin mix is then poured into the mold to create the double-cast reproduction. Fifteen double-casts of ea...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - September 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Law EF, Morris KB Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Determining Shoe Length from Partial Shoeprints.
Abstract The length of a shoe has significant value in reflecting characteristics of the owner, and thereby, it can help in tracking suspects in criminal cases. However, the shoeprints left at a crime scene are often incomplete, resulting in difficulties in assessing shoe length. To find a way to estimate the shoe length from a partial shoeprint, 109 shoes with different sizes and general patterns were collected, and their prints were lifted using magnetic powder. Four feature points were defined on a shoeprint, and the longest distance between the feature points was defined as shoe length. Using linear, quadratic...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - September 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zhang H, Liu L, Luo Y, Chang R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Autopsy Identification of Viable Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in the Lungs of a Markedly Decomposed Body.
Abstract Various infectious diseases, including COVID-19, MERS, and tuberculosis, are global public health issues. Tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is highly contagious and can be transmitted through inhalation of the bacteria. However, it has been assumed that the infectiousness of bacteria and viruses in dead bodies weakens as the time from death increases. In particular, there is little awareness of infection control measures concerning decomposed bodies or even the need for such measures. The deceased, in whom we discovered MTB 3 months following her death, was a woman in...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 31, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Unuma K, Watanabe R, Hirayama N, Uemura K Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Improves Executive Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Aggression Problems: A Pilot Study.
Abstract This pilot study (N = 25) compared the effects of a short, four-month version of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy Outpatient (Re-ART Compact) and the entire, ten-month intervention (Re-ART Complete) on specific executive functioning (EF) and the risk of violent recidivism in adolescents and young adults (13-23 years). Re-ART is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults with severe aggression problems. The Re-ART Compact and Re-ART Complete groups were comparable on the EF measures inhibition, flexibility, emotion regulation, self-evaluation, and self...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 31, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Schippers EE, Hoogsteder LM, Stams GJJM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A State Census of Unsubmitted Sexual Assault Kits: Comparing Forensic DNA Testing Outcomes by Geographic and Population Density Characteristics.
Abstract A growing number of U.S. cities and states have large numbers of unsubmitted sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Prior research conducted in large urban cities has found that testing these kits yields a sizable number of DNA profiles that meet FBI eligibility for upload to the national criminal DNA database CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) and uploaded profiles return a substantial number of matches to existing criminal profiles in CODIS. It is unknown whether these findings are unique to large urban cities with high crime rates. The purpose of current study was to document forensic...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 31, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Campbell R, Javorka M, Sharma DB, Gregory K, Opsommer M, Schelling K, Lu L Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Measuring the Tibia: Trotter's Error Revisited.
Abstract In Trotter and Gleser's (Am J Phys Anthropol 1952;10:463) classic study of stature estimation, a definition of the tibia length measurement is given that agrees with the standard condylar-malleolar length. That Trotter did not in fact measure according to her definition, but rather omitted the malleolus, has been well documented by Jantz et al. (J Forensic Sci 1995;40:758). Both the Terry collection and the World War 2 (WW2) samples were affected, although questions remain about the latter that cannot be resolved directly because it is no longer available for examination. Trotter's data from hundreds of s...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 25, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Jantz RL, Meadows Jantz L, Ousley SD Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Simultaneous Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Gunshot Residues Within a Large Population Data Set Using Electrochemical Sensors*, †.
In this study, we expand our previous work by increasing the number of GSR markers and applying machine learning classifiers to the interpretation of a larger population data set. Utilizing bare screen-printed carbon electrodes, the detection and resolution of seven markers (IGSR; lead, antimony, and copper, and OGSR; nitroglycerin, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite) was achieved with limits of detection (LODs) below 1 µg/mL. A large population data set was obtained from 395 authentic shooter samples and 350 background samples. Various statistical methods and machine learning algorithms, in...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 25, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Ott CE, Dalzell KA, Calderón-Arce PJ, Alvarado-Gámez AL, Trejos T, Arroyo LE Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Organizational and Human Factors Affecting Forensic Decision-Making: Workplace Stress and Feedback.
In this study, 150 practicing forensic examiners from one laboratory were surveyed about their experiences of workplace stress, and the explicit and implicit feedback they receive. Forensic examiners reported that their high stress levels originated more from workplace-related factors (management and/or supervision, backlogs, and the pressure to do many cases) than from personal related factors (family, medical, and/or financial). The findings showed that a few (8%) of the forensic examiners sometimes felt strong implicit feedback about what conclusions were expected from them and that some (14%) also strongly felt that th...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 25, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Almazrouei MA, Dror IE, Morgan RM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Use of an Automated System to Evaluate Feature Dissimilarities in Handwriting Under a Two-Stage Evaluative Process*, †.
This study demonstrated that feature dissimilarity scores acquired using automated processes and their distributions are closely aligned with FDE decision-making processes supporting the heuristic value of the two-stage evaluative framework. PMID: 32835414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 24, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Fuglsby C, Saunders C, Ommen DM, Caligiuri MP Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor-Do Court-assessed Fees Induce Laboratory Contingency Bias in Crime Laboratories?
PMID: 32816308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Koppl R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Use of Liquid Latex to Recover Latent Fingerprints that are Covered in Debris from Exterior Glass Surfaces of Vehicles.
This study demonstrates that recovery of fingerprints is possible using the liquid latex method; however, the control method recovers more fingerprints on the glass exterior of vehicles. If latent fingerprints are thought to be present on the exterior glass surfaces of vehicles, the control method should be used to improve vehicle processing by investigators. PMID: 32809216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 18, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kapsa C, Ho M, Libby M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Multi-Rater Agreement Using the Adapted Fracture Healing Scale (AFHS) for the Assessment of Tubular Bones on Conventional Radiographs: Preliminary Study.
neo C Abstract Better understanding of the timing of fracture healing may help in cases of interpersonal violence but also of personal identification. The intra- and inter-rater agreement for the adapted fracture healing scale (AFHS) assessing the post-traumatic time interval on radiographs were tested. This is a preliminary study, providing essential information on method reliability for upcoming studies using the AFHS. Five raters (two radiologists, a forensic pathologist, an orthopedist, and an anthropologist) were presented with a test in three parts consisting of 85 radiographs (from 30 adults) of fractures o...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 18, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Tritella S, Obertová Z, Sconfienza LM, Collini F, Cristini E, Amadasi A, Ciprandi B, Spairani R, Albano D, Viero A, Cappella A, Cammilli P, Sardanelli F, Cattaneo C Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Pitfalls of Computed Tomography 3D Reconstruction Models in Cranial Nonmetric Analysis.
Abstract Many studies in the literature have highlighted the utility of virtual 3D databanks as a substitute for real skeletal collections and the important application of radiological records in personal identification. However, none have investigated the accuracy of virtual material compared to skeletal remains in nonmetric variant analysis using 3D models. The present study investigates the accuracy of 20 computed tomography (CT) 3D reconstruction models compared to the real crania, focusing on the quality of the reproduction of the real crania and the possibility to detect 29 dental/cranial morphological varia...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 18, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Bertoglio B, Corradin S, Cappella A, Mazzarelli D, Biehler-Gomez L, Messina C, Pozzi G, Sconfienza LM, Sardanelli F, Sforza C, De Angelis D, Cattaneo C Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Identifying Counterfeit Cigarettes Using Environmental Pollen Analysis: An Improved Procedure.
Abstract Traditional pollen preparation techniques provide clear residues for pollen identification; however, such methods are time-consuming, requiring repeated centrifugation, heating, and digestion with high-concentration hazardous chemicals. Tobacco leaves can effectively trap environmental pollen due to hairy surface and terpene-rich exudates. A new tobacco sample processing method was developed by using different extraction chemistry with surfactant. Marlboro Gold cigarettes were employed as model samples for method development. Parameters critical for pollen extraction, which include number of cigarette sti...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Chan T, Robinson G, Liu J, Kurti M, He Y, von Lampe K Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Abusive Pediatric Thoracolumbar Fracture Due to Forced Hyperextension: Case Report, Biomechanical Considerations, and Review of the Literature.
We report the death of a 29-month-old man due to blunt force trauma to the back and forced hyperextension of the thoracolumbar spine causing fracture of the fourth lumbar (L4) vertebral body. A complete forensic examination revealed a previous healing fracture of the anterior aspect of the L4 vertebral body, with acute disruption of the anterior longitudinal ligament overlying the fracture site, complete fracture of the vertebral body, and fatal retroperitoneal hemorrhage. We present a review of the biomechanical considerations of the pediatric spine, a survey of pediatric spinal fractures, and a r...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Webb M, Sherman SS, Sung L, Schmidt CJ, Hlavaty L Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Characterization of Algerian-Seized Hashish Over Eight Years (2011-2018). Part I: Physical Categorization.
This article exploits hashish seizure data collected over an 8-year period (2011-2018) in Algeria in order to establish a physical profile of North African hashish. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis in order to characterize the three main forms in which North African hashish is packaged, namely hashish bags, hashish packets, and hashish units (slab bars). The study revealed that 82% of hashish bags weigh 25 kg that hashish bags are made either as a handbag or as a back bag that they are most often wrapped with woven plastic. Two hashish bag configurations were identified-Bag-Packet-Unit (79%) a...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Boumrah Y, Baroudi S, Kecir M, Bouanani S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Development of a Novel Finger-Trigger Interface for Trigger Pull Measurement.
Abstract Trigger pull is the force that needs to be exerted on the trigger to discharge a firearm. The measurement of trigger pull can assist in the evaluation of the safety, function, and manufacturing characteristics associated with a firearm during the forensic firearm examination process. Nonetheless, the accuracy and uncertainty of trigger pull measurements may be affected by the measuring device, test procedure, and environmental conditions. In this work, an innovative finger-trigger interface device was developed to facilitate accurate trigger pull measurements. The idea was to reduce the variation related ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Fairbanks EE, Turner J, Ma J, Yu J Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Civilian Forensic Technician and Sworn Police Officer Job-Related Stress.
This study reports for the first time an unexpected outcome that perceived and job-related psychological stress is greater for Forensic Technicians than Sworn Police Officers. Possible reasons for this disparity will be discussed as well as stress management tools that should be implemented to reduce health risk factors for both career professionals as well as increase public safety. PMID: 32790184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: McKay-Davis S, Robinson T, Sebetan IM, Stein P Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Characterization of Algerian-Seized Hashish Over Eight Years (2011-2018). Part II: Chemical Categorization.
This study aimed to investigate the total content of major cannabinoids in the illicit seized hashish in Algeria over an 8-year period (2011-2018) in order to establish the chemical profile of North African hashish. A total of 3265 hashish samples were analyzed using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method, allowing the simultaneous quantification of both the acidic and the neutral forms of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN). The results revealed a slight upward trend in the mean THC content, from 7.0% in 2011 to 9.4% in 2018, with...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Boumrah Y, Baroudi S, Kecir M, Bouanani S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Forensic Confirmation Bias: Do Jurors Discount Examiners Who Were Exposed to Task-Irrelevant Information?*, †.
Forensic Confirmation Bias: Do Jurors Discount Examiners Who Were Exposed to Task-Irrelevant Information?*, †. J Forensic Sci. 2020 Aug 13;: Authors: Kukucka J, Hiley A, Kassin SM Abstract Knowledge of task-irrelevant information influences judgments of forensic science evidence and thereby undermines their probative value (i.e., forensic confirmation bias). The current studies tested whether laypeople discount the opinion of a forensic examiner who had a priori knowledge of biasing information (i.e., a defendant's confession) that could have influenced his opinion. In three experiments, laypeo...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kukucka J, Hiley A, Kassin SM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Cadaveric Maggots and Pupae by ICP-MS.
atilde;o W Abstract The concentrations of lead (Pb), barium (Ba), and antimony (Sb), characteristic of GSR, were determined in soil sediments and immature (larvae) of cadaveric flies of the family Calliphoridae, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This research refers to a case study from two real crime scenes in which the corpses were in an advanced state of decomposition. In case 1, the victim had holes similar to gunshot wounds, and in case 2, there was no evidence of perforations in the corpse. Soil sediment collection was performed at three different points of the terrain, at a minimum d...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Costa RA, Dos Santos NA, Corrêa TSM, Wyatt NLP, Chamoun CA, Carneiro MTWD, Romão W Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

An Analysis of Forensically Important Insects Associated with Human Remains in Indiana, U.S.A.
This study provides important baseline data for forensic entomologists in Indiana, as well as surrounding states with similar environments. PMID: 32777093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Weidner LM, Nigoghosian G, Yoho KC, Parrott JJ, Hans KR Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Blast Suppression Foam, Aqueous Gel Blocks, and their Effect on Subsequent Analysis of Forensic Evidence.
Abstract In addition to having blast mitigation properties, aqueous foam concentrate AFC-380 blast suppression foam is designed to capture aerosolized chemical, biological, and radioactive particles during render-safe procedures of explosive devices. Exposure to aqueous environments and surfactants may negatively affect forensic evidence found at the scene, but the effects of AFC-380 foam and aqueous gel on the preservation and subsequent analysis of forensic evidence have not previously been investigated. Sebaceous finger and palm prints and DNA samples on paper, cardboard, tape, and various metal and plastic ite...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 6, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Monson KL, Kyllonen KM, Leggitt JL, Edmiston KE, Justus CR, Kavlick MF, Phillip M, Roberts MA, Shegogue CW, Watts GD Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Rib Variation at Multiple Locations and Implications for Histological Age Estimation.
Abstract Existing histological age estimation methods using the rib were developed mainly from the midshaft; however, in forensic practice, uncertainty of sampling location often arises due to fragmented or previously sampled ribs. The potential for error increases when sampling location is uncertain and utilizing a section beyond the midshaft (either anterior or posterior) may result in erroneous age estimates. Additionally, there is debate within the field regarding the minimum number of sections needed for accurate age estimation. The aim of this research is to determine the importance of the midshaft distincti...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 4, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Dominguez VM, Harden AL, Wascher M, Agnew AM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Fast Discrimination of Marijuana using Automated High-throughput Cannabis Sample Preparation and Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
Abstract In the United States, federal law and many state laws differentiate between marijuana and industrial hemp through delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels, whereby the latter is defined as ≤0.3 percent THC on a dry weight basis. Many traditional cannabis identification methods employed by crime laboratories cannot accurately determine total THC quantities in accordance with federal and state regulations, or do so with increased time, labor, and risks of instrument damage. In order to quickly distinguish positive marijuana samples, a method was developed to identify plant material with a total THC leve...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Horne M, Mastrianni KR, Amick G, Hardy R, Renneker E, Miller KWP Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A Preliminary Forensic Entomological Study of Beetles (Coleoptera) in Interior Alaska, USA.
Abstract Forensic entomology uses knowledge of arthropod ecology to help solve crimes. There has been no published forensic entomological research in Alaska. We used one piglet carcass split in half to create two carcass plots in Fairbanks (~64.8°N, subarctic) that were sampled over a period of 59 days in 2019. Four pitfall traps were placed around each carcass, and four similarly arranged pitfall traps were placed 40 m distant as controls. Traps were emptied approximately weekly covering the first four stages of decomposition. We focused on adults of the larger-bodied (>9 mm) families and su...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Sampson A, Sikes DS Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Blast and Aircraft Crash Trauma: A Selection of WWII Cases from the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency Laboratory*, †.
This study examines patterns of skeletal trauma in propeller-driven aircraft crashes and blast-related ground loss incidents from WWII. Specifically, descriptions and criteria used to characterize aircraft deceleration- versus blast-related skeletal injuries are examined from 35 recently identified forensic anthropology cases to determine possible diagnostic traits and characterize skeletal trauma associated with these events. Among these cases, blast trauma is more localized within the skeleton and is associated with one or few primary directions of force. It is recommended that analysts differentiate between secondary an...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Palmiotto A, Van Deest TL, McCormick K, Freas L Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Positional Asphyxia in Opioid-Related Deaths: Is It Being Overlooked?
Abstract The contribution of positional asphyxia in opioid-related deaths is currently unknown. Diagnostic criteria for positional asphyxia include finding the decedent in a position that does not allow for adequate respiration and an inability to extricate themselves from the position due to various conditions. Our primary objective was to assess whether positional asphyxia and the resulting airway compromise were a contributing factor to death due to the toxic effects of opioids. We evaluated 225 deaths where the death scene investigation contained adequate information to evaluate for positional asphyxia and per...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: deJong JL, Lee J, Grande A, Huffman C, Bielby C, Brown T Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Impact of Fatigue on Decision-Making in the Footwear Examination: Evidence from Questionnaires and Eye-Tracking Test.
Abstract To assess the influence of fatigue on decision-making and performance in footwear examination, questionnaires and eye-tracking techniques are employed. We ask 23 volunteers to wear shoes of four different outsole patterns and obtained 50 image pairs of questioned and known impressions under controlled conditions. Among which, 10 image sets were "repeated" as benchmarks by being horizontally flipped. To evaluate the accuracy of comparison, 12 qualified footwear examiners' response and eye metrics in both morning and afternoon session were recorded and analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlati...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Yu Y, Luo Y, Xie W, Lin S, Liu L Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Forensic Pathological Considerations of a Unique Case of "Complicated Suicide"*, †.
Forensic Pathological Considerations of a Unique Case of "Complicated Suicide"*,†. J Forensic Sci. 2020 Jul 31;: Authors: Gentile G, Bianchi M, Boracchi M, Goj C, Tambuzzi S, Zoja R Abstract In the forensic literature, peculiar and uncommon cases of suicides defined as "complicated" are reported. In these circumstances, the suicide method chosen by the victim fails, and death occurs due to a subsequent unforeseen accidental event defined as secondary trauma. Through retrospective examination of 25,512 autopsies in 27 years (1993-2019) at the Bureau of Legal Medicine of ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 31, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Gentile G, Bianchi M, Boracchi M, Goj C, Tambuzzi S, Zoja R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Assay for Genetic Identification of Lophophora williamsii.
In this study, a novel method based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was developed for identifying L. williamsii; this assay reliably detects SNPs within chloroplast DNA (rbcL, matK, and trnL-trnF IGS) and was validated for identifying Lophophora and L. williamsii simultaneously. The chloroplast DNA sequences from four L. williamsii and three L. diffusa plants were obtained and compared using DNA sequence data from approximately 300 other Cactaceae species available in GenBank. From this sequence data, a total of seven SNPs were determined to be suitable for identifying L. williamsii...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Lee M, Jung JY, Choi S, Seol I, Moon S, Hwang IK Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Commentary on: Gabarrou G, Guilbeau-Frugier C, Blanc A, Telmon N, Savall F. Necessity for recognition of IgG4-related coronary arteritis and elucidating treatment strategy. J Forensic Sci 2018;63(2):611-3. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13561.
PMID: 32717121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 27, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Akiyama M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Mites (Acari) as a Relevant Tool in Trace Evidence and Postmortem Analyses of Buried Corpses.
This report interprets the presence of mite species in three clandestine graves in Europe, evaluating their potential use as trace evidence or markers. Grave 1 (Sweden): Two mite species Rhizoglyphus robini Claparède, 1869 and Parasitus loricatus (W.el, 1861) were recovered from the surface of a body buried in a shallow grave in an area surrounded by trees, in close vicinity to house gardens. Grave 2 (Germany): Phoretic deutonymphs of Gamasodes spiniger (Trägårdh, 1910) were attached to an adult fly (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) found within a shallow grave containing two human bodies covered in soil and dung...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 27, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Rai JK, Amendt J, Bernhardt V, Pasquerault T, Lindström A, Perotti MA Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Hypothermia-related Deaths: A 10-year Retrospective Study of Two Major Metropolitan Cities in the United States.
Abstract Hypothermia-related deaths affect vulnerable populations and are preventable. They account for the vast majority of weather-related deaths in the United States. The postmortem diagnosis of hypothermia can be challenging, as there are no pathognomonic signs. The electronic databases of the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner and Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences were searched for all fatalities where the primary cause of death included hypothermia, between January 2009 and July 2019. There were 139 hypothermia deaths in New York City (NYC) with an average annualized rate of 1.7 per mi...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 27, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Dickinson GM, Maya GX, Lo Y, Jarvis HC Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Testing Antemortem Blood for Ethanol Concentration from a Blood Kit in a Refrigerator Fire.
Abstract The stability of ethanol in antemortem blood stored under various conditions has been widely studied. Antemortem blood samples stored at refrigerated temperature, at room temperature, and at elevated temperatures tend to decrease in ethanol concentration with storage. It appears that the stability of ethanol in blood exposed to temperatures greater than 38°C has not been evaluated. The case presented here involves comparison of breath test results with subsequent analysis of blood drawn at the time of breath testing. However, the blood tubes were in a refrigerator fire followed by refrigerated storage...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 21, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kosecki PA, Canonico E, Brooke P Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Heritability of Palatal Rugae Morphology Among Siblings*, †.
In conclusion, despite the individuality characteristics, an appreciable hereditary component is observed with significant similarities found between sibling pairs and the palatal rugae patterns were both environmentally and genetically influenced. PMID: 32692413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 21, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Chong JA, Syed Mohamed AMF, Marizan Nor M, Pau A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI): Treatment Scales and Interpersonal Characteristics in a Sample of Men Charged with or Convicted of a Sexual Offense.
Abstract An individual's interpersonal features are pertinent to treatment within clinical populations. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) contains two scales that assess the interpersonal features of warmth (WRM) and dominance (DOM), as well as two additional measures to assess to treatment prediction, process, and rejection (RXR; TPI). The current study examined associations between these PAI scales in a sample of 92 men who underwent comprehensive evaluations of sexual behavior after being charged with or convicted of a sexual offense. Analyses indicated that RXR was positively associated with WRM and D...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 21, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Parker AJ, Mulay AL, Gottfried ED Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of the M-Vac ® Wet-Vacuum-Based Collection Method to a Wet-Swabbing Method for DNA Recovery on Diluted Bloodstained Substrates*, †, ‡.
Comparison of the M-Vac® Wet-Vacuum-Based Collection Method to a Wet-Swabbing Method for DNA Recovery on Diluted Bloodstained Substrates*, †, ‡. J Forensic Sci. 2020 Jul 20;: Authors: McLamb JM, Adams LD, Kavlick MF Abstract A wet-vacuum-based collection method with the M-Vac® was compared to a wet-swabbing collection method by examining the recovery of diluted blood on 22 substrates of varying porosity. The wet-vacuum method yielded more total nuclear DNA than wet-swabbing on 18 porous substrates, recovering on average 12 times more DNA. However, both methods yielded comparable ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: McLamb JM, Adams LD, Kavlick MF Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Toner Particles as Forensic Evidence: Microanalytical Characterization of Known Toner and Recognition of Toner in Environmental Samples*, †, ‡.
Toner Particles as Forensic Evidence: Microanalytical Characterization of Known Toner and Recognition of Toner in Environmental Samples*, †, ‡. J Forensic Sci. 2020 Jul 20;: Authors: White KM, Palenik CS Abstract Modern printing toners represent a prime example of subvisible particles that can be easily transferred to hands, clothing, and other surfaces. To explore the potential evidentiary value of toner particles, toner samples were collected from known printer cartridges and characterized by various microanalytical techniques to establish the properties most useful for recognition, id...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: White KM, Palenik CS Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Juvenile Sexual Murderers: Examination and Classification of the Crime-Commission Process.
This study aims to empirically explore the crime-commission process of juvenile sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). First, a comparison between the crime-commission process of juvenile and adult SHOs is undertaken, while as a second step, this study also provides an empirical classification specific to juvenile SHOs. The sample used in this study consists of 55 juvenile SHOs and 281 adult SHOs. A sequential binomial regression was used to compare at the multivariate level the two groups of offenders, while a latent class analysis was used to examine the relationships between each step of the crime-commission process of juven...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Chopin J, Beauregard E Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Modeling Temperature Variations Using Monte Carlo Simulation: Implications for Estimation of the Postmortem Interval Based on Insect Development Times*, †.
Modeling Temperature Variations Using Monte Carlo Simulation: Implications for Estimation of the Postmortem Interval Based on Insect Development Times*, †. J Forensic Sci. 2020 Jul 13;: Authors: Hill L, Gilbert AE, Coetzee M Abstract The association between insect development and temperature is well established. Thermal summation using accumulated degree-day measures is commonly used. However, the time at which evidence is collected is important in these estimates. The aim of this study was to provide a simulated model of the effect of temperatures on six dipteran species commonly associated wi...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Hill L, Gilbert AE, Coetzee M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Self-immolation Suicide in Greece: A Forensic Psychiatric Autopsy Study between 2011 and 2019.
Abstract Self-immolation is a rare suicide method in the developed countries of the western world (0.06-1%); however, it has relatively higher prevalence rates in the developing countries of Asia and Africa (6-57%). The present study aims to examine self-immolation suicides within the Greek mainland (Attiki, Thrace, and Peloponnese) over a period of 9 years (2011-2019) in order to investigate the phenomenon in the Greek population forensically, identify the characteristics and motivations of suicide victims, explore its associations to socio-cultural or psychiatric factors, and describe a fatal case of suicid...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Papadodima SA, Karakasi MV, Pavlidis P, Nastoulis E, Fragkou K, Dimitriou K, Alexandri M, Markopoulou M, Douzenis A, Spiliopoulou C Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Identifying Fatal Head Injuries on Postmortem Computed Tomography Using Convolutional Neural Network/Deep Learning: A Feasibility Study.
Abstract Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is a relatively recent advancement in forensic pathology practice that has been increasingly used as an ancillary investigation and screening tool. One area of clinical CT imaging that has garnered a lot of research interest recently is the area of "artificial intelligence" (AI), such as in screening and computer-assisted diagnostics. This feasibility study investigated the application of convolutional neural network, a form of deep learning AI, to PMCT head imaging in differentiating fatal head injury from controls. PMCT images of a transverse section of th...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Garland J, Ondruschka B, Stables S, Morrow P, Kesha K, Glenn C, Tse R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Quality of Laypersons' Assessment of Forensically Relevant Stimuli.
Abstract The current study examined the potential for cognitive bias in lay examiners' comparisons of footwear impressions within the technical review process while addressing limitations of previous research. Prior research has found inconsistent results regarding the extent to which cognitive bias may influence forensic comparisons (for review, see Forensic Sci Int, 297, 2019 and 35), often asking nonexperts to review forensic stimuli above their competency level. Furthermore, past research has largely ignored the potential for cognitive bias during the technical review process. In collaboration with the Miami-D...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 6, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Sneyd D, Schreiber Compo N, Rivard J, Pena M, Stoiloff S, Hernandez G Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Combined Statistical Analyses of Forensic Evidence in Sexual Assault: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.
Abstract DNA analysis has been widely used in the forensic field in order to contribute to identifying the perpetrator of a crime. Forensic investigation in sexual assaults usually focuses on locating and identifying biological fluids, followed by DNA analysis. The identification of certain compounds present in condoms can be useful to reconstruct the occurred event, especially in cases of sexual assaults where the DNA analysis did not show the presence of a male profile and where RNA analysis did not show the presence of sperm markers. Herein we describe the case of a woman reporting to be victim of sexual assaul...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 2, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Tozzo P, Gabbin A, Politi C, Da Pian M, Caenazzo L, Causin V Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Correction.
PMID: 32609402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - July 1, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Love SA, Lelinski J, Kloss J, Middleton O, Apple FS Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Application of Photogrammetry in the Autopsy Room: A Basic, Practical Workflow.
Abstract Photogrammetry is a technique that uses two-dimensional photographs taken from different angles and positions to determine three-dimensional coordinates and distances. Becoming familiar with the photography technique for photogrammetry purposes is the first step to obtaining high-quality results. Ten human cadavers were studied to develop this protocol. Appropriate equipment settings, measurements, and suitable ambient conditions were determined. Finally, the protocol was tested on one cadaver wherein a full postmortem examination was conducted, allowing accurate 3D modeling and measurements of the human ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Gitto L, Donato L, Di Luca A, Bryant SM, Serinelli S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Asphyxia Homicides in Finland, 1983-2012.
Abstract Finland has one of the highest homicide rates in Western Europe, and almost every tenth homicide is caused by asphyxiation. Reliable statistics, a strict legislation, and an exceptionally high medico-legal autopsy rate formed a base for a nationwide analysis of asphyxia homicides (n = 383) during 30 years. The cases were identified through multiple records, and all the forensic pathology case files were studied in detail. In more than one out of five cases, there were indications of staging, and the homicide was revealed first at autopsy in close to one in ten cases. The vast majority of th...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Wahlsten P, Eriksson A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research