Three-Dimensional Prediction of the Nose for Facial Approximation in a Thai Population.
In conclusion, the prediction equations formulated here will be beneficial for facial approximation of the nose in a Thai population. PMID: 31825537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 11, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Thitiorul S, Mahakkanukrauh P, Prasitwattanaseree S, Sitthiseripratip K, Iamaroon A, Na Lampang S, Prapayasatok S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A Pilot Study on the Diagnosis of Fatal Electrocution by the Detection of Myocardial Microhemorrhages.
This study aims to identify histological cardiac markers of high- and low-voltage electrocution. Two groups of decedents were evaluated: group A included 14 fatalities caused by high- or low-voltage electrocution and group B (control) included 14 fatalities due to other traumatic or disease causes. Myocardial sampling with microscopic examination was performed on all the hearts using the hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains to investigate morphological characteristics that could indicate the damage caused by high- and low-voltage electrocutions. Interstitial myocardial hemorrhagic infiltration was the only d...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Gentile G, Andreola S, Bailo P, Boracchi M, Fociani P, Piccinini A, Zoja R Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Impact of Discontinuation of the Medical Examiner System: Cases of Drowning in the Bathtub at Home.
Abstract The incidence of death by drowning greatly varies among different prefectures in Japan, mainly due to climate difference. However, there could be other factors affecting the incidence of deaths besides climate, for example, differences in regional death investigation systems. Here, we aimed to elucidate other such factors affecting the mortality data of drowning in the bathtub, especially the effects of discontinuing the medical examiner system. Police data in Kyoto and ambulatory care information in Yokohama were used. Data on cases of elderly individuals found dying or dead in the bathtub at home in win...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 9, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kakiuchi Y, Nagao R, Ochiai E, Kakimoto Y, Osawa M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Fatal and Nonfatal Rip Saw Injuries.
, Handlos P Abstract This paper deals with a fatal stab wound suffered by a 29-year-old man and nonfatal injuries of 35-year-old and 67-year-old saw operators. Rip saw is a machine that is specially designed for making a rip cut, a cut made parallel to the direction of the wood grain. Rip-saw-related injuries mostly occur when a person is struck by the cutting material, which usually involves splinters of irregular shape and diameter. When the splinter strikes the body diagonally, the injuries may include abrasions, lacerations, and cut wounds; in situations where the victim is struck directly, the most common inj...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 9, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Handlosová K, Klabal O, Dokoupil M, Vojtek V, Uvíra M, Handlos P Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Infant Death Following Home Birth: A Case Report of Fatal Neonatal Hypoglycemia.
Abstract Infants born to diabetic mothers are at increased risk for symptomatic hypoglycemia and death after birth. A 36-year-old G4P3 mother with a history of gestational diabetes and newly diagnosed type II insulin-dependent diabetes gave birth at home, in the care of a midwife, to a macrosomic infant girl (10 lbs.). Several hours after birth, the infant became lethargic and was found to be hypoglycemic (blood sugar: 28 mg/dL). Glucose and sugar water were administered by the midwife; however, the infant continued to decompensate. Emergency medical services were called, and the infant was transported to the...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 4, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Schuppener LM, Corliss RF Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Improved Area of Origin Estimation for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Using 3D Scanning.
Abstract An important component of crime scene reconstruction is bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA). Where BPA concerns impact patterns, estimating the area of origin is critical information for scene reconstruction. Traditionally, this is achieved by measuring individual bloodstains and performing trigonometric calculations; however, 3D scanning has been proposed as a viable alternative for overcoming logistical and practical concerns with the manual method. Therefore, this project aimed to establish whether the FARO Focus 3D scanner and FARO Zone 3D software can improve the accuracy of area of origin estimates re...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 3, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Esaias O, Noonan GW, Everist S, Roberts M, Thompson C, Krosch MN Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Commentary on: Crudele GDL, Merelli VG, Vener C, Milani S, Cattaneo C. The frequency of cranial base fractures in lethal head trauma. J Forensic Sci doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14149. Epub 2019 Aug 21.
PMID: 31792966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 2, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Hu J, Zheng N, Liang M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Authors' Response.
i VG, Vener C, Cattaneo C PMID: 31792969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 2, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Authors' Response. Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Application of Structured-Light 3-D Scanning to the Documentation of Plastic Fingerprint Impressions: A Quality Comparison with Traditional Photography.
This study investigated the feasibility of applying commercially available structured-light 3-D scanners in the documentation of plastic prints. Attempts were made to develop a procedure to extract curvature features from 3-D scanned fingerprints and flatten the friction ridge features into two-dimensional (2-D) images to allow direct comparison with the traditional photography in the CSIpix® Matcher and NFIQ 2.0 software. Two 3-D scanners were evaluated a Dentsply Sirona inEos X5® and an Artec Space Spider. In this study, 3-D scanners demonstrated robustness as well as efficiency in the collection of plastic finge...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - December 2, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zhang W, Kosiorek DA, Brodeur AN Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars.
Abstract In Europe, more than 50 approved cultivars of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are in agricultural production. Their content of psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is legally restricted to
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 26, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Borroto Fernandez E, Peterseil V, Hackl G, Menges S, de Meijer E, Staginnus C Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor-Search Dogs and Scent Prints.
PMID: 31755987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 22, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Osterkamp T Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Sharp Force Homicide in Denmark 1992-2016.
Abstract Sharp force trauma is a common homicide method. The weapon is typically a knife, which is easily accessible and does not require special skills. We have analyzed all 471 sharp force homicides in Denmark during 1992-2016 with special focus on aspects that are relevant to forensic pathologists, including the distribution of wounds and organ injuries. Most homicides were committed inside with a kitchen knife. The front left thorax was the most common area to be affected by sharp force trauma. In 18.9% of the victims, there was only one sharp injury, the majority on the thorax. The most common trajectory for ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 20, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Thomsen AH, Hougen HP, Villesen P, Brink O, Leth PM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Crossing Borders: Forensic Science and the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
PMID: 31743448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 19, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Geradts ZJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Dataset of Digitized RACs and Their Rarity Score Analysis for Strengthening Shoeprint Evidence.
In this study, a database of over 13,000 randomly acquired characteristics (RACs) such as scratches, nicks, tears, and holes, as they appear on shoe sole test impressions, from nearly 400 shoe soles was collected semi-automatically. The location, orientation, and the contour of each RAC were determined for all the RACs on each test impression. The statistical algorithm Statistic Evaluation of Shoeprint Accidentals (SESA) was developed to calculate a score for finding another feature similar to a particular scanned and digitized RAC in the same shape, location, and orientation as the examined one. A correlation was found be...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 18, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Wiesner S, Shor Y, Tsach T, Kaplan-Damary N, Yekutieli Y Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of Agonal Cardiac Function for Sudden Cardiac Death in Forensic Medicine with Postmortem Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP: A Meta-analysis.
Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death caused by a sudden loss of cardiac function, which is currently a global public health problem. Evaluation of the agonal cardiac function of the deceased is a quite important task for the diagnosis of SCD in forensic medicine. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) are currently considered as significant biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure in both clinical and forensic practices. To investigate the postmortem evaluation roles of postmortem BNP and NT-proBNP levels for SCD, the present study meta-analyzed eight related s...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 18, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Cao Z, Zhao M, Xu C, Zhang T, Jia Y, Wang T, Zhu B Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Seizures of Clandestinely  Produced Tablets in Santa Catarina, Brazil: The Increase in NPS from 2011 to 2017.
Seizures of Clandestinely Produced Tablets in Santa Catarina, Brazil: The Increase in NPS from 2011 to 2017. J Forensic Sci. 2019 Nov 15;: Authors: de Souza Júnior JL, Silveira Filho J, Boff BS, Nonemacher K, Rezin KZ, Schroeder SD, Ferrão MF, Danielli LJ Abstract Ecstasy is the name given to a large group of substances known as "club drugs" traded in the form of tablets, powder and liquid that present a varied composition, including mainly 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and analogous substances, in addition to the growing presence of new psychoactive substances....
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 15, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: de Souza Júnior JL, Silveira Filho J, Boff BS, Nonemacher K, Rezin KZ, Schroeder SD, Ferrão MF, Danielli LJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Ancestry Estimation Using Cranial and Postcranial Macromorphoscopic Traits.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the value of postcranial MMS traits, highlighting a combined cranial/postcranial trait approach to ancestry estimation using quadratic discriminant function and a variety of machine learning classification models including artificial neural networks (aNN), random forest models, and support vector machine. Eight cranial and eleven postcranial MMS traits were collected from the Terry and Bass Skeletal Collections (American Black = 81; American White = 173). Our classification models using cranial and postcranial traits correctly classified 88-92% of the sampl...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 14, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Spiros MC, Hefner JT Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Decisional Capacity and Personality Disorders: Substantially Unable or Substantially Unwilling?
We present a series of three cases in which clients are determined to lack capacity primarily mediated by a personality disorder diagnosis. They are demonstrated to have mild deficits in cognitive functioning, but they show impaired decision-making out of proportion to these deficits. In all three cases, it is apparent that the personality disorder is substantially impairing their ability to care for themselves. Discussion includes consideration for ways to incorporate evaluations of cognitive function, activities of daily living, and personality considerations into capacity assessments, and how to approach recommendations...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 11, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Perington MR, Smith CA, Schillerstrom JE Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Unusual Elevator-Related Deaths: A Report of Two Cases.
We present two cases of elevator-related deaths that occurred in two different elevators, and deaths were caused by a similar, but unusual, mechanism. An elevator is a platform or compartment housed in a shaft for raising and lowering people or things to different levels. Elevator-related deaths and injuries are rarely reported in the literature. In most of these cases, cause of death was attributed to falls. It seems that most of the elevator accidents may be attributed to factors related to device maintenance inadequacies or even to device malfunctioning. In our cases, both elevator cars were not equipped with full-lengt...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 11, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Sakelliadis EI, Katsos KD, Zouzia EI, Moraitis K, Spiliopoulou CA Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A Futuristic Vision of Forensic Science.
PMID: 31710706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 11, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Dror IE, Morgan RM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Scavenging Patterns of Feral Cats on Human Remains in an Outdoor Setting.
Abstract Two cases of feral cat (Felis catus) scavenging were documented at the Forensic Investigation Research Station in Whitewater, Colorado. Human remains at the facility are placed outside, observed daily, documented with field notes, and photographed; decomposition is scored on a Likert scale. Scavenger activity is monitored with game cameras. The cases documented included: preferential scavenging of the soft tissue of the shoulder and arm, differential consumption of tissue layers, superficial defects, and no macroscopic skeletal defects. This pattern more closely parallels the documented pattern of bobcat ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 8, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Garcia S, Smith A, Baigent C, Connor M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Elevator-Related Deaths.
Abstract Elevators are mechanical transportation devices used to move vertically between different levels of a building. When first developed, elevators lacked the safety features. When safety mechanisms were developed, elevators became a common feature of multistory buildings. Despite their well-regarded safety record, elevators are not without the potential for danger of injury or death. Persons at-risk for elevator-related death include maintenance and construction workers, other employees, and those who are prone to risky behavior. Deaths may be related to asphyxia, blunt force, avulsion injuries, and various ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 8, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Prahlow JA, Ashraf Z, Plaza N, Rogers C, Ferreira P, Fowler DR, Blessing MM, Wolf DA, Graham MA, Sandberg K, Brown TT, Lantz PE Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Nonmetric Cranial Trait Variation and Ancestry Estimation in Asian and Asian-Derived Groups.
This study examines craniomorphic variability to ascertain whether Asian groups can be differentiated from each other and from Asian-derived groups using more fine-tuned models. Cranial and mandibular data for 35 nonmetric traits were recorded on precontact Native Americans (n = 150) and modern Japanese (n = 150) and Thai (n = 150) individuals. Chi-square analyses indicate that all groups exhibit statistically significant differences in most traits. Additionally, cross-validated binary logistic regression equations resulted in correct classification rates in the range of 65.0-93.3% and demonst...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 6, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Atkinson ML, Tallman SD Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Assessing Cognitive Bias in Forensic Decisions: A Review and Outlook.
Abstract In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated that forensic examiners can be biased by task-irrelevant contextual information. However, concerns relating to methodological flaws and ecological validity attenuate how much the current body of knowledge can be applied to real-life operational settings. The current review takes a narrative approach to synthesizing the literature across forensic science. Further, the review considers three main issues: (i) primary research on contextual bias within forensic science; (ii) methodological criticisms of this research; (iii) an alternative perspective that...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 6, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Curley LJ, Munro J, Lages M, MacLean R, Murray J Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A Review of Bomb Pulse Dating and its Use in the Investigation of Unidentified Human Remains.
Abstract In cases where there is limited antemortem information, the examination of unidentified human remains as part of the investigation of long-term missing person's cases is a complex endeavor and consequently requires a multidisciplinary approach. Bomb pulse dating, which involves the analysis and interpretation of 14C concentration, is one technique that may assist in these investigations by providing an estimate of year of birth and year of death. This review examines the technique of bomb pulse dating and its use in the identification of differentially preserved unknown human remains. Research and case st...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 5, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Johnstone-Belford EC, Blau S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods for Processing Fingerprint Powder-Coated Forensic Evidence.
This study evaluated the efficiency of DNA extraction from samples coated with 3 brands of fingerprint powders: Lightning, Sirchie, and SupraNano, covering a range of colors and properties. A total of 23 fingerprint powders were tested using the Chelex, Promega DNA IQ™, and Applied Biosystems™ PrepFiler™ DNA extraction protocols. The DNA IQ™ and PrepFiler™ methods extracted higher yields of DNA in comparison to Chelex, which also accounted for better quality of PowerPlex x00AE; 21 DNA profiles recovered. There were no signs of degradation or inhibition in the quantification data, indicating th...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 5, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Cornwell SJ, Tay JW, Allan RK, Zoranjic J, O'Rourke NJ, Byard GB, Rye MS Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Commentary on: Katsos KD, Sakelliadis EI, Moraitis K, Spiliopoulou CA. Death by ram attack: a case report from Greece and a brief review of the literature. JForensic Sci 2019;64(5):1559-62. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14121.
PMID: 31674656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Madea B, Doberentz E Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Forensic Inspection of Sensitive User Data and Artifacts from Smartwatch Wearable Devices.
Abstract Wearable devices allow users the ability to leave mobile phones behind while remaining connected to the digital world; however, this creates challenges in the examination, acquisition, identification, and analysis of probative data. This preliminary research aims to provide an enhanced understanding of where sensitive user data and forensic artifacts are stored on smartwatch wearable devices, both through utilization as a connected and standalone device. It also provides a methodology for the forensically sound acquisition of data from a standalone smartwatch wearable device. The results identify signific...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Odom NR, Lindmar JM, Hirt J, Brunty J Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Effect of Heat on the Fluorescence Properties of Tooth-Colored Restorative Materials and Their Forensic Implications.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat on the fluorescence behavior of contemporary tooth-colored restorative materials and natural tooth structure when subjected to range of temperatures, using illumination with 405 nm wavelength light. A total of 132 human extracted teeth restored with tooth-colored restorative materials were exposed to heat (200, 500, 900, 1200°C) in an oven for 30 min. Samples were imaged before and after heat treatment. All tooth-colored restorative materials underwent changes in color and in fluorescence properties, at each of the temperatures used. Resin-based r...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kiran R, Chapman J, Tennant M, Forrest A, Walsh LJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Hydrocarbon and Fatty Acid Composition from Blowfly Eggs Represents a Potential Complementary Taxonomic Tool of Forensic Importance.
Abstract One of the most important contributions of forensic entomology is to assist criminal expertise to determine the postmortem interval, which depends on the duration of the immature stages of insects of forensic interest. On the other hand, the time of development of the different stages varies according to the species; therefore, its identification is essential. Currently, few studies have investigated the use of cuticular hydrocarbons, and none regarding fatty acids, as complementary taxonomic tools to expedite species identification. Therefore, we evaluated whether cuticular hydrocarbons together with fat...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Lunas BM, de Paula MC, Michelutti KB, Lima-Junior SE, Antonialli-Junior WF, Cardoso CAL Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Authors' Response.
dis EI, Moraitis K, Spiliopoulou CA PMID: 31675125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - November 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Authors' Response. Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

An Analysis of Hounsfield Unit Values and Volumetrics from Computerized Tomography of the Proximal Femur for Sex and Age Estimation.
This study utilized CT scans and resultant 3D models of 100 male and 100 female adults of known ages ranging from 18 to 98 years old to collect volumetric and Hounsfield unit measurements of the proximal femur. Equations were created to establish logistic regression models for sex estimation and linear regression models for age estimation. The resultant sex estimation method had an accuracy of 93.5% and utilized the volume of the proximal femur. This study provides three linear regression models for age with an accuracy range of 86%-92% ±12 years. As imaging technologies are increasingly adopted for forens...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Ford JM, Kumm TR, Decker SJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Sensitive Method for the Confident Identification of Genetically Variant Peptides in Human Hair Keratin.
We report a method involving direct extraction of hair shaft proteins more sensitive than previously published methods regarding GVP detection. It involves one step for protein extraction and was found to provide reproducible results. A detailed proteomic analysis of this data is presented that led to the following four results: (i) A peptide spectral library was created and made available for download. It contains all identified peptides from this work, including GVPs that, when appropriately expanded with diverse hair-derived peptides, can provide a routine, reliable, and sensitive means of analyzing hair digests; (ii) a...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zhang Z, Burke MC, Wallace WE, Liang Y, Sheetlin SL, Mirokhin YA, Tchekhovskoi DV, Stein SE Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Nonfatal Bites by a Sicklefin Lemon Shark Negaprion acutidens on a Surfer in Makemo Atoll (French Polynesia).
Abstract Identifying the species and size of sharks responsible for biting humans is essential for developing strategies to prevent these incidents. Here, we use bite wound characteristics and genetic analysis of a tooth fragment extracted from the wounds to identify a sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens as the perpetrator of nonfatal bites on the legs of an adult male surfer at Makemo atoll (French Polynesia) in January 2018. The bite was superficial, and N. acutidens are fish predators not known to feed on large prey; hence, foraging is an unlikely explanation for this incident rather linked to territ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Clua EEG, Haguenauer A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

B-mode Ultrasound Measurement of Facial Soft Tissue Thickness for Craniofacial Identification: A Standardized Approach.
Abstract Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) have long formed a quantitative cornerstone of craniofacial identification methods. Measurement approaches could, however, be improved by standardization that enhances the utility/comparability of these FSTT data between studies and authors. This applies equally within the broad classes of measurement techniques, just as it does between them, where many different varieties of tools, tool settings, and practitioner techniques are used within each measurement modality. Although B-mode ultrasound is popularly used and holds some prime advantages, such as the measurement ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Meikle B, Stephan CN Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Evaluating Bioinformatic Pipeline Performance for Forensic Microbiome Analysis*, †,‡.
Evaluating Bioinformatic Pipeline Performance for Forensic Microbiome Analysis*,†,‡. J Forensic Sci. 2019 Oct 28;: Authors: Kaszubinski SF, Pechal JL, Schmidt CJ, Jordan HR, Benbow ME, Meek MH Abstract Microbial communities have potential evidential utility for forensic applications. However, bioinformatic analysis of high-throughput sequencing data varies widely among laboratories. These differences can potentially affect microbial community composition and downstream analyses. To illustrate the importance of standardizing methodology, we compared analyses of postmortem microbiome sampl...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 28, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kaszubinski SF, Pechal JL, Schmidt CJ, Jordan HR, Benbow ME, Meek MH Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

DNA Recovery From Tape-Lifting Kits: Methodology and Practice.
Abstract In the case of suspicious deaths, the technique of 1:1 taping is often used in Belgium. It consists of affixing a large number of adhesive tapes to the body of the victim. It is conventionally aimed at obtaining microtraces (e.g., fibers, hair) and is usually not used for DNA analysis. However, in some cases, DNA analysis of certain areas of interest identified on the 1:1 taping material can offer a last resort solution. The four-step method that is described in this article involves the selection of areas of interest on the body (Step 1), the selection of the corresponding tapes (Step 2), the decontamina...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 28, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zorbo S, Jeuniaux PPJMH Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

The Effect of Temperature and Exposure Time on Stability of Cholesterol and Squalene in Latent Fingermarks Deposited on PVDF Membrane.
Abstract Cholesterol and squalene are fatty materials of latent fingermarks that can be utilized for dating methodologies and visualization techniques. Previous studies have suggested these compounds undergo degradation in fingermarks as a function of time (days) and light at ambient temperature. However, studies assessing how their composition changes at low and high temperatures over short periods of time (hours) have not been published previously. Here, we performed quantitative analysis of cholesterol and squalene in natural fingermark residue using PVDF membrane, after exposure to a range of temperatures (-20...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 28, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kim Y, Choi WS, Jeon B, Choi TH Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Fatal Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Hematoma with Airway Obstruction in the Setting of Treatment with Dipyridamole.
We report a fatal case of airway obstruction caused by spontaneous retropharyngeal hematoma (RH) in the setting of treatment with dipyridamole. A 90-year-old woman presented with cervical swelling, neck and chest ecchymoses, and complaints of dyspnea. She suffered cardiopulmonary arrest in the ambulance, and her death was confirmed after transportation to the hospital. The major finding of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) prior to autopsy was widening of the prevertebral soft tissue. The results of the autopsy indicated that the cause of death was mechanical asphyxia, secondary to pharyngeal and laryngeal compression ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 28, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Torimitsu S, Makino Y, Yamaguchi R, Chiba F, Tsuneya S, Iwase H Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Suicide by Close-Range Gunshot Wound to the Bridge of the Nose.
Abstract Suicidal gunshot wounds to the nasal bridge are rare, particularly at close range (defined as muzzle of the weapon not touching the skin surface, but near enough to deposit soot and stippling). Previously reported suicidal gunshot wounds to the nose have been through the left nostril (Forensic Sci Int 1995;71(1):25-31; J Forensic Radiol Imag 2013;1(2):63-7). The death of a 26-year-old man with a close-range gunshot wound to the bridge of the nose was deemed suicide due to history, scene, and autopsy findings. These findings included previous suicidal ideation, texted and written notes, the decedent's cros...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 25, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Pawsey SC, Wilson CG, Gunther WM, Fantaskey AP Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Commentary on: Zhuo Y, Wang X, Wu J, Zhang S, Deng H, Liu W, et al. Simultaneous quantitative determination of amphetamines, opiates, ketamine, cocaine and metabolites in human hair: application to forensic cases of drug abuse. J Forensic Sci doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14179. Epub 2019 Sep 9.
PMID: 31651991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 25, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Hu J, Zheng N, Liang M Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Authors' Response.
en M PMID: 31651993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 25, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Authors' Response. Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Distal Humerus Morphological Variation and Sex Estimation in Modern Thai Individuals.
This study examines distal humerus morphological variation in 616 modern Thai individuals (f = 198; m = 418) 18-96 years old and tests the methods on a hold-out sample of 152 individuals (f = 91; m = 61). The results indicate that population-specific binary probit regression performs the best (74.1-100%), followed by composite scoring (77.0-90.1%), binary logistic regression (63.3-92.2%), and univariate sectioning points (37.7-90.1%). Age minimally effects the expression of the medial epicondyle angle in males, and trait scoring is susceptible to high intra- and interobserver er...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 23, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Tallman SD, Blanton AI Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Unexpected Serotonin Syndrome, Epileptic Seizures, and Cerebral Edema Following 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine Ingestion.
Abstract 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) is a designer drug. In Europe, 2C-B is easily obtained and used for recreational purposes. It is known for its stimulating effects similar to those of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, although in higher doses it has more hallucinogenic effects. Here, we report a case of 2C-B ingestion, confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in an 18-year-old man. The neurological consequences were severe, including the development of serotonin syndrome and severe brain edema. Supportive therapy resulted in a stable condition, although, after several months...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 23, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Spoelder AS, Louwerens JKG, Krens SD, Jager N, LeCouffe NE, de Ruijter W, Brunt TM Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Identification of Opioids and Related Substances using Handheld Raman Spectrometers.
This study describes the performance of handheld Raman devices for detecting one hundred opioids and related substances including fentanyl and several analogs. Using a single "parent" device, signatures (spectra) with excellent signal-to-noise ratios were generated using
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 23, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Lanzarotta A, Witkowski M, Batson J Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

In memoriam.
IN MEMORIAM. J Forensic Sci. 2019 Oct 22;: Authors: Peat MA PMID: 31639219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 22, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Peat MA Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Determination of Changes in Crystal Violet and Phenoxyethanol (Dating Ink).
In this study, in 2017, we were asked by the court to determine whether the texts on the suspicious pages of an agenda dated 1996 were written within 2 years or earlier. Phenoxyethanol and dyes were examined in the composition of all suspected ink samples. The results show the determination of both the decomposition process of the dyes and the evaporation process of phenoxyethanol in the aging of the document entries written by ballpoint pen. PMID: 31617942 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 16, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Salkım İşlek D, İşat E, Cengiz S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

A Small Population Study on Friction Skin Ridges: Differences in Ridge Widths Between Latent and Inked Fingerprints.
Abstract Morphological changes in the width of latent fingermark ridges occur naturally over time. This could be used to examine the aging process of latents and eventually estimate time of deposition. In a crime context, it is common practice to compare a questioned (aged) fingermark with a database of known (inked) prints. Therefore, in the absence of fresh fingermarks for aging purposes, it is of interest to reveal correlations between these two categories of fingerprints with regard to the widths of their ridges. The present study explores correlations of ridge widths between flat and rolled inked prints with ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 10, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: De Alcaraz-Fossoul J, Tully-Doyle R, Weber AR, Barrot Feixat C, Zapico SC, Rivera Cardenas N, Sirard MJ, Graber RP Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Authors' Response.
er D PMID: 31584693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 4, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Authors' Response. Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Bacterial Profiling of Soil For Forensic Investigations: Consideration of Ex Situ Changes in Questioned and Known Soil Samples.
Abstract Soil, being diverse and ubiquitous, can potentially link a suspect or victim to a crime scene. Recently scientists have examined the microbial makeup of soil for determining its origin, and differentiating soil samples is well-established. However, when soil is transferred to evidence its microbial makeup may change over time, leading to false exclusions. In this research, "known" soils from diverse habitats were stored under controlled conditions, while evidence soils were aged on mock evidence. Limited quantities of soil were also assayed. Bacterial profiles were produced using next-generation...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - October 4, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Foran DR, Badgley AJ Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research