Greener grass or sour grapes? How people value future goals after initial failure
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Hallgeir Sjåstad, Roy F. Baumeister, Michael EntAbstractAcross six experiments (N = 1304), people dealt with failure by dismissing the value of future goals. Participants were randomly assigned to receive good or poor feedback on a practice trial of a cognitive test (Studies 1–3, 5–6) or their academic performance (Study 4). Those who received poor (vs. good) feedback predicted that they would feel less happy about a future top performance. However, when all participants received a top score on the actual ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - February 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Validation of a monetary Taylor Aggression Paradigm: Associations with trait aggression and role of provocation sequence
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Julian Konzok, Ludwig Kreuzpointner, Gina-Isabelle Henze, Lisa Wagels, Christian Kärgel, Kathrin Weidacker, Boris Schiffer, Hedwig Eisenbarth, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M. KudielkaAbstractThe Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) is widely used to measure reactive aggression in laboratory settings. While modified versions (mTAPs) with various stimulus characteristics (shocks, noise, pressure, heat) have already been established, a modified version with monetary stimuli has only been introduced very recently. In this experiment...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Race-based biases in judgments of social pain
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Jason C. Deska, Jonathan Kunstman, E. Paige Lloyd, Steven M. Almaraz, Michael J. Bernstein, J.P. Gonzales, Kurt HugenbergAbstractSix studies tested the hypothesis that evaluators judge Black people less sensitive to social pain than White people. Social pain was operationalized as the psychological distress caused by experiences that damage social worth and interpersonal relationships (e.g., derogation, exclusion, unfairness). White evaluators judged both Black male (Studies 1, 2a, & 2b) and female (Studies 2a & 2b) tar...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - February 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Roles of social knowledge and sexual dimorphism in the evaluation of facial attractiveness
This study involved two experiments to investigate the interaction between sexual dimorphism and social knowledge in relation to the evaluation of facial attractiveness. Experiment 1 examined the interaction between the valence of social knowledge and sexual dimorphism, and Experiment 2 examined the interaction between the content of social knowledge and sexual dimorphism. Results of Experiment 1 showed that irrespective of gender, positive social information significantly improved attractiveness ratings, while negative social information significantly reduced attractiveness ratings. Results of Experiment 2 showed that whe...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Don't you say it that way! Experimental evidence that controlling voices elicit defiance
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Netta Weinstein, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Silke PaulmannAbstractMotivational messages can be communicated in a controlling or pressuring way, or alternatively, speakers can support listeners' sense of choice and self-initiation. Despite this being a key aspect of daily life, little is known about the outcomes of different motivational tones on listeners' experiences. In three experiments, we tested the extent to which a controlling – rather than an autonomy-supportive – tone of voice elicited defiance, a tense desire ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pain scales as placebos: Can pain scales change reported pain across measurements?
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Joshua M. Ackerman, Jenna Goesling, Aradhna KrishnaAbstractVarious aspects of measurement scales, such as whether the scale is unipolar or bipolar, or the direction of response alternatives, can influence how people evaluate their own subjective experience. Here, we demonstrate scale effects tied to repeated measurement by examining self-reported pain. In many contexts, assessment of subjective experiences is done repeatedly, as when pain patients report their pain levels using a variety of scales. We propose that this repeated...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Don't let the facts ruin a good story: The effect of vivid reviews on attitude ambivalence and its coping mechanisms
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Guy Itzchakov, Moty Amar, Frenk Van HarreveldAbstractPurchasing decisions are increasingly based on reviews by fellow consumers which often consist of positive and negative evaluations about the product (i.e. valence-inconsistency). We tested how the vividness of these reviews affects individuals' attitude ambivalence towards the product and their strategies to cope with this ambivalence. We hypothesized that reading vivid and valence-inconsistent reviews would lead to increased awareness of opposing features of attitudes towar...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Viewing the world through “blood-red tinted glasses”: The hostile expectation bias mediates the link between violent video game exposure and aggression.” [Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (2012) 953–956]
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Youssef Hasan, Laurent Bègue, Brad J. Bushman (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attitudes as prepared reflexes
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): David E. Melnikoff, Robert Lambert, John A. BarghAbstractWhen people plan to respond to a stimulus S with an action R, they hold an S-R association in working memory. Such S-R associations are called prepared reflexes. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility that prepared reflexes play a central role in evaluative processing. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that attitudes toward a given stimulus S (i) become more positive when prepared reflexes associate S with a positively valenced action representatio...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Standing up against moral violations: Psychological processes of moral courage
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Anna Baumert, Mengyao Li, Julia Sasse, Linda Skitka (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluative priming as an implicit measure of evaluation: An examination of outlier-treatments for evaluative priming scores
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Lisa Hoffmann, Rainer Banse, Bertram GawronskiAbstractEvaluative priming is based on the notion that evaluative classifications of target stimuli are faster (vs. slower) when they are preceded by a prime stimulus of the same (vs. opposite) valence. Although evaluative priming is widely used as an implicit measure of evaluation, there is no common procedure for the treatment of response-latency outliers. To address this limitation, four studies examined common outlier-treatments in terms of (1) the ove...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Children's and adults' understanding of punishment and the criminal justice system
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): James P. Dunlea, Larisa HeiphetzAbstractAdults' judgments regarding punishment can have important social ramifications. However, the origins of these judgments remain unclear. Using the legal system as an example domain in which people receive punishment, the current work employed two complementary approaches to examine how punishment-related concepts emerge. Study 1 tested both 6- to 8-year-olds and adults to ascertain which components of “end-state” punishment concepts emerge early in development and remain stab...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Rarely safe to assume”: Evaluating the use and interpretation of manipulation checks in experimental social psychology
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Emma Ejelöv, Timothy J. LukeAbstractAlthough the use of manipulation checks is widespread in social psychology, several researchers have raised methodological concerns about their use and interpretations. However, knowledge of how they are actually being used has been lacking. Extracting data from published reports of 207 recent experiments, we provide an empirical review of current practices concerning manipulation checks in social psychology. Our review suggests that there are serious deficiencies in the manner in whic...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moral character evaluation: Testing another's moral-cognitive machinery
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Clayton R. Critcher, Erik G. Helzer, David TannenbaumAbstractPeople evaluate the moral character of others not only based on what they do, but also on what leads them to do it. Because an agent's state of mind is not directly observable, people typically engage in mindreading—attempts at inferring mental states—when forming moral evaluations. The present paper identifies a general target of such mental state inference, mental occurrents—a catchall term for the thoughts, beliefs, principles, feelings, concern...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of objectification on aggression
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Kai-Tak Poon, Zhansheng Chen, Fei Teng, Wing-Yan WongAbstractDo people become more aggressive when they are manipulated as a tool or object that can help others achieve performance goals? Adopting a multi-method approach with Eastern and Western samples, through six experiments (overall valid N = 1070), we tested whether objectification (i.e., being treated as an instrument that aids others in achieving instrumental performance goals) promotes aggression through thwarted perceived control. The results showed that ob...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“How can you help me if you are not from here?” Helper's familiarity with the context shapes interpretations of prosocial intergroup behaviors
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Islam Borinca, Juan M. Falomir-Pichastor, Luca AndrighettoAbstractThe present research examined people's (mis)interpretations of prosocial intergroup behaviors by investigating whether a helper's familiarity with the context influences the empathy and altruistic (vs. instrumental) motives recipients of help attribute to helpers. In four experiments we recruited participants from different cultural backgrounds (Kosovan Albanians and Swiss) and different age groups (adolescents and adults), and considered two different perspect...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does ego depletion reduce judgment adjustment for both internally and externally generated anchors?
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Lukas Röseler, Astrid Schütz, Roy F. Baumeister, Ulrike StarkerAbstractEgo depletion is a state in which people prefer to avoid mental effort, therefore possibly leading to increased reliance on heuristics. Effortful thinking has been shown to help reduce anchoring effects, in which people form social judgments by adjusting from an initial value (the anchor). We therefore predicted that ego depletion would reduce the amount of adjustment from an initial anchor, leaving the final judgment relatively close to the anch...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Conspicuous gifting: When and why women (do not) appreciate men's romantic luxury gifts
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): William Ding, Mario Pandelaere, Hendrik Slabbinck, David E. SprottAbstractWhile research suggests that conspicuously displaying luxury goods can help men signal desirable qualities such as high earning capacity and social status, little is known about how women evaluate and interpret luxury items given as romantic gifts by men. The current research explores this under-researched question and reveals that women do not always react favorably to luxury gifts. Instead, women are wary that accepting luxury gifts may lead to relati...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Too close to call: Spatial distance between options influences choice difficulty
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Iris K. Schneider, Julia Stapels, Sander L. Koole, Norbert SchwarzAbstractIn language, people often refer to decision difficulty in terms of spatial distance. Specifically, decision-difficulty is expressed as proximity, for instance when people say that a decision was “too close to call”. Although these expressions are metaphorical, we argue, in line with research on conceptual metaphor theory, that they reflect how people think about difficult decisions. Thus, here we examine whether close spatial distance can ac...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Win-win in distributive negotiations: The economic and relational benefits of strategic offer framing
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Michael Schaerer, Martin Schweinsberg, Nico Thornley, Roderick I. SwaabAbstractIn distributive negotiations, people often feel that they have to choose between maximizing their economic outcomes (claiming more value) or improving their relational outcomes (having a satisfied opponent). The present research proposes a conversational strategy that can help negotiators achieve both. Specifically, we show that using an offer framing strategy that shifts offer recipients' attention to their reservation price (e.g., “How does...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Defending victims of bullying in the classroom: The role of moral responsibility and social costs” [J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. (2019), 84, 10383]
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): J. Loes Pouwels, Tirza H.J. van Noorden, Simona C.S. Caravita (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Unpacking stereotype influences on source-monitoring processes: What mouse tracking can tell us
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Liliane Wulff, Sophie E. ScharfAbstractThe goal of this study was to understand the cognitive dynamics of stereotype influences on source monitoring employing mouse tracking. By continuously recording cursor movements, we examined how stereotypical knowledge influences decision uncertainty when processing and later remembering stereotype-consistent and -inconsistent exemplars of the age categories of “young” and “old”. In a source-monitoring task, participants (N = 60) learned age-stereotype ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reinforcement learning in social interaction: The distinguishing role of trait inference
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Leor M. Hackel, Peter Mende-Siedlecki, David M. AmodioAbstractPeople learn about the world by making choices and experiencing feedback—a process characterized by models of reinforcement learning in which people learn to associate their actions with rewarding outcomes. Although reinforcement models provide compelling accounts of feedback-based learning in nonsocial contexts, social interactions typically involve inferences of others' trait characteristics, which may be independent of their reward value. As a result, people...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Get out or stay out: How the social exclusion process affects actors, but not targets
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Frank T. Doolaard, Gert-Jan Lelieveld, Marret K. Noordewier, Ilja van Beest, Eric van DijkAbstractIt is well documented that when people (targets) are socially excluded by others (actors) they feel hurt. To understand social exclusion, however, we argue it is crucial to look not only at the end state of exclusion (do targets end up excluded or included?) but also at the process (how are targets excluded?). In four studies we differentiated between two processes of exclusion: being removed from a group and being denied access in...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Re-assessing the incremental predictive validity of Implicit Association Tests
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Nicholas Buttrick, Jordan Axt, Charles R. Ebersole, Jacalyn HubandAbstractIndirect measures of attitudes or stereotypes, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), assess associations that are relatively automatic, unintentional, or uncontrollable. A primary argument for the IAT's use is that it can predict relevant outcomes beyond parallel direct measures, such as self-report (a claim referred to as demonstrating incremental predictive validity). Prior work on this issue relied primarily on least squares linear regression an...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Donald Trump and vaccination: The effect of political identity, conspiracist ideation and presidential tweets on vaccine hesitancy
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Matthew J. Hornsey, Matthew Finlayson, Gabrielle Chatwood, Christopher T. BegenyAbstractDonald Trump is the first U.S. President to be on the record as having anti-vaccination attitudes. Given his enormous reach and influence, it is worthwhile examining the extent to which allegiance to Trump is associated with the public's perceptions of vaccine safety and efficacy. In both Study 1 (N = 518) and Study 2 (N = 316), Trump voters were significantly more concerned about vaccines than other Americans. This tende...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cue masking and cultural signals: Testing context-specific preferences for bald(ing) leaders
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 88Author(s): Nancy M. Blaker, Brian R. Spisak, Joshua M. Tybur, Michal Kandrik, Richard D. ArveyAbstractAndrogenic Alopecia affects the majority of aging men and consequently a substantial number of leaders. Yet, there is little research on how male pattern baldness (MPB) influences leader perceptions, and no research on context-specific leader preferences for bald men. Across three studies, we add to this sparse literature by investigating a) how baldness as a biological cue for age (i.e. MPB) affects various trait perceptions, as opposed ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - January 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - December 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dealing with government dysfunction: Perceived electoral system brokenness explains the effects of high and low perceived polarization on support for fixes
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Gabrielle Pogge, Colin Tucker SmithAbstractIn five pre-registered experiments, we demonstrate causal effects of perceptions of political polarization and, especially, electoral system brokenness on desire for inclusion of a third party candidate and support for potential fixes to the electoral system. We first manipulated perceived issue polarization between two candidates in a fictional election to be high, medium, or low and showed that the high and low polarization conditions, compared to the medium condition, evoked great...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What's in a shape? Evidence of gender category associations with basic forms
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Steven J. Stroessner, Jonathan Benitez, Michael A. Perez, Alisa B. Wyman, Colleen M. Carpinella, Kerri L. JohnsonAbstractFive experiments tested the possibility that basic shapes – squares, circles, and equilateral triangles – are gendered. Based on morphological, evolutionary, and socialization considerations, we hypothesized that square shapes would be associated with the male gender category and circles with the female gender category. Results on both direct (self-report) and indirect (IAT, priming) measures we...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An association between biased impression updating and relationship facilitation: A behavioral and fMRI investigation
We examined the link between biased impression updating for ingroup members (i.e., friends) and relationship maintenance, as measured by the number of friends participants reported having (Studies 1 and 2). We also investigated the underlying neural basis of this possible effect, focusing on activity in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ), a region of the social brain involved in moral updating (Study 2). Specifically, we tested whether selectively discounting negative information about close others, manifested in reduced impression updating, and indexed by reduced RTPJ activity, is related to maintaining close rela...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Different faces of empathy: Feelings of similarity disrupt recognition of negative emotions
We report four studies in which participants (total N = 803) watched videos of targets sharing genuine negative emotional experiences. Participants' multi-scalar ratings of the targets' emotions were compared with the targets' own emotion ratings. In Study 1 we found that having had a similar experience to what the target was sharing was associated with lower recognition of the target's emotions. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and in addition showed that making participants' own imagined reaction to the described event salient resulted in further reduced accuracy. Studies 3 and 4 were preregistered replications an...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Arousal increases self-disclosure
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 87Author(s): Brent Coker, Ann L. McGillAbstractThis research tests the hypothesis that arousal increases self-disclosure. We find that affective arousal increases the amount (study 1) and the severity (study 2) of self-disclosure, and that self-disclosure is also increased by physiological arousal (study 3). We further explore the moderating effect of thought frequency on the arousal-disclosure relationship, finding that often-thought-about thoughts are more likely to be disclosed than less thought-about thoughts. This research has practi...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measure what you are trying to predict: Applying the correspondence principle to the Implicit Association Test
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Louis H. Irving, Colin Tucker SmithAbstractThe Implicit Association Test (IAT) is nearly synonymous with the implicit attitude construct. At the same time, correlations between the IAT and criterion measures are often remarkably low. Developed within research using explicit measures of attitudes, the correspondence principle posits that measures should better predict criteria when there is a match in terms of the level of generality or specificity at which both are conceptualized (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977). As such, weak ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Meta-analytic evidence for ambivalence resolution as a key process in effortless self-control
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 85Author(s): Iris K. Schneider, Marleen Gillebaart, André MattesAbstractSelf-control is a central construct in understanding human behavior and wellbeing, and has a significant impact on outcomes in several areas such as health, wellbeing, academic performance, and interpersonal relationships. However, underlying mechanisms of self-control, and particularly effortless self-control, remain underexposed. Recent work using mouse tracking techniques has shed new light on these issues and found that self-control is related to ambival...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When does anger boost status?
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 85Author(s): Celia Gaertig, Alixandra Barasch, Emma E. Levine, Maurice E. SchweitzerAbstractA substantial literature asserts that anger expressions boost status. Across seven studies (N = 4027), we demonstrate that this assertion is often wrong. Rather than boosting status, many anger expressions predictably diminish status. We find that the intensity of expressed anger profoundly influences social perceptions and status conferral. Compared to mildly or moderately angry individuals, extremely angry people are perceived to be less c...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do humans possess an autonomous system justification motivation? A Pupillometric test of the strong system justification thesis
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Chuma Kevin Owuamalam, Russell SpearsAbstractTo investigate the existence of an autonomous system justification motive that guides human behavior, we tested the dissonance-inspired strong system-justification thesis: that the cognitive effort expended to justify societal systems on which people depend, is greater amongst the disadvantaged than amongst the advantaged when their group identities are weak in salience/strength. Using a novel pupil dilation paradigm to tap cognitive effort, we exposed an ethnic minority group (N...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Beware a dishonest face?: Updating face-based implicit impressions using diagnostic behavioral information
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Xi Shen, Thomas C. Mann, Melissa J. FergusonAbstractPeople quickly infer trustworthiness from faces and use it to guide judgments and behaviors. Past research has suggested that face information is too powerful to be overridden by behavioral evidence, especially implicitly, suggesting that untrustworthiness in faces might be an insurmountable influence in impressions of others. In 5 studies, however, we found that implicit impressions of untrustworthy faces can be effectively updated by learning new, counterattitudinal beha...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Promiscuous condemnation: People assume ambiguous actions are immoral
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Neil Hester, B. Keith Payne, Kurt GrayAbstractDo people view others as good or evil? Although people generally cooperate with others and view others' “true selves” as intrinsically good, we suggest that they are likely to assume that the actions of others are evil—at least when they are ambiguous. Nine experiments provide support for promiscuous condemnation: the general tendency to assume that ambiguous actions are immoral. Both cognitive and functional arguments support the idea of promiscuous condemnati...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Where does moral conviction fit?: A factor analytic approach examining antecedents to attitude strength
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Aviva Z. Philipp-Muller, Laura E. Wallace, Duane T. WegenerAbstractResearch and theory has suggested that moral conviction is distinct from other attitude strength antecedents. Yet, many attitude features conceptually overlap with features considered definitional to moral conviction. In order to place moral conviction within the broader landscape of attitude properties, we examined the factor analytic structure of a set of attitude strength antecedents that seemed conceptually related to moral basis. Participants reported a...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Americans hold their political leaders to a higher discursive standard than rank-and-file co-partisans
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Jeremy A. Frimer, Linda J. SkitkaAbstractDo political partisans hold their co-partisan political leaders to a higher or lower discursive standard than rank-and-file co-partisans? Previous research in non-political group contexts suggests competing answers to this question. Some research (e.g., Abrams et al., 2013) suggests that leaders (as defenders of the group) are afforded credits for transgressions and thus held to a lower behavioral standard for incivility than their constituents. Other research (e.g., Pinto et al., 20...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Choosing persuasion targets: How expectations of qualitative change increase advocacy intentions
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Christopher J. Bechler, Zakary L. Tormala, Derek D. RuckerAbstractAdvocacy is a topic of increasing import in the attitudes literature, but researchers know little to nothing about how people (i.e., persuaders) choose their targets (i.e., the recipients of their advocacy). Four main experiments and six supplemental studies (total N = 3684) demonstrate that people prefer to direct persuasion efforts toward individuals who seem poised to shift their attitudes qualitatively (e.g., from negative to positive) rather than non...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The relative contribution of response bias and weighting-of-similarity bias to valence asymmetry in attitude generalization
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 85Author(s): Hadar Ram, Nira LibermanAbstractNegative generalization asymmetry (NGA) is a tendency to generalize negative attitudes more widely than positive attitudes. Studies found robust NGA for new objects that resemble both positive and negative learned objects, and even stronger NGA for new objects that resemble neither. Two biases were suggested to underlie NGA: (1) negative response bias, whereby a novel object is perceived as novel, but forced to make a dichotomous good/bad decision, a responder has a strategy to classify it a...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Take care, honey!”: People are more anxious about their significant others' risk behavior than about their own
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Mirjam Ghassemi, Katharina Bernecker, Veronika BrandstätterAbstractThis research investigated people's affective reaction to and cognitive evaluation of risks taken by close others. Five experimental studies showed that individuals were more anxious when a significant other (e.g., their partner) intended to engage in behavior implying risk to health or safety than when they intended to engage in the same behavior themselves. This discrepancy did not emerge if the other was emotionally distant (e.g., an acquaintance), s...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Power and moral dilemma judgments: Distinct effects of memory recall versus social roles
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Bertram Gawronski, Skylar M. BrannonAbstractCounter to the lay belief that power corrupts people's sense of morality, social psychological theories suggest that the effects of power on moral judgment are rather complex and multifaceted. To test competing predictions derived from these theories, five experiments used the CNI model to investigate whether power affects responses to moral dilemmas by influencing (1) sensitivity to morally relevant consequences, (2) sensitivity to moral norms, or (3) general action tendencies re...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are single people a stigmatized ‘group’? Evidence from examinations of social identity, entitativity, and perceived responsibility
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Alexandra N. Fisher, John K. SakalukAbstractPast research consistently suggests that singles are stigmatized, but do they constitute a stigmatized group? The current research provides deeper insight into the stigmatization of single people by understanding their ‘group-y’ nature, and how group identification and perception map onto discrimination and prejudice. Study 1 examined the extent to which singles identify as part of a group. Participants were assigned a novel minimal group identity and then completed me...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Making the right first impression: Sexual priming encourages attitude change and self-presentation lies during encounters with potential partners
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Gurit E. Birnbaum, Mor Iluz, Harry T. ReisAbstractRecent studies have shown that activation of the sexual system encourages enactment of relationship-initiating behaviors (Birnbaum et al., 2017). In four studies, we expand on this work to explore whether people are more inclined to lie to impress a potential partner following sexual priming. In all studies, participants were exposed to sexual stimuli (versus non-sexual stimuli) and then interacted with an opposite-sex stranger. In Study 1, unacquainted participants resolved...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Delay discounting in dyads and small groups: Group leadership, status information, and actor-partner interdependence
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 86Author(s): Michael T. Bixter, Christian C. LuhmannAbstractDelay discounting is usually studied at the individual level, though there exist many situations where dyads and small groups have to make intertemporal decisions about delayed rewards. In the current study, we investigated the social dynamics in collective intertemporal decision making by experimentally manipulating group leadership and status differentials among dyad and group members. Participants in all experiments completed three phases of an intertemporal decision-making ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding cognitive and affective mechanisms in social psychology through eye-tracking
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 85Author(s): Rima-Maria Rahal, Susann FiedlerAbstractSocial psychological research is increasingly interested in the cognitive and affective processes underlying human behavior in social environments. To match this emerging interest, social psychology is embracing new methodological approaches. We identify eye-tracking as an unobtrusive, direct and fine-grained process tracing technique with promising implications for these new developments. In particular, eye-tracking helps researchers avoid relying on self-report measures alone and o...
Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - November 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research