Effectiveness of an indigenous parent training program on change in parenting styles and delinquent tendencies (challenging behaviors) in Pakistan: A randomized controlled trial
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Rubina Kauser, Martin PinquartAbstractThe effectiveness of an indigenous parent training program was examined within selected Pakistani families. For this purpose, 110 parents of adolescents with above-average levels of delinquent tendencies (challenging behaviors), who were screened and chosen from five randomly selected schools in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, participated in the study. The adolescents’ parents were randomly placed into either an intervention group or a control group. Members of the intervention group ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - September 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Trust me, I’m a competent expert: Developmental differences in children’s use of an expert’s explanation quality to infer trustworthiness
In this study, we examined how 3-, 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children respond when informants who are labeled as experts fail to provide high-quality explanations about phenomena within their realm of expertise. We found that 4-, 5-, and 7-year-olds discounted their initial trust in an expert who provided low-quality explanations in a task related to the expert’s area of expertise. The 5-year-olds’ distrust of the expert who provided low-quality explanations also generalized to additional learning tasks. When an expert provided explanations consistent with the expert’s labeled expertise, 5-year-olds maintain...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - September 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Young children selectively ignore quality to promote self-interest
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Li Zhao, Wenjin Sun, Xinyan Jia, Xiaoxing He, Ying Liu, Kang Lee, Genyue Fu, Brian J. Compton, Gail D. HeymanAbstractAlthough there has been extensive research on how children distribute resources with respect to quantity, little is known about how these decisions are affected by resource quality. The current research addressed this question by conducting two preregistered studies in which 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children (total N = 360) made anonymous distributions of high-quality and low-quality items. Quantitative fa...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - September 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Age differences in electrocortical reactivity to fearful faces following aversive conditioning in youth
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Katie L. Burkhouse, Max Owens, Kiera James, Brandon E. GibbAbstractAlthough biases in the processing of affectively salient stimuli are thought to increase risk for psychopathology across the lifespan, questions remain regarding how these biases develop. The current study tested an aversive conditioning model for the development of children’s sensitivity in detecting fearful faces at varying levels of emotional intensity and their facilitated attention to fearful faces assessed via the late positive potential (LPP) e...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - September 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teachers’ nonverbal behaviors influence children’s stereotypic beliefs
This study shows that teachers’ nonverbal behaviors may be one source of children’s academic stereotypes, including negative stereotypes about groups to which they belong. Moreover, these findings highlight the importance of subtle social cues in guiding children’s beliefs about social groups. (Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 31, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effects of the putative confession and evidence presentation on maltreated and non-maltreated 9- to 12-year-olds’ disclosures of a minor transgression
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Angela D. Evans, Thomas D. LyonAbstractThe current study examined the influence of the putative confession (in which children are told that the suspect told them “everything that happened” and “wants [the child] to tell the truth”) and evidence presentation on 9- to 12-year-old maltreated and non-maltreated children’s disclosure (N = 321). Half of the children played a forbidden game with an adult confederate that resulted in a laptop computer breaking (no transgression occurred for the ot...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 31, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Children’s and adults’ epistemic trust in and impressions of inaccurate informants
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Samuel Ronfard, Jonathan D. LaneAbstractAs children and adults interact with new individuals, they make and revise inferences about these individuals’ traits and intentions; they build and refine psychological profiles. Here, we examined how this ability develops during early childhood and manifests during adulthood by focusing on the construction of psychological profiles for individuals who have repeatedly provided inaccurate information. Children aged 4–7 years (n = 66) and adults (n = 62) played s...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effects of dual language exposure on executive function in Spanish–English bilingual children with different language abilities
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Kimberly Crespo, Megan Gross, Margarita KaushanskayaAbstractThe current study examined the effects of dual language exposure on executive function in 5- to 11-year-old Spanish–English bilingual children with different language skills. Dual language exposure was measured via parent report and was operationalized as the proportion of time spent in an environment where both English and Spanish were present. Executive function was measured via the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task. Shifting costs, switching costs,...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Pay to play: Children’s emerging ability to use acts of generosity for selfish ends
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Felix Warneken, Carla Sebastián-Enesco, Natalie E. Benjamin, Kerrie A. PielochAbstractAdults will offer favors to advance their standing and solicit a favor in return, using ostensibly prosocial acts strategically for selfish ends. Here we assessed the developmental emergence of such strategic behaviors in which individuals are generous to elicit future reciprocation from others. In a novel experimental paradigm with children aged 3 to 7 years, we tested whether children are willing to share more valuable resource...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Group bias in children’s merit-based resource allocation
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Xue Xiao, Lu Liu, Liangyuan Xu, Lisha Liu, Chuansheng Chen, Yanfang LiAbstractFrom early in life, children show sensitivity to both merit and group membership. However, little research has examined how children react to the conflicting demands of allocating meritoriously and favoring in-groups during resource allocation over the course of their development. We compared how children aged 3–5 years and children aged 6–8 years allocated and reasoned about allocations to in-group and out-group members in a meri...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): (Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Perceived access to resources and young children’s fairness judgments
This study examined how young children’s (N = 101, Mage = 4.14 years, SD = 0.57) perceptions of their families’ access to resources affect their views on others’ use and distribution of familiar items. Using a simple measure involving stickers, children identified their families as either lower, higher, or in the middle in access to resources. Then, children evaluated a scenario in which an individual took crayons from one person and gave them to another in order to establish equality. Children who saw themselves as higher in access to resources determined that this was “not okay&rdquo...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Age, numeracy, and cultural differences in Chinese and American adolescents’ performance on the ratio bias task
Discussion focuses on transferring formal math skills to everyday judgments, the associations among age, culture, and numeracy from a dual-process perspective, and limitations and alternative interpretations of the findings. (Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Xianwei Meng, Tatsunori Ishii, Kairi Sugimoto, Ruiting Song, Yusuke Moriguchi, Katsumi WatanabeAbstractRemembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children aged 5 or 6 years. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Children’s moral judgments about psychological harm: Links among harm salience, victims’ vulnerability, and child sympathy
This study examined 106 5- and 6-year-olds’ (M = 5.84 years, SD = 0.62) judgments and justifications about psychological harm (e.g., acts such as teasing or excluding others) assessed in three experimental harm salience conditions (highly salient harm, less salient harm, and no harm) crossed with two victims’ vulnerability conditions (typical child and vulnerable child). We also examined interactions between these features and parent and child ratings of sympathy. Children evaluated highly salient harm as more unacceptable, more punishable, and more wrong independent of authority and as resulting in v...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Auditory information-integration category learning in young children and adults
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Casey L. Roark, Lori L. HoltAbstractAdults outperform children on category learning that requires selective attention to individual dimensions (rule-based categories) due to their more highly developed working memory abilities, but much less is known about developmental differences in learning categories that require integration across multiple dimensions (information-integration categories). The current study investigated auditory information-integration category learning in 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 34) and 18- ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Preschool deficits in cardinal knowledge and executive function contribute to longer-term mathematical learning disability
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Felicia W. Chu, Kristy vanMarle, Mary K. Hoard, Lara Nugent, John E. Scofield, David C. GearyAbstractIn a preschool through first grade longitudinal study, we identified groups of children with persistently low mathematics achievement (n = 14) and children with low achievement in preschool but average achievement in first grade (n = 23). The preschool quantitative developments of these respective groups of children with mathematical learning disability (MLD) and recovered children and a group of typically achieving...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Toddlers’ intrinsic motivation to return help to their benefactor
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Katharina Müller, Michael TomaselloAbstractA natural reaction to receiving help from someone is to help that person in return. In two studies, we investigated the developmental origins of children’s motivation to return help. In Study 1, 18- and 24-month-old toddlers were either helped or not helped by an adult, and they could subsequently provide that adult with help or else observe another person providing help. We measured children’s internal arousal, via changes in pupil d...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Removing shared information improves 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a change-of-location explicit false belief task
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child PsychologyAuthor(s): Gideon Salter, Richard BrehenyAbstractThe classic change-of-location explicit false belief task ends with a test question of the form “Where will the [agent] look for the [object]?” It has been proposed that by including mention of the target object, the question creates unwanted attention to the actual object location. A standard explanation is that children are biased to answer according to their own knowledge of reality. We proposed that mention of the target object brings attention to the reality loca...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Self-derivation through memory integration under low surface similarity conditions: The case of multiple languages
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Alena G. Esposito, Patricia J. BauerAbstractA primary objective of development is to build a knowledge base. To accumulate knowledge over time and experiences, learners must engage in productive processes, going beyond what is explicitly given to generate new knowledge. Although these processes are important to accumulating knowledge, they are also easily disrupted. Individuals often depend on surface-level similarities, such as visual features, to recognize the relation between learning episodes. When the surface-level si...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of goal cueing in kindergarteners’ working memory
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Christophe Fitamen, Agnès Blaye, Valérie CamosAbstractGoal neglect has been shown to contribute to kindergarteners’ poor executive control. Hence, presenting goal cues during a task improves children’s performance in inhibition and switching tasks. The current study aimed at extending these findings to working memory (WM) by examining the extent to which kindergarteners’ poor WM performance can result from neglecting the goal to recall memoranda at the end of the retention interval. This que...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Young children’s counterfactual thinking: Triggered by the negative emotions of others
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Keito NakamichiAbstractThree experiments examined the influence of other people’s negative emotions on young children’s counterfactual thinking. Experiment 1 (N = 48) explored whether 4- to 6-year-olds could think counterfactually about both physical and emotional events using the discriminating counterfactual tasks that children could not respond correctly without thinking counterfactually. Experiment 1 showed that 4- to 6-year-olds could think of counterfactuals associated with emotional events. Experimen...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 3, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Individual differences in math problem solving and executive processing among emerging bilingual children
This study identified cognitive processes that underlie individual differences in working memory (WM) and mathematical problem-solving accuracy in emerging bilingual children (English learners). A battery of tests was administered in both English and Spanish that assessed problem solving, achievement, and cognitive processing in children in first grade (n = 155), second grade (n = 129), and third grade (n = 110). The results were that (a) the executive component of WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independent of first language and second language measures of vocabulary, reading, domain-specific k...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - August 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Children’s perceptions of the moral worth of live agents, robots, and inanimate objects
This study examined children’s moral concern for robots relative to living and nonliving entities. Children (4–10 years of age, N = 126) watched videos of six different entities having a box placed over them that was subsequently struck by a human hand. Children were subsequently asked to rate the moral worth of each agent relating to physical harm. Children afforded robotic entities less moral concern than living entities but afforded them more moral concern than nonliving entities, and these effects became more pronounced with age. Children’s tendency to ascribe mental life to robotic and nonlivin...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 31, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Number line unidimensionality is a critical feature for promoting fraction magnitude concepts
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Elizabeth A. Gunderson, Noora Hamdan, Lindsey Hildebrand, Victoria BartekAbstractChildren’s ability to estimate fractions on a number line is strongly related to algebra and overall high school math achievement, and number line training leads to better fraction magnitude comparisons compared with area model training. Here, we asked whether unidimensionality is necessary for the number line to promote fraction magnitude concepts and whether left-to-right orientation and labeled endpoints are sufficient. We randomly as...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 31, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Two-year-olds succeed at MIT: Multiple identity tracking in 20- and 25-month-old infants
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Chen Cheng, Zsuzsa Kaldy, Erik BlaserAbstractInfants’ ability to remember objects and their locations emerges during the first year of life. However, not much is known about infants’ ability to track objects’ identities in a dynamic environment. Here, we tailored the delayed match retrieval eye-tracking paradigm to study infants’ ability to track two object identities during occlusion—an infant version of multiple identity tracking (MIT). Delayed match retrieval uses virtual “cards&rdquo...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 26, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does 1 + 1 = 2nd? The relations between children’s understanding of ordinal position and their arithmetic performance
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Chi-Ngai Cheung, Stella F. LourencoAbstractThe current study examined the relations between 5- and 6-year-olds’ understanding of ordinality and their mathematical competence. We focused specifically on “positional operations,” a property of ordinality not contingent on magnitude, in an effort to better understand the unique contributions of position-based ordinality to math development. Our findings revealed that two types of positional operations—the ability to execute representational movement alo...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 25, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Adult instruction limits children’s flexibility in moral decision making
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child PsychologyAuthor(s): Susanne Hardecker, Joanna C. Buryn-Weitzel, Michael TomaselloAbstractChildren’s moral behavior is guided, in part, by adults teaching children how to treat others. However, when circumstances change, such instructions may become either unhelpful or limiting. In the current study, 48 dyads of 5-year-olds played a collaborative game and either (a) received an instruction by an adult to share the spoils of the game equally, (b) did not receive any instruction (but still chose to share equally), or (c) agreed between...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Infants attend longer to controlling versus supportive directive speech
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Sarah Gerson, Netta Weinstein, Merideth Gattis, Silke PaulmannAbstractDirective communications play a critical role in infants’ and young children’s daily routines as they are regularly guided by close others. An extensive literature describes two ways of directing action: autonomy support and control. These motivational qualities are thought to be especially important to development as they shape well-being, learning, and exploration. The way in which such motivations are communicated through tone of voice may...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The influence of intention and outcome on young children’s reciprocal sharing
This study investigated the influence of underlying intentions and outcomes of a partner’s sharing behavior on young children’s reciprocity. We provided 3- and 5-year-old children with the opportunity to share with a partner following different treatments of a partner’s intention (to share or not to share) that led to different outcomes (children got or did not get stickers from their partner). For the 3-year-olds, we found that the outcome of the previous interaction influenced how much they shared, whereas the intention of their partner affected how readily they initiated sharing in response to social c...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

What does Mickey Mouse know about food? Children’s trust in favorite characters versus experts
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 187Author(s): Allison J. Williams, Judith H. DanovitchAbstractChildren receive information from multiple sources, including people who are more or less knowledgeable and more or less familiar. In some cases, children also encounter messages from fictional characters who vary across these dimensions. Two studies investigated children’s trust in a familiar animal character versus a human expert when hearing conflicting information about items related to or unrelated to the expert’s knowledge. In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): (Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching a novel word: Parenting styles and toddlers’ word learning
We examined the styles that parents adopted while teaching a novel word to their toddlers and whether those styles related to children’s word learning and engagement during the task. Participants were 36 parents and their toddlers (Mage = 20 months). Parents were videotaped while teaching their children a name for a novel object. Parental utterances were transcribed verbatim and coded for cognitive and autonomy support. Children’s utterances were coded for elicited and spontaneous contributions. Children’s ability to recognize and process the novel word was assessed using the Looking-While-Listening...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effect of verbal information about model’s competence on overimitation by preschool children
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Iatan Rodrigues Boutros Ladeia, Eduardo Benedicto OttoniAbstractOverimitation is defined by a tendency to copy all actions executed by a model, even the clearly irrelevant ones. The motivational mechanisms and functionality of overimitation are still not well understood, but its possible adaptive meaning could be related to causal opacity of a great part of socially learned behaviors. This phenomenon has been widely replicated in several contexts and has been observed in the behavior of children over 2 years of age and ev...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 8, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Do implicitly measured math–anxiety associations play a role in math behavior?
In this study, it was investigated whether math–anxiety associations would be related to math anxiety and whether they predicted math behavior as well as state math anxiety independent of explicitly measured math anxiety. In addition, the domain specificity of math–anxiety associations for predicting math behavior was investigated. Adolescents’ anxiety associations and self-reported anxiety were assessed for three domains: math anxiety, foreign language (English) anxiety, and trait anxiety. A sample of 189 secondary school students performed three single-target implicit association tests, performed a math...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 8, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Increased sharing between collaborators extends beyond the spoils of collaboration
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): John CorbitAbstractResearch has shown that preschoolers increase equal sharing after collaborating to earn resources, suggesting that collaboration may be an important context for the development of fairness. The current study explored the influence of specific components of collaborative interactions to better understand the social cognitive foundations of this precocious increase in equal sharing. The effects of three forms of collaborative interaction on children’s sharing were compared: collaborating toward a join...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - July 5, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

When words are upside down: Language–space associations in children and adults
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Anne Vogt, Barbara Kaup, Carolin DudschigAbstractThe nonlinguistic sensorimotor experiences and contexts that accompany language learning are often assumed to play an integral role in meaning representation. However, despite embodied models of language comprehension being well established in the literature, evidence is mainly derived from adult studies. For example, it has been shown that for adult comprehenders there is a close link between language and space, resulting in automatic reactivation of a referent’s spati...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Evidence for the role of inhibition in numerical comparison: A negative priming study in 7- to 8-year-olds and adults
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Arnaud Viarouge, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire BorstAbstractAdapting a numerical comparison task to a negative priming paradigm, we aimed to provide new evidence that inhibitory control processes are involved in numerical comparison. We observed negative priming effects in both 7- to 8-year-olds (n = 47, Mage = 7.92 years) and adults (n = 33, Mage = 27.86 years), confirming that inhibition of irrelevant dimensions of magnitude is needed in numerical estimation at both ages. In addition, the ampli...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 27, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 185Author(s): (Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The developmental trend of transposed letters effects in masked priming
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Lucia Colombo, Simone Sulpizio, Francesca PeressottiAbstractIn the current study, we investigated the development of transposed letter (TL) priming effects with masked priming. Recent studies have reported different and contrasting results concerning the age at which TL priming effects first appear and whether they tend to decline or increase with age. One of the aims of this study was to investigate the developmental trend of orthographic mechanisms underlying the TL effects in Italian. We tested three groups of children (...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of salience in young children’s processing of ad hoc implicatures
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Erica J. Yoon, Michael C. FrankAbstractLanguage comprehension often requires making implicatures. For example, inferring that “I ate some of the cookies” implicates that the speaker ate some but not all (scalar implicatures), and “I ate the chocolate chip cookies” where there are both chocolate chip cookies and raisin cookies in the context implicates that the speaker ate the chocolate chip cookies but not both the chocolate chip and raisin cookies (ad hoc implicatures). Children’s ability to m...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Against unfairness: Young children’s judgments about merit, equity, and equality
This study examined young children’s judgments of resource distributions that either adhered to or diverged from principles of equality, equity, or merit in straightforward, peer-based scenarios. The sample comprised 192 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse 3- to 8-year-olds. Between 3 and 8 years of age, children evaluated inequitable and anti-meritorious allocations more negatively but did not evaluate equitable and meritorious allocations more positively. Rather, between 3 and 8 years, children increasingly supported equality. Highlighting an important but often overlooked developmental distinction, these ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Parental gentle encouragement promotes shy toddlers’ regulation in social contexts
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Jessica Stoltzfus GradyAbstractGentle encouragement to approach appears to reduce risk for anxiety and is commonly incorporated into parenting interventions for inhibited preschoolers, yet little is known regarding whether gentle encouragement facilitates in-the-moment regulation as shy or inhibited children face social novelty, particularly during the toddler period. The current study used a sample of 55 temperamentally shy toddlers (21–24 months old) to examine toddler regulation in novel social contexts in relati...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Fine motor skills and mental imagery: Is it all in the mind?
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Philipp Martzog, Sebastian Paul SuggateAbstractPrevious work has indicated that children’s fine motor skills (FMS) contribute to cognitive performance in a number of domains. A philosophically and scientifically central aspect of cognitive skill is the ability to mentally simulate external events; however, very little research has examined whether FMS relate to mental imagery. Children aged 35–129 months (N = 294) were administered measures of FMS and mental imagery. Control variables included working memo...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Geometric maps as tools for different purposes in early childhood
This study examined whether and how young children make spontaneous use of geometric maps for two different purposes: to determine and to represent the locations of objects. A total of 64 2.5-, 3-, 3.5-, and 4-year-old children solved a task with two phases in counterbalanced order; they needed to use a map to locate a toy hidden in a referent space (retrieval) and to indicate on the symbol with a sticker the location of the hidden toy (map making). Results show that there is a clear developmental progression, with 2.5-year-olds failing both phases, 3- and 3.5-year-olds succeeding only in the map making phase, and 4-year-o...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 11, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Rapid identification of the face in infants
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Shuma Tsurumi, So Kanazawa, Masami K. Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichiro KawaharaAbstractOur visual system can rapidly process stimuli relevant to our current behavioral goal within various irrelevant stimuli in natural scenes. This ability to detect and identify target stimuli during nontarget stimuli has been mainly studied in adults, so that the development of this high-level visual function has been unknown among infants, although it has been shown that 15-month-olds’ temporal thresholds of face visibility are close to those o...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 11, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Face detection in infants and adults: Effects of orientation and color
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Elizabeth A. Simpson, Sarah E. Maylott, Kyla Leonard, Roberto J. Lazo, Krisztina V. JakobsenAbstractHumans rapidly locate and recognize human faces, even in complex environments. In the current study, we explored some of the social and perceptual features of faces that may contribute to this ability. We measured infant and adult attention to complex, heterogeneous image arrays containing human and animal faces. Arrays were upright or inverted 180° and in color or grayscale. Infants, aged 3–5 months (n = 51) ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Inhibiting intuitive rules in a geometry comparison task: Do age level and math achievement matter?
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 186Author(s): Ronghuan Jiang, Xiaodong Li, Ping Xu, Yaping ChenAbstractMany people apply the “larger area–larger perimeter” rule to solve the perimeter comparison problems, even in situations where this intuitive rule is misleading. To investigate whether inhibitory control is needed in the perimeter comparison reasoning and whether the efficiency of inhibitory control varies with students’ ages and achievements, we designed a negative priming paradigm and conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, a negative pri...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

If I were a grown-up: Children’s response to the rubber hand illusion with different hand sizes
In this study, 6- to 8-year-old children experienced the “rubber hand illusion” while watching a regular (child-like) or larger (adult-like) rubber hand being touched either synchronously or asynchronously with their own real hand. We measured proprioceptive drift and subjective ownership as well as changes in weight estimation of objects. Synchronous versus asynchronous visuotactile stroking with both the regular and larger hands caused a change in subjective body ownership but did not make a difference in perceived hand location and weight estimation of objects having the same size but different weight. Intri...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 5, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Egocentric bias in emotional understanding of children and adults
This study examined whether egocentric bias in emotional understanding occurs in children and adults. Children aged 8 and 9 years (third graders), 11 and 12 years (sixth graders), and 15 and 16 years (tenth graders), as well as adults, participated. They were presented with two types of stories in both negative and positive contexts. In one story, an actor intentionally harmed or helped a protagonist. In the other story, an actor accidentally harmed or helped a protagonist. In the knowledge condition, the protagonists in both stories watched the actors and therefore knew that the actors intentionally or accidentally ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - June 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research