Responses of Manduca sexta larvae to heat waves [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Joel G. Kingsolver, M. Elizabeth Moore, Kate E. Augustine, and Christina A. Hill Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and other extreme weather events experienced by organisms. How does the number and developmental timing of heat waves affect survival, growth and development of insects? Do heat waves early in development alter performance later in development? We addressed these questions using experimental heat waves with larvae of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta. The experiments used diurnally fluctuating temperature treatments differing in the number (0-3) and developmental timing (early, middle ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Kingsolver, J. G., Moore, M. E., Augustine, K. E., Hill, C. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Multiple behavior-specific cancellation signals contribute to suppressing predictable sensory reafference in a cerebellum-like structure [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Nicole Y. Lai, Jordan M. Bell, and David Bodznick Movement induces sensory stimulation of an animal's own sensory receptors, termed reafference. With a few exceptions, notably vestibular and proprioception, this reafference is unwanted sensory noise and must be selectively filtered in order to detect relevant external sensory signals. In the cerebellum-like electrosensory nucleus of elasmobranch fish, an adaptive filter preserves novel signals by generating cancellation signals that suppress predictable reafference. A parallel fiber network supplies the principal Purkinje-like neurons (called ascending efferent neurons, AE...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Lai, N. Y., Bell, J. M., Bodznick, D. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Heat hardening in a pair of Anolis lizards: constraints, dynamics, and ecological consequences [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Sean W. Deery, Julie E. Rej, Daniel Haro, and Alex. R. Gunderson Heat tolerance plasticity is predicted to be an important buffer against global warming. Nonetheless, basal heat tolerance often correlates negatively with tolerance plasticity ("Trade-off Hypothesis"), a constraint that could limit plasticity benefits. We tested the trade-off hypothesis at the individual level with respect to heat hardening in two lizard species, Anolis carolinensis and A. sagrei. Heat hardening is a rapid increase in heat tolerance after heat shock that is rarely measured in reptiles but is generally considered a first line of physiological...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Deery, S. W., Rej, J. E., Haro, D., Gunderson, A. R. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Rhythmic auditory stimuli modulate movement recovery in response to perturbation during locomotion [METHODS [amp ] TECHNIQUES]
We examined the extent to which synchronizing stepping with two different temporal structured auditory stimuli (periodic and 1/f structure) during walking modulates resilience to a large unexpected perturbation. Recovery time after perturbation was calculated from the horizontal velocity of the body's center of mass. Our results indicate that synchronizing stepping with a 1/f stimulus elicited greater resilience to mechanical perturbations during walking compared with the periodic stimulus (3.3 s faster). Our proposed method may help to gain a comprehensive understanding of movement recovery behavior of humans and oth...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ravi, D. K., Bartholet, M., Skiadopoulos, A., Kent, J. A., Wickstrom, J., Taylor, W. R., Singh, N. B., Stergiou, N. Tags: Comparative biomechanics of movement METHODS [amp ] TECHNIQUES Source Type: research
Maternal provisioning and fluctuating thermal regimes enhance immune response in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Jessica Alice Leivesley and Njal Rollinson The Charnov–Bull model of differential fitness is often used to explain the evolution and maintenance of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Most tests of the model focus on morphological proxies of fitness, such as size traits, whereas early life physiological traits that are closely related to lifetime fitness might provide a framework for generalizing the Charnov–Bull model across taxa. One such trait is the strength of the early-life immune response, which is strongly linked to early-life survival and fitness. Here, we manipulated temperature, variance ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Leivesley, J. A., Rollinson, N. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Intersection of motor volumes predicts the outcome of ambush predation of larval zebrafish [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Kiran Bhattacharyya, David L. McLean, and Malcolm A. MacIver Escape maneuvers are key determinants of animal survival and are under intense selection pressure. A number of escape maneuver parameters contribute to survival, including response latency, escape speed and direction. However, the relative importance of these parameters is context dependent, suggesting that interactions between parameters and predatory context determine the likelihood of escape success. To better understand how escape maneuver parameters interact and contribute to survival, we analyzed the responses of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the attac...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bhattacharyya, K., McLean, D. L., MacIver, M. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Cutaneous tactile sensitivity before and after tail loss and regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Stefanie S. Bradley, Erika Howe, Leah R. Bent, and Matthew K. Vickaryous Amongst tetrapods, mechanoreceptors on the feet establish a sense of body placement and help to facilitate posture and biomechanics. Mechanoreceptors are necessary for stabilizing the body while navigating through changing terrains or responding to a sudden change in body mass and orientation. Lizards such as the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) employ autotomy – a voluntary detachment of a portion of the tail – to escape predation. Tail autotomy represents a natural form of significant (and localized) mass loss. Semmes–Weinst...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bradley, S. S., Howe, E., Bent, L. R., Vickaryous, M. K. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Wing damage no obstacle for hummingbird hawkmoths [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research
Tokay geckos (Gekkonidae: Gekko gecko) preferentially use substrates that elicit maximal adhesive performance [SHORT COMMUNICATION]
Austin M. Garner, Alexandra M. Pamfilie, Ali Dhinojwala, and Peter H. Niewiarowski Gecko substrate use is likely influenced by adhesive performance, yet few studies have demonstrated this empirically. Herein, we examined the substrate use, adhesive performance and vertical clinging behaviour of Gekko gecko in captivity to investigate whether adhesive performance influences patterns of substrate use. We found that geckos were observed significantly more often on the substrate (glass) that elicited maximal adhesive performance relative to its availability within our experimental enclosures, indicating that geckos preferenti...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Garner, A. M., Pamfilie, A. M., Dhinojwala, A., Niewiarowski, P. H. Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
High carbohydrate diet ingestion increases post-meal lipid synthesis and drives respiratory exchange ratios above 1 [SHORT COMMUNICATION]
Stav Talal, Arianne Cease, Ruth Farington, Hector E. Medina, Julio Rojas, and Jon Harrison Locusts have been reported to elevate metabolic rate in response to high carbohydrate diets; this conclusion was based on metabolic rates calculated from CO2 production, a common practice for insects. However, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, CO2 production divided by O2 consumption) can rise above 1 as a result of de novo lipid synthesis, providing an alternative possible explanation of the prior findings. We studied the relationship between macronutrient ingestion, RER and lipid synthesis using South American locusts (Schistocerca...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Talal, S., Cease, A., Farington, R., Medina, H. E., Rojas, J., Harrison, J. Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Early-life effects of juvenile Western diet and exercise on adult gut microbiome composition in mice [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Monica P. McNamara, Jennifer M. Singleton, Marcell D. Cadney, Paul M. Ruegger, James Borneman, and Theodore Garland Alterations to the gut microbiome caused by changes in diet, consumption of antibiotics, etc., can affect host function. Moreover, perturbation of the microbiome during critical developmental periods potentially has long-lasting impacts on hosts. Using four selectively bred high runner and four non-selected control lines of mice, we examined the effects of early-life diet and exercise manipulations on the adult microbiome by sequencing the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer region of the bacterial gut...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: McNamara, M. P., Singleton, J. M., Cadney, M. D., Ruegger, P. M., Borneman, J., Garland, T. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Wing damage affects flight kinematics but not flower tracking performance in hummingbird hawkmoths [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Klara Kihlström, Brett Aiello, Eric Warrant, Simon Sponberg, and Anna Stöckl Wing integrity is crucial to the many insect species that spend distinct portions of their life in flight. How insects cope with the consequences of wing damage is therefore a central question when studying how robust flight performance is possible with such fragile chitinous wings. It has been shown in a variety of insect species that the loss in lift-force production resulting from wing damage is generally compensated by an increase in wing beat frequency rather than amplitude. The consequences of wing damage for flight performa...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Kihlström, K., Aiello, B., Warrant, E., Sponberg, S., Stöckl, A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Stark trade-offs and elegant solutions in arthropod visual systems [REVIEW]
Michael Meece, Shubham Rathore, and Elke K. Buschbeck Vision is one of the most important senses for humans and animals alike. Diverse elegant specializations have evolved among insects and other arthropods in response to specific visual challenges and ecological needs. These specializations are the subject of this Review, and they are best understood in light of the physical limitations of vision. For example, to achieve high spatial resolution, fine sampling in different directions is necessary, as demonstrated by the well-studied large eyes of dragonflies. However, it has recently been shown that a comparatively tiny r...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Meece, M., Rathore, S., Buschbeck, E. K. Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Making a difference: the role of comparative biology in tackling climate change [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research
Elucidating mechanism is important in forecasting the impact of a changing world on species survival [EDITORIAL]
Craig E. Franklin and Hans H. Hoppeler (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - February 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Franklin, C. E., Hoppeler, H. H. Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research