Buprenorphine
is a slow-onset, long-acting synthetic opiate derived from thebaine, an alkaloid of the poppy Papaver somniferum. The United States Food and Drug Administration does not currently approve buprenorphine for veterinary use, but it is common practice to use this drug in animal patients. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 24, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kelly Rockwell Tags: Therapeutic Review Source Type: research

Gould A, Molitor L, Rockwell K, et al: Evaluating the physiologic effects of short duration ultraviolet B radiation exposure in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). J Herp Med Surg https://doi.org/10.5818/17-11-136.1
The objective of this study was to determine how exposure to short periods of UVB radiation affect serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in leopard geckos. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sadar MJ, Knych HK, Drazenovich TL, Paul-Murphy JR. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine after intravenous and oral transmucosal administration in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Am J Vet Res 79(3):260 ‒266, 2018.
The oral transmucosal (OTM) route of buprenorphine administration has been used in a number of species, but to date has only been determined to be effective in dogs, cats, rats, and humans. Salivary pH may affect the absorption of buprenorphine and has not previously been reported for guinea pigs. Note: buprenorphine, as a base, may be better absorbed in an environment with a relatively basic pH. The goal of this study was to determine whether a selected dose of buprenorphine delivered intravenously (IV) and OTM would provide plasma concentrations of buprenorphine ( ≥1 ng/mL) that have been established as analgesic in o...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Zehnder AM, Swift LA, Sundaram A, et al. Clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of cutaneous and oral squamous cell carcinoma in avian species. J Am Vet Med Assn 252(3):309 ‒315, 2018.
Oral and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are common in avian species but have been poorly characterized in terms of treatment outcomes and survival. The goal of this study was to tabulate treatment responses, concurrent conditions, and disease outcomes in a retrospective cohort of avian species with SCC diagnosed and treated at various institutions, with the aim of providing information on species predilection and concurrent conditions. Case information was collected by means of an online survey from 3 veterinary universities as well as general and specialized private veterinary practices in 11 states. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sasai H, Fujita D, Seto E, et al. Outcome of limb fracture repair in rabbits: 139 cases (2007 ‒2017). J Am Vet Med Assoc 252(4):457‒463, 2018.
The authors of this study cited previous reports suggesting that surgical methods used for fracture repair in dogs and cats may be inappropriate for rabbits. Further, they stated that high-quality advanced diagnostic imaging is necessary for optimal repair by external skeletal fixation [ESF], because plain radiography is often insufficient to properly assess rabbit fractures. The goal of this study was to analyze the outcome of limb fractures in rabbits that were repaired by several techniques, including the use of micro-computerized tomography (m-CT) for surgical planning. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Wiggans KT, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Reilly CM, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) at a veterinary teaching hospital: 52 cases (1985 ‒2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc 252(3): 316‒,323, 2018.
Leopard geckos are unique among geckos by having movable eyelids and no spectacles. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the diagnosis, treatment, outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital. During the period of January 1985 through October 2013, a total of 144 leopard geckos were evaluated at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis. Of these, 112 animals had sufficient medical record documentation to be included in the study. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Piasecki T, Chrzastek K, Kasprzykowska U. Mycoplasma pulmonis of rodents as a possible human pathogen. Vector-borne Zoonotic Dis 17(7):475 ‒477, 2017.
The objective of this study conducted in Poland was to evaluate the prevalence and seropositivity to M. pulmonis in humans who had direct contact with rats. The prevalence of M. pulmonis in laboratory and pet rats was also assessed. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Souza MJ, Bergman JB, White MS, et al. Pharmacokinetics and egg residues after administration of a single dose of meloxicam in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus). Am J Vet Res 78(8):965 ‒968, 2017.
The goal of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in domestic hens and the duration and quantity of drug residues in their eggs following oral administration of a single dose of 1 mg meloxicam/kg. The study used 8 healthy adult White Leghorn hens. A blood sample was collected from each hen immediately before the administration of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) into the oral cavity behind the glottis. Additional blood samples were collected at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after meloxicam administration. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Allen M, Nietlisbach N, Johnson RA. Evaluation of self-injurious behavior, food intake, fecal output, and thermal withdrawal latencies after injection of a high-concentration buprenorphine formulation in rats (Rattus norvegicus). Am J Vet Res 79(2):154 ‒162, 2018.
The current recommended dose of buprenorphine hydrochloride in rats is 0.05 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC) or intravenously (IV) every 6 to 12 hours. Repeated injections often predispose rats to signs consistent with stress, decreased food intake and weight gain, altered activity, and heightened sensitivity to pain stimuli (hyperalgesia). Adverse effects of buprenorphine administration can also include a slow-down in gastrointestinal function, pica, and opioid tolerance. Self-biting, cage biting, and other stereotypic behavior have been reported in rats after administration of other opioids. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Avian & Exotic News
Veterinary Meeting and Expo 2019, formerly the North American Veterinary Conference, will take place January 19 ‒23, 2019 at the Orange County Convention Center in Orlando, FL, USA. Additional information can be found on the conference website at: https://navc.com/vmx/. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Edited by Connie Orcutt Source Type: research

JEPM October 2018 —Abstracts
The primary objective of this retrospective study was to identify the outcome of birds anesthetized at a veterinary referral hospital, and the secondary goal was to determine if patient factors or other variables were associated with an increased risk of anesthesia-related death. Medical records of birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia from 2004 through 2014 at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Georgia were reviewed. Data collected included date of visit, age, species, sex, and type of bird (e.g., pet, free-ranging, wild kept in captivity); body weight and body condition score; diagnosis; procedure...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Connie Orcutt Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Diagnostic Challenge: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)
A 2-year-old sexually intact male bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented to the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine avian and exotics service for anorexia, weight loss, and lethargy of three-week duration. On physical exam, the bearded dragon was lethargic, thin (body condition score of 1/5), weighed 249 grams, and was mildly dehydrated (7-8%). The abdomen was very thin and no masses or thickenings could be palpated. A blood sample was drawn for a complete blood count (CBC), advanced reptile chemistry panel, and serum electrophoresis. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - September 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Sara N. Collins Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Ornamental Fishes and Aquatic Invertebrates (Self-Assessment and Color Review), 2nd Edition Gregory A. Lewbart, MS, DVM, Dip. ACZM (ed). Publisher – CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group ISBN 13: 978-1-4822-5886-8 236 pages, $ 36.76 paperback
Ornamental Fishes and Aquatic Invertebrates (Self-Assessment and Color Review), 2nd edition, is a 234-page book edited by Dr. Gregory A. Lewbart, MS, DVM, Diplomate ACZM and published by CRC Press in 2017. Dr. Lewbart's first edition of this text was published in 1998 by Manson Publishing and the Iowa State University Press. This updated edition is comprised of 221 new cases with 1-5 open-ended questions per case. A total of 36 contributors from numerous aquatic facilities and institutions contributed to the content of this valuable study guide. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - September 14, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Joanna K. Webb Tags: LITERATURE REVIEW Source Type: research

Evaluation of Orchiectomy and Ovariectomy Surgical Techniques in Degus (Octodon degus)
In this study, two previously described surgical techniques for performing an orchiectomy in the adult male degu (Octodon degus) were evaluated: (1) prescrotal open technique and (2) scrotal open technique. Additionally an ovariectomy procedure was assessed in female degus using the bilateral (dorsolateral) technique similar to that performed in related species. Twenty-two animals (n=14 males; 8 females) from a local small mammal shelter group, that were presented for routine surgical castration for population control measures, were included in this study. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - September 14, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Raphael A. Malbrue, Carmen B. Arsuaga-Zorrilla, Willie Bidot, Laure E. Molitor, Kriscelle A. Mendoza, Shateenah K. Barnes, Derecka J. Alexander, Jonathan F. Bova, Dawn E. Evans Tags: Research Source Type: research

A case of preputial cystostomy performed on an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) with urethral obstruction
While urogenital diseases of the female African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) are common, such diseases in male animals appear rare. This case report describes a male African pygmy hedgehog presenting with urethral obstruction due to accessory gland enlargement. Preputial cystostomy provided effective treatment, and enabled maintenance of good quality of life over the long term. This suggests that preputial cystostomy may offer an effective salvage technique for African pygmy hedgehogs with unresolvable urethral obstruction. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - September 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Iori Koizumi, Hirotaka Kondo Source Type: research

Cutaneous botryomycosis in two pet rabbits
A 5-year-old male neutered rabbit was presented for assessment of multiple abscesses, which had appeared suddenly over the ventrum, perineum and hindlimbs over the previous few days. Thirteen abscesses were surgically excised. Culture revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of botryomycosis. However, despite follow up antimicrobial treatment and repeat surgeries, lesions continued to recur. The second case, a 3-year-old male neutered rabbit presented for routine vaccination. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Joanna Hedley, Nadene Stapleton, Clare Muir, Simon Priestnall, Ken Smith Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Comparison of Body Temperature Acquired via Auricular and Rectal Methods in Ferrets
Body temperature is a fundamental parameter for evaluating the health status of an animal, since it is an indicator of metabolism and organic function.1 In small animal practice, the most commonly used thermometers are rectal. Nevertheless, the use of rectal thermometers is uncomfortable and often requires prolonged restraint with multiple handlers, which can be stressful.2 Struggling during rectal temperature measurement can result in patient injury as well as erroneously elevated temperature measurements. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Laura A.B. Aguilar, Javier Ojeda Ch ávez, Andrés Ducoing Watty Tags: Research Source Type: research

Assessment of the respiratory tract distribution of fluorescein by nebulization in rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Most pet rats have chronic respiratory disease, and end-stage complications are frequently fatal. Drug aerosol delivery in the form of nebulization of antibiotics, expectorants and bronchodilators is often used as part of their treatment. As rats are obligate nasal breathers, aerosol delivery must be achieved by nasal inhalation, which has the anatomical limitation of a narrower airway lumen. In humans, aerosol delivery of many respiratory drugs is achieved by oral inhalation as it allows administration of very small particles with a concentration loss of only 20% in comparison with 85% by the nasal route. (Source: Journal...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Isabelle Desprez, Charlotte Boyer, Jean-Luc Servely, Audrey Carlet-Lejall é, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Thomas M. Donnelly, Charly Pignon Tags: Research Source Type: research

Primary intraocular osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)
A three-year-old male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) presented to the UNAM Exotic Pet and Wildlife Teaching Hospital. Clinical signs included hyphema, buphthalmos, goniosynechiae, anterior uveitis and hypopyon of the ventral iridocorneal angle of the right eye. The right globe was enucleated and submitted for histopathology and the histopathologic findings were consistent with osteosarcoma. Thoracic radiographs did not reveal evidence of other primary tumors or metastasis. Four months later, the patient had pleural friction rub sounds upon auscultation of the lung fields and pre-scapular lymphadenomegaly. (Source: Journal of...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: A. Gomez-Rios, A.A. Rodr íguez-Reyes, J. Ramírez-Lezama, I. Maldonado-Reséndiz Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Open Reduction and Stabilization of a Luxated Coxofemoral Joint in a Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Using a Toggle-Pin Fixation
A 4-year-old intact female Holland lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was referred for evaluation of a luxated right coxofemoral joint. Cranioventral luxation of the right femoral head was confirmed with pelvic radiographs at the referring veterinarian three days prior. On presentation, a non-weight bearing right pelvic limb lameness was appreciated. A closed hip reduction under anesthesia was attempted but not successful. The rabbit underwent an open coxofemoral reduction and the reduction was protected using a toggle rod stabilization method. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Matt Marinkovich, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Michelle G. Hawkins, Molly Gleeson, Po-Yen Chou Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A retrospective study of diaphragmatic hernia in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): 16 cases (2009 –2016)
The objective of this study was to describe clinical information associated with diaphragmatic hernias in rabbits and assess the effect of different treatments. Sixteen pet rabbits were included in this study. Sex, age at provisional diagnosis, clinical signs, results of various medical examinations, treatments, and prognosis were recorded. Evaluation included physical examination, radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, exploratory laparotomy, and histopathology. Females represented 15/16 cases. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Haruka Takimoto, Yasutsugu Miwa Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Perivaginal Vascular Hamartoma In Two European Rabbits (Oryctolagus Cuniculus)
Two domestic European rabbits were diagnosed with perivaginal vascular hamartomas. Only one rabbit exhibited clinical signs attributed to the vascular lesion. This rabbit presented laterally recumbent and in cardiovascular shock after a three-day history of hematuria with blood clots. The other rabbit was euthanized for an unrelated condition. In both cases, perivaginal vascular hamartomas were identified at necropsy and confirmed by microscopic examination and use of immunohistochemistry. Vascular hamartoma of the vaginal and uterine tissue should be included in the differential diagnoses for hematuria in female rabbits. ...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lynnette Waugh, Sara Rostad, Keith L. Bailey, Jo ão Brandão Source Type: research

Results of a Modified Neurological Examination in 26 Healthy Rabbits
Up to 11% of rabbit cases in clinical practice present with suspected neurological disease, necessitating a detailed neurological examination. However, neurological evaluations of rabbits are usually based on protocols developed for dogs, and fail to take into account the differences in reaction patterns between prey and predator species. The aim of this study was to report the results of a neurological examination modified for rabbits, so that clinicians might avoid misinterpretation of test results and reduce both the length of the examination and related stress. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: E. Warnefors, M.L. Ruel økke, H. Gredal Source Type: research

Uterine horn torsion in a pregnant dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus) - Case report.
A pregnant dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus), of approximately one year old, was attended at a veterinary clinic of a higher education institution with clinical suspicion of dystocia. According to the owner, the patient presented signs of labor but failed to deliver. During labor, conservative pharmacological therapy with intramuscular oxytocin was attempted, but without success, resorting to laparotomy. When peritoneal cavity was accessed, twisting of the right uterine horn was observed, which was congested and with hematomas. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cinthya Dessaune Neves, Camila Barbosa Amaral, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira, Leonardo Serafim da Silveira Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research

Cystoscopic-guided lithotripsy for the removal of a urethral stone in a guinea pig
A 2-year-old female guinea pig was referred for management of a urethral stone. The stone was diagnosed on radiographs following a 10-day history of stranguria, dysuria and hematuria. Attempts to remove the stone by urethral catheterization and flushing were unsuccessful. The stone was successfully fragmented and removed by cystoscopic-guided transurethral laser lithotripsy, performed under general anesthesia. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, and hematuria and stranguria resolved 24 hours after the procedure. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Thomas Coutant, Marilyn Dunn, Isabelle Langlois, Edouard Maccolini Source Type: research

Diagnostic Challenge
A 4-year-old sexually intact female bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented to the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center (Manhattan, Kansas USA) for lethargy and a swelling on the right side of her head. On physical examination, the bearded dragon was depressed, thin (body condition score 1.5/5) at 453 grams, and had pale, tacky mucous membranes. A prominent swelling was present on the right side of her head and extended to involve the periocular region (Fig  1). On oral exam, a 2.5 centimeter dark-purple mass was visible, extending from the base of the tongue to the roof of the mouth (Fig. 1). (So...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Beverly M. Finneburgh, David Eshar Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in the Pelvic Limb of a Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
A 3-year-old, 4.0 kg, female, spayed Silver Marten cross rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for evaluation of a suspected recurring spindle cell sarcoma following primary excision by the referring veterinarian. Physical examination revealed a large subcutaneous mass on the left metatarsus and a fine needle aspirate revealed suspected neoplastic spindle cells. Hematologic evaluation was unremarkable and a computed tomography scan revealed invasion of the mass into skeletal muscles but showed no evidence of metastatic disease. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lauren Reimnitz, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Elise LaDouceur, Sarah Stevens, No émie Summa, Sara Gardhouse, Amir Kol, Kelsey Brust, Michelle G. Hawkins Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Post-traumatic ocular lymphoma in three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
This report describes post-traumatic ocular lymphoma in three companion rabbits; 2 rabbits with unilateral disease and one with bilateral disease. Historical findings suggestive of a traumatic event included either external unilateral ocular trauma or bilateral phacoemulsification. Severe corneal changes, presence of an anterior chamber mass(es), low intraocular pressures and ocular discomfort were noted on ophthalmic examinations. All eyes were treated for variable courses with standard ophthalmic topical medications (antibiotic, anti-inflammatories, steroid) and systemic anti-inflammatories. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Krista A Keller, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Christopher Reilly, Beth Valentine, Felicia D Duke Boynton, Erin M Scott, Richard R Dubielzig Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Total Body Irradiation For The Treatment Of Lymphoma In A Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)
A five-year-old intact male guinea pig was evaluated for a 2-week history of “red eyes”. Sniffling and lethargy had been noticed for several days as well.Physical examination findings included increased expiratory effort and bilateral chemosis. Several peripheral lymph nodes were markedly enlarged. Fine needle aspiration of the enlarged lymph nodes was consistent with ly mphoma.The first total body irradiation with 1 Gray (Gy) resulted in a good response as evidenced by a decrease in lymphocytes and reduced sizes of the enlarged peripheral lymph nodes. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Koichi Nagata, Brittany Mchale, Izidora Sladakovic, Jishnu Rao Gutti, Joerg Mayer Source Type: research

Squamous cell carcinoma in chinchillas: a review of three cases
The authors describe three cases of squamous cell carcinoma in chinchillas. The neoplasms were diagnosed by histological examination. All three animals were older than 15 years and had ulcerative skin masses involving one or more limbs. Automutilation was present in all three cases, and the owners noticed the masses when they were already of significant size (2 –5 cm in diameter). All three animals were euthanized within two months after the first presentation. Papillomavirus PCR assay were performed on all three tumors, but didn't find papillomavirus DNA in the samples. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Zoltan Szabo, Drury R. Reavill, Matti Kiupel Source Type: research

Use of a Gastrostomy and Jejunostomy Tube for Management of Gastric Distention Following Pyloric Outflow Obstruction in a Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)
An eight month old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented for evaluation of persistent, severe gastric distention following gastrotomy to retrieve several foreign bodies. A structural cause of gastric outflow obstruction was not identified ultrasonographically or surgically. A 14fr gastrostomy and an 8fr jejunostomy tube were used to facilitate medical management of severe gastric stasis and to allow enteral nutrition. The ferret tolerated the feeding tubes well and recovered completely following intensive medical therapy. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 24, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Laura Adamovicz, Jeffrey Applegate, Jessica Harris, Korinn Saker Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy of different antidotes against experimental nitrate intoxication in rabbits
The antidotal efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, methylene blue, and velenium (Vitamin E+sodium selenite) was compared against experimental nitrate intoxication in rabbits. Forty-two, albino rabbits of identical age, gender and body weight were randomly divided into 7 groups (A to G) and subjected to experimental treatments for a period of 40 days. Rabbits of group A were offered only normal feed and served as negative control, while, rabbits of group B constituted the positive control group and received feed supplemented with sodium nitrate at 400 mg/kg body weight. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ghazunfar Rashid, Muhammad Avais, Amjad Islam Aqib, Syed Saleem Ahmad, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Mahboob Ali, Muhammad Sajid Hasni, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Adil, Yung Fu Chang, Muhammad Ameen Jamal Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research

Mesenteric Root and Cecal Torsion in a Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
A 4.5-year-old female spayed Rex rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented as an emergency case for hyporexia, pigmenturia, and abnormal feces. The rabbit had been treated for intermittent hyporexia with outpatient medical management and over the next two months demonstrated intermittent signs of gastrointestinal stasis, which were only partially responsive to aggressive medical management. Serial radiographs demonstrated persistent gas within the cecum as well as left-sided, cranial displacement of the cecum. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 16, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Molly Gleeson, Sue Chen, Michelle Fabiani, Amanda Marino, Natalie Antinoff Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cleft palate in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)
A 5-month-old female chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was evaluated for failure to thrive, difficulty drinking, and respiratory signs. Physical examination demonstrated a thin body condition score, purulent nasal and ocular discharge, and an abnormal facial appearance. Endoscope-guided oral examination and computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a cleft soft palate, absent nasal turbinates, and bilateral otitis media. The animal was euthanized and necropsy confirmed the diagnosis of palatoschisis (cleft palate) of the soft palate. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Sarah Ozawa, Christoph Mans, Jaimie L. Miller, Christopher Snyder, Constance Fazio Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Antinociceptive Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Tramadol in Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera)
Tramadol has been demonstrated to provide analgesia in rodents (e.g., rats, mice) and has been increasingly used in other small companion mammals for treatment of moderate to severe pain. Currently no evidence is available that supports the use of tramadol as an effective analgesic in chinchillas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive efficacy and safety of subcutaneously administered tramadol in chinchillas. Initial dose-escalation studies were performed to determine if dose-dependent adverse effects occur in chinchillas. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Emily Evenson, Christoph Mans Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research

Literature Review of Radiographic Measurements of Internal Organs in Psittaciformes
This review article contains the published measurements and ratios of the different coelomic organs in birds including the heart, proventriculus, and liver. Radiographic examination of birds is becoming very important in the daily diagnostic assessment of patients presented to veterinary hosptials. When a veterinarian is treating birds, it is crucial to have a broad theoretical knowledge of the subject as well as sufficient practical experience. However, there may be some help for the less experienced veterinarian as they assess their avian patients with primary diagnostic options. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lise Geerinckx, Elka Van der Vekens, Jimmy H. Saunders, Ines Lautenschl äger, Annemie I.L. Van Caelenberg Tags: Review Source Type: research

Scrotal Vesicle Seminal Hernia in an Intact Male Domestic Guinea Pig
A nine-month-old intact male guinea pig was presented with a 2-week history of progressive swelling involving the right scrotal sac. Physical examination revealed a soft mass involving the caudal aspect of the right scrotal sac. Subsequent radiographic evaluation of the affected area confirmed a soft tissue subcutaneous swelling. Ultrasonography revealed a hyperechogenic homogenous structure with normal hemodynamic pattern within the right scrotum, and an enlarged right inguinal ring measuring 8-9 mm. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mohammad Reza Esmaili Nejad, Sarang Soroori, Amir Rostami, Mirsepehr Pedram, Moloud Davoodi, Shaghayegh Rafatpanah Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Semen-Matrix Calculi in a Juvenile Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)
A 10-month-old, intact male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was diagnosed with urolithiasis, unilateral hydroureter, and hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral obstruction confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. Nephrectomy and cystotomy were performed, and the urolith was suspected to be a semen-matrix calculus (mineralized copulatory plug) based on the discovery of sperm within the renal pelvis of the nephrectomized kidney on histopathology; this was later confirmed through a post-mortem examination. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 7, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christine T. Higbie, Peter M. DiGeronimo, R. Avery Bennett, Nobuko Wakamatsu, Rebecca A. Baumruck, Mathew A. Stewart, Nathalie Rademacher, Javier G. Nevarez, Aliya N. Magee, Ingeborg M. Langohr Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Tetracycline Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Feces of Synanthropic Birds
Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which is commonly used in humans and animals for treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, tetracycline-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species found in the nature, humans, and animals are usually considered a serious health concern. The feces of birds that live with humans may be a source for of these antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this reason, presence of tetracycline-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in bird droppings collected from 18 different breeders and pet shops fed in Istanbul was investigated by cultural and molecular methods in terms of the presence of that a/b gene. ...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Belgi Diren Sigirci, Baran Celik, BerenBa şaran Kahraman, A. Funda Bagcigil, Seyyal Ak Tags: Research Source Type: research

Diagnostic Challenge
A three-year-old male green iguana (Iguana iguana) weighing 1.01 kg was presented with a one-month history of left forelimb swelling, weight loss and dysorexia (Fig.  1A). The reptile had been bred in captivity and was kept with a female of the same species that was considered in good health. The owner described the patient's enclosure as a terrarium maintained with a diurnal temperature of 28 - 30°C (82 - 86°F) under the basking spot, without any UVb source. The iguana's diet consisted of various fruits and vegetables provided daily, without any known calcium supplementation. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Fr édéric Gandar, Clément Paillusseau, Hélène Deflers, Géraldine Bolen, Didier Marlier, Lionel Schilliger Source Type: research

Diagnostic Challenge
A 3-year-old female chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was presented for a mass located at the vertex of the head and appeared after a fall in the cage the day before. The husbandry practices and diet provided to the patient were appropriate. The chinchilla had no medical history and appeared healthy. A close examination of the animal's head revealed a soft, painless mass approximately 3 centimeters in diameter (Fig.  1). The mass appeared to be filled with air suggesting subcutaneous emphysema. The chinchilla was bright and alert and had mild dyspnea associated with the upper respiratory tract with audible wheezing but...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C. Bulliot Tags: Diagnostic Challenge Source Type: research

Uterine Leiomyoma, Fibroma, and Hemangioma in two Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger)
Two female chinchillas were presented with reduced appetite and production of small fecal pellets. Physical examination of both chinchillas revealed a reduced vaginal membrane, bloody vaginal discharge, and a palpable mass in the caudal abdomen. Radiographic images revealed soft tissue masses in the caudal abdomen of both animals. In addition, the first case was examined by ultrasound, which identified two cystic masses, both originating from one of the uteri. Both chinchillas were euthanized due to progressive clinical deterioration with both animals undergoing postmortem examinations. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christof A. Bertram, Olivia Kershaw, Robert Klopfleisch, Small Mammal Medicine and Surgery Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Effects of Natural Ultraviolet Radiation On 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations in Female Guinea Pigs (Cavia Porcellus)
Vertebrates have 2 methods of acquiring vitamin D: through the diet and/or secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Although some species (e.g., dogs) can only acquire vitamin D through their diet, many others also utilize UVB radiation to generate vitamin D. Prior to their extirpation, guinea pigs were naturally exposed to varying levels of sunlight (UVB) in their native habitat; however, in captivity we do not routinely recommend UVB radiation for these animals. Recently, it has been shown that captive guinea pigs can synthesize 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD3) after exposure to UVB lightbulbs. (Source: Journ...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Megan K. Watson, Jennifer Flower, Ken Welle, Micah Kohles, Dave Webster, Heather Purdeu, Mark A. Mitchell Tags: Research Source Type: research

Paradoxical Vestibular Syndrome Secondary to Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis and Chronic Otitis Interna in a Guinea Pig (Cavia Porcellus)
A 3-year-old female intact guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was presented for torticollis and ocular discharge. On examination, the guinea pig had a left head tilt with corneal ulceration and absent palpebral response of the right eye. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue attenuating mass with multifocal mineralization compressing the caudal cerebellum with moderate lysis of the calvarium. On recheck, the disease had progressed to include ataxia and proprioceptive deficits. Systemic antibiotic therapy was initiated but the guinea pig only exhibited a marginal treatment response. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - July 30, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cameron M. Ratliff, Jacob R. Ewing, Shannon M. McLeland, Elizabeth A. Riedesel, Bianca A. Zaffarano Source Type: research

Evaluating the Clinical and Physiological Effects of Long Term Ultraviolet B Radiation on Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
The objectives for this research were to evaluate the clinical and physiologic effects of artificial UVB light supplementation on rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and to evaluate the long-term safety of artificial UVB light supplementation over a six-month period. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Group A was exposed to 12 hours of artificial UVB radiation daily and Group B received ambient fluorescent light with no UVB supplementation for 12 hours daily. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - July 30, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Megan K. Watson, Mark A. Mitchell, Adam W. Stern, Amber L. Labelle, Stephen Joslyn, Timothy M. Fan, Melissa Cavaretta, Micah Kohles, Kemba Marshall Tags: Research Source Type: research

Traumatic Intervertebral Disc Herniation with Paraplegia in a Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)
A two-year-old castrated male black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) was presented 48 hours after peracute onset of rear limb paraplegia secondary to a traumatic incident. The prairie dog was non-ambulatory in the rear legs with absent deep pain; hematuria and pollakiuria were also observed. Diagnostic imaging revealed intervertebral disc herniation with compression of the spinal cord at the L1-L2 disc spaces. Hemilaminectomy at the L1-L2 disc space was performed. After 48 hours, the prairie dog regained anal tone, and a deep pain response was noted. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - July 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Anna McRee Bakker, Christine T. Higbie, Renee-Claire Malenfant, Thomas N. Tully, Javier G. Nevarez, Julia Sumner Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cerebral Meningioma in an African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)
A 3.5-year-old, spayed female, African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) presented with neurologic signs. The tentative clinical diagnosis was wobbly hedgehog syndrome. After 3 months, the patient exhibited the following clinical disease signs, anorexia, weight loss, horizontal nystagmus, exophthalmos, and seizures. The patient's clinical condition gradually became more severe over the next 6 months, without response to any treatment, and subsequently died. Necropsy revealed no gross abnormalities of any internal organs other than the brain. (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - July 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hirotaka Kondo, Narumi Yamamoto, Nobutaka Seino, Harumichi Naitoh, Hisashi Shibuya Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research

Therapeutic Review
Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant drug that is considered a first-line medication against neuropathic pain in humans,1 and there is increasing evidence of a similar effectiveness in veterinary medicine. In humans, gabapentin is indicated for post-herpectic neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy, painful polyneuropathy, partial seizures, and lower back pain.1,2 (Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine)
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - July 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kyra Berg Source Type: research