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Sex steroid hormones as neuroprotective elements in ischemia models
We describe updated data from receptor and signaling events triggered by both hormones, with an emphasis on the mechanisms that have been reported as ‘rapid’ or ‘cytoplasmic actions’. Data showing the therapeutic effects of the hormones, used alone or in combination, are also summarized, with a focus on rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Finally, we draw attention to evidence that neuroprotection by both hormones might be due to a combination of ‘cytoplasmic’ and ‘nuclear’ signaling. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Cespedes Rubio, A. E., Perez-Alvarez, M. J., Lapuente Chala, C., Wandosell, F. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Muscarinic M2 receptor promotes vasopressin synthesis in mice supraoptic nuclei
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been suggested to be implicated in arginine–vasopressin secretion because intracerebroventricular muscarinic agonist administration induces arginine–vasopressin release into the circulation. Although which subtype is involved in the regulation of arginine–vasopressin secretion is unclear, M2 receptors have been reported to be highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In the present study, M2 receptor-knockout mice were used to elucidate whether M2 receptor regulates arginine–vasopressin synthesis in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothala...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nagano, H., Sobue, Y., Matsuyama, H., Saito, S., Sakai, H., Alom, F., Tanahashi, Y., Ishii, T., Unno, T. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Haloperidol ameliorates androgen-induced behavioral deficits in developing male rats
The purpose of present study was to infer the potential effects of testosterone increase in some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Tourette syndrome. Thus, the influence of early postnatal androgen exposure upon the neurobehaviors and its possible neural basis were investigated in the study. Male pup rats received consecutive 14-day testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 7. The TP treatment produced the hyperactive motor behavior and grooming behavior as well as the increased levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the mesodopam...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qi, C., Ji, X., Zhang, G., Kang, Y., Huang, Y., Cui, R., Li, S., Cui, H., Shi, G. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Clusterin deficiency induces lipid accumulation and tissue damage in kidney
In this study, we examined the role of clusterin in renal lipid accumulation in clusterin-knockout mice and NRK52e tubular epithelial cells. Clusterin deficiency increased the expression of SREBP1 and its target genes and decreased malonyl-CoA decarboxylase protein levels in the kidney. Expression of the endocytic receptor, megalin, and scavenger receptor class A was increased in clusterin-deficient mice. Functional analysis of lipid metabolism also revealed that lipid uptake and triglyceride synthesis were increased and fatty acid oxidation was reduced, leading to increased lipid accumulation in clusterin-deficient mice. ...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Heo, J.-Y., Kim, J.-E., Dan, Y., Kim, Y.-W., Kim, J.-Y., Cho, K. H., Bae, Y. K., Im, S.-S., Liu, K.-H., Song, I.-H., Kim, J.-R., Lee, I.-K., Park, S.-Y. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Stimulation of growth hormone by kisspeptin antagonists in ewes
Kisspeptin signalling is indispensable for fertility, stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediating gonadal steroid feedback on GnRH neurons. Moreover, kisspeptin neurons have been implicated in other non-reproductive neuroendocrine roles. Kisspeptin appears to also regulate growth hormone secretion but much of the data appear contradictory. We sought to clarify a potential role of kisspeptin in growth hormone (GH) regulation by examining the effect of kisspeptin antagonists on GH secretion in ewes under various physiological conditions. Our data show clear and robust increases in GH secretion f...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Smith, J. T., Roseweir, A., Millar, M., Clarke, I. J., Millar, R. P. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Anti-Mullerian hormone overexpression restricts preantral ovarian follicle survival
We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1.2 promoter (Thy1.2-AMH Tg mice). These mice are severely sub-fertile, despite relatively normal ovulation rates. The embryos of Thy1.2-AMHTg females exhibited delayed preimplantation development and extensive mid-gestation fetal resorption. Young Thy1.2-AMHTg mouse ovaries exhibited only a slight reduction in the rate of primordial follicle activation but large declines in the number...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pankhurst, M. W., Kelley, R. L., Sanders, R. L., Woodcock, S. R., Oorschot, D. E., Batchelor, N. J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

FGF21 acts as a negative regulator of bile acid synthesis
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo; its most closely related subfamily member, FGF19, is known to be a critical negative regulator of bile acid synthesis. To delineate whether FGF21 also plays a functional role in bile acid metabolism, we evaluated the effects of short- and long-term exposure to native FGF21 and long-acting FGF21 analogs on hepatic signal transduction, gene expression and enterohepatic bile acid levels in primary hepatocytes and in rodent and monkey models. FGF21 acutely induced ERK phosphorylation and inhibited Cyp7A1 mRNA expression in prima...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chen, M. M., Hale, C., Stanislaus, S., Xu, J., Veniant, M. M. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Uterine progesterone signaling is a target for metformin therapy in PCOS-like rats
Impaired progesterone (P4) signaling is linked to endometrial dysfunction and infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we report for the first time that elevated expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms A and B parallels increased estrogen receptor (ER) expression in PCOS-like rat uteri. The aberrant PGR-targeted gene expression in PCOS-like rats before and after implantation overlaps with dysregulated expression of Fkbp52 and Ncoa2, two genes that contribute to the development of uterine P4 resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies of the effects of metformin on the regulation of the uter...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hu, M., Zhang, Y., Feng, J., Xu, X., Zhang, J., Zhao, W., Guo, X., Li, J., Vestin, E., Cui, P., Li, X., Wu, X.-k., Brannstrom, M., Shao, L. R., Billig, H. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Inducible Wnt16 inactivation: WNT16 regulates cortical bone thickness in adult mice
In conclusion, WNT16 is a crucial regulator of cortical bone thickness in young adult and old mice. We propose that new treatment strategies targeting the adult regulation of WNT16 might be useful to reduce fracture risk at cortical bone sites. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ohlsson, C., Henning, P., Nilsson, K. H., Wu, J., Gustafsson, K. L., Sjogren, K., Tornqvist, A., Koskela, A., Zhang, F.-P., Lagerquist, M. K., Poutanen, M., Tuukkanen, J., Lerner, U. H., Moverare-Skrtic, S. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Hormonal and nutritional regulation of postnatal hypothalamic development
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality. Here, we review the m...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - April 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sominsky, L., Jasoni, C. L., Twigg, H. R., Spencer, S. J. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Fructose bisphosphatase 2 overexpression increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscle is a major tissue for glucose metabolism and can store glucose as glycogen, convert glucose to lactate via glycolysis and fully oxidise glucose to CO2. Muscle has a limited capacity for gluconeogenesis but can convert lactate and alanine to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis requires FBP2, a muscle-specific form of fructose bisphosphatase that converts fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-bisP) to fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) opposing the activity of the ATP-consuming enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK). In mammalian muscle, the activity of PFK is normally 100 times higher than FBP2 and therefore energy wasting cycling bet...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bakshi, I., Suryana, E., Small, L., Quek, L.-E., Brandon, A. E., Turner, N., Cooney, G. J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 attenuates diet-induced obesity and fatty liver
Obesity is a major threat to public health, and it is strongly associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver disease. Here, we demonstrated that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 (LNS1) significantly reduced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation, with a concomitant improvement in insulin sensitivity, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Furthermore, administration of LNS1 inhibited the effect of HFD feeding on the SREBP-1c and PPARα signaling pathways and reduced lipogenesis with an increase in fatty acid oxidation in ex vivo livers from HFD-fed mice. These LNS1 effects were confirmed in HepG2 cells a...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Park, S.-S., Lee, Y.-J., Song, S., Kim, B., Kang, H., Oh, S., Kim, E. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Vitamin D is crucial for maternal care and offspring social behaviour in rats
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague–Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offsp...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Yates, N. J., Tesic, D., Feindel, K. W., Smith, J. T., Clarke, M. W., Wale, C., Crew, R. C., Wharfe, M. D., Whitehouse, A. J. O., Wyrwoll, C. S. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Metabolic reprogramming in type 2 diabetes and the development of breast cancer
A wealth of epidemiological data has found that patients with type 2 diabetes have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this relationship are yet to be elucidated; however, this review examines the available evidence suggesting that the metabolic abnormalities observed in type 2 diabetes can predispose to the development of breast cancer. Alterations in substrate availability and the hormonal milieu, particularly hyperinsulinemia, not only create a favorable metabolic environment for tumorigenesis, but also induce metabolic reprogramming events that are required for the transfor...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Martin, S. D., McGee, S. L. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Metabolic effects of short-term caloric restriction in mice with reduced insulin gene dosage
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CR can cause weight loss in the context of reduced insulin production, but that CR-improved glucose homeostasis does not occur near the ‘insulin floor’ in young mice. Collectively, these data shed further light on the relationships between CR, insulin and glucose homeostasis. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dommerholt, M. B., Dionne, D. A., Hutchinson, D. F., Kruit, J. K., Johnson, J. D. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Control of hyperglycemia in male mice by leflunomide: mechanisms of action
p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at serine 1101 and desensitizes insulin receptor signaling. S6K1 hyperactivation due to overnutrition leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Our recent study showed that A77 1726, the active metabolite of the anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drug leflunomide, is an inhibitor of S6K1. Whether leflunomide can control hyperglycemia and sensitize the insulin receptor has not been tested. Here we report that A77 1726 increased AKTS473/T308 and S6K1T389 phosphorylation but decreased S6S235/236 and IRS-1S1101 phosphor...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chen, J., Sun, J., Doscas, M. E., Ye, J., Williamson, A. J., Li, Y., Li, Y., Prinz, R. A., Xu, X. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone receptor localization in target tissues
The thyroid hormone receptors, TRα1, TRβ1 and other subtypes, are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that mediate the action of thyroid hormone signaling in numerous tissues to regulate important physiological and developmental processes. Their most well-characterized role is as ligand-dependent transcription factors; TRs bind thyroid hormone response elements in the presence or absence of thyroid hormone to facilitate the expression of target genes. Although primarily residing in the nucleus, TRα1 and TRβ1 shuttle rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We have identified multiple nuclear...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - March 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Anyetei-Anum, C. S., Roggero, V. R., Allison, L. A. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Prebiotic prevents impaired kidney and renal Oat3 functions in obese rats
This study aimed to investigate the effects of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on renal function, renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) and the mechanisms involved. High-fat diet was provided for 12 weeks in male Wistar rats. After that, the rats were divided into normal diet (ND); normal diet treated with XOS (NDX); high-fat diet (HF) and high-fat diet treated with XOS (HFX). XOS was given daily at a dose of 1000 mg for 12 weeks. At week 24, HF rats showed a significant increase in obesity and insulin resistance associated with podocyte injury, increased microalbuminuria, decreased creatinine clearance and impaired Oat3 func...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 26, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wanchai, K., Yasom, S., Tunapong, W., Chunchai, T., Thiennimitr, P., Chaiyasut, C., Pongchaidecha, A., Chatsudthipong, V., Chattipakorn, S., Chattipakorn, N., Lungaphin, A. Tags: Research Source Type: research

The androgen receptor in bone marrow progenitor cells negatively regulates fat mass
In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence for an action of androgens via the AR in mesenchymal bone marrow PCs to negatively regulate fat mass and improve metabolic function. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 26, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Russell, P. K., Mangiafico, S., Fam, B. C., Clarke, M. V., Marin, E. S., Andrikopoulos, S., Wiren, K. M., Zajac, J. D., Davey, R. A. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Gut as an emerging organ for the treatment of diabetes: focus on mechanism of action of bariatric and endoscopic interventions
Increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its accompanying pathologies such as obesity, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia represents one of the most important challenges of current medicine. Despite intensive efforts, high percentage of patients with type 2 diabetes does not achieve treatment goals and struggle with increasing body weight and poor glucose control. While novel classes of antidiabetic medications such as incretin-based therapies and gliflozins have some favorable characteristics compared to older antidiabetics, the only therapeutic option shown to substantially modify the progressi...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 22, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Haluzik, M., Kratochvilova, H., Haluzikova, D., Mraz, M. Tags: Review Source Type: research

SRT2104 attenuates diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction via inhibition of P53
Endothelial dysfunction contributes to diabetic macrovascular complications. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protects against diabetic vasculopathy. SRT2104 is a novel SIRT1 activator and was not previously studied for its effects on diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, whether or to what extent deacetylation of P53, a substrate of SIRT1, is required for the effects of SIRT1 activation was unclear, given the fact that SIRT1 has multiple targets. Moreover, little was known about the pathogenic role of P53 in diabetes-induced aortic injury. To these ends, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in C57BL/6 mice. Th...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wu, H., Wu, J., Zhou, S., Huang, W., Li, Y., Zhang, H., Wang, J., Jia, Y. Tags: Research Source Type: research

CRABP1 protects the heart from isoproterenol-induced acute and chronic remodeling
This study demonstrates increased susceptibility of CKO mice to ISO-induced acute and chronic cardiac injury due to, at least in part, elevated CaMKII activity. Deleting Crabp1 results in reduced baseline cardiac function and aggravated damage challenged with acute and persistent β-adrenergic stimulation. This is the first report of a physiological role of CRABP1 as an endogenous regulator of CaMKII, which protects the heart from ISO-induced damage. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Park, S. W., Persaud, S. D., Ogokeh, S., Meyers, T. A., Townsend, D., Wei, L.-N. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Physiological and pathological implications of retinoid action in the endometrium
The objectives are to identify limitations in current knowledge regarding the molecular actions of retinoids in endometrial biology and to stimulate new investigations toward the development potential therapeutics to ameliorate or prevent endometriosis symptoms. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 8, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jiang, Y., Chen, L., Taylor, R. N., Li, C., Zhou, X. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cholecystokinin is involved in triglyceride fatty acid uptake by rat adipose tissue
We report that administration of CCK-8 (a bioactive fragment of CCK) to rats: (i) reduces plasma ANGTPL-4 levels; (ii) represses Angptl-4 expression in WAT and (iii) simultaneously enhances LPL activity in this tissue without inducing Lpl expression. In vivo CCK-8 effects are specifically antagonized by the CCK-2 receptor (CCK-2R) antagonist, L-365,260. Moreover, CCK-8 downregulates Angptl-4 expression in wild-type pre-adipocytes, an effect that is not observed in engineered pre-adipocytes lacking CCK-2R. These effects have functional consequences as CCK-8 was found to promote the uptake of dietary fatty acids by WAT, as d...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 8, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Plaza, A., Merino, B., Cano, V., Dominguez, G., Perez-Castells, J., Soledad Fernandez-Alfonso, M., Sengenes, C., Chowen, J. A., Ruiz-Gayo, M. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Genomic landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: the International Cancer Genome Consortium
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) may arise throughout the body and are a highly heterogeneous, relatively rare class of neoplasms difficult to study also for the lack of disease models. Despite this, knowledge on their molecular alterations has expanded in the latest years, also building from genetic syndromes causing their onset. Pancreatic NETs (PanNETs) have been among the most studied, and research so far has outlined a series of recurring features, as inactivation of MEN1, VHL, TSC1/2 genes and hyperactivation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Next-generation sequencing has added new information by showing the key role of altern...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mafficini, A., Scarpa, A. Tags: Review Source Type: research

The pathogenetic role of {beta}-cell mitochondria in type 2 diabetes
Mitochondrial metabolism is a major determinant of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Type 2 diabetes evolves when β-cells fail to release appropriate amounts of insulin in response to glucose. This results in hyperglycemia and metabolic dysregulation. Evidence has recently been mounting that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in these processes. Monogenic dysfunction of mitochondria is a rare condition but causes a type 2 diabetes-like syndrome owing to β-cell failure. Here, we describe novel advances in research on mitochondrial dysfunction in the β-cell in type 2 diabetes, with...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - February 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fex, M., Nicholas, L. M., Vishnu, N., Medina, A., Sharoyko, V. V., Nicholls, D. G., Spegel, P., Mulder, H. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Attenuation of PERK enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets
In conclusion, partial PERK inhibition induced BiP expression in islets, increased glucose-stimulated calcium transit and islet insulin contents and enhanced GSIS, suggesting that low-dose PERK inhibitors could potentially be used to treat insulin deficiency. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kim, M. J., Min, S. H., Shin, S. Y., Kim, M. N., Lee, H., Jang, J. Y., Kim, S.-W., Park, K. S., Jung, H. S. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Melanocortin overexpression limits diet-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice
In this study, we evaluated the effects of transgenic melanocortin overexpression in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice overexpressing alpha- and gamma3-MSH (MSH-OE) and their wild-type littermates were fed either a regular chow or Western-style diet for 16 weeks. During this time, their metabolic parameters were monitored. The aortae were collected for functional analysis, and the plaques in the aortic root and arch were characterised by histological and immunohistochemical stainings. The aortic expression of inflammatory mediators was determined by quantitative PCR. We found...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nuutinen, S., Ailanen, L., Savontaus, E., Rinne, P. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of {beta}-cell dedifferentiation in diabetes: recent findings and future research directions
Like all the cells of an organism, pancreatic β-cells originate from embryonic stem cells through a complex cellular process termed differentiation. Differentiation involves the coordinated and tightly controlled activation/repression of specific effectors and gene clusters in a time-dependent fashion thereby giving rise to particular morphological and functional cellular features. Interestingly, cellular differentiation is not a unidirectional process. Indeed, growing evidence suggests that under certain conditions, mature β-cells can lose, to various degrees, their differentiated phenotype and cellular identity...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 18, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bensellam, M., Jonas, J.-C., Laybutt, D. R. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Roles of activating functions 1 and 2 of estrogen receptor {alpha} in lymphopoiesis
Apart from the role of sex steroids in reproduction, sex steroids are also important regulators of the immune system. 17β-estradiol (E2) represses T and B cell development, but augments B cell function, possibly explaining the different nature of immune responses in men and women. Both E2 and selective estrogen receptors modulators (SERM) act via estrogen receptors (ER). Activating functions (AF)-1 and 2 of the ER bind to coregulators and thus influence target gene transcription and subsequent cellular response to ER activation. The importance of ERαAF-1 and AF-2 in the immunomodulatory effects of E2/SERM has pr...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 18, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Andersson, A., Tornqvist, A. E., Moverare-Skrtic, S., Bernardi, A. I., Farman, H. H., Chambon, P., Engdahl, C., Lagerquist, M. K., Windahl, S. H., Carlsten, H., Ohlsson, C., Islander, U. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Chronic infusion of taurolithocholate into the brain increases fat oxidation in mice
In conclusion, bile acids such as tLCA may exert metabolic effects on fat metabolism via the brain. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 18, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Eggink, H. M., Tambyrajah, L. L., van den Berg, R., Mol, I. M., van den Heuvel, J. K., Koehorst, M., Groen, A. K., Boelen, A., Kalsbeek, A., Romijn, J. A., Rensen, P. C. N., Kooijman, S., Soeters, M. R. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Cardioprotection of dapagliflozin and vildagliptin in rats with cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury
In conclusion, dapagliflozin has a more pronounced effect than vildagliptin in obese insulin-resistant rats for the improvement of LV function. In rats with cardiac I/R injury, although dapagliflozin had a greater efficacy on cardioprotection than vildagliptin, the combined therapy exerted the highest cardioprotective effects potentially by reducing mitochondrial fission. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 18, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tanajak, P., Sa-nguanmoo, P., Sivasinprasasn, S., Thummasorn, S., Siri-Angkul, N., Chattipakorn, S. C., Chattipakorn, N. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Gut-brain signaling in energy homeostasis: the unexpected role of microbiota-derived succinate
In the context of the obesity epidemic, dietary fibers that are found essentially in fruit and vegetables attract more and more attention, since they exert numerous metabolic benefits resulting in the moderation of body weight. Short-chain fatty acids, such as propionate and butyrate, produced through their fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, have long been thought to be the mediators of these benefits. In fact, propionate and butyrate were recently shown to activate intestinal gluconeogenesis, a function exerting metabolic benefits via its capacity of signaling to the brain by gastrointestinal nerves. Recently, suc...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: de Vadder, F., Mithieux, G. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Vitamin D, the placenta and early pregnancy: effects on trophoblast function
Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in vitamin D metabolism, notably increased maternal serum levels of active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1,25(OH)2D). This appears to be due primarily to increased renal activity of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) that catalyzes synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D, but CYP27B1 expression is also prominent in both the maternal decidua and fetal trophoblast components of the placenta. The precise function of placental synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D remains unclear, but is likely to involve localized tissue-specific responses with both decidua and trophoblast als...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ganguly, A., Tamblyn, J. A., Finn-Sell, S., Chan, S.-Y., Westwood, M., Gupta, J., Kilby, M. D., Gross, S. R., Hewison, M. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of hypothalamic leptin gene therapy on osteopetrosis in leptin-deficient mice
Impaired resorption of cartilage matrix deposited during endochondral ossification is a defining feature of juvenile osteopetrosis. Growing, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a mild form of osteopetrosis. However, the extent to which the disease is (1) self-limiting and (2) reversible by leptin treatment is unknown. We addressed the first question by performing histomorphometric analysis of femurs in rapidly growing (2-month-old), slowly growing (4-month-old) and skeletally mature (6-month-old) wild-type (WT) and ob/ob male mice. Absent by 6 months of age in WT mice, cartilage matrix persisted to varying extents in dista...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - January 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Philbrick, K. A., Martin, S. A., Colagiovanni, A. R., Branscum, A. J., Turner, R. T., Iwaniec, U. T. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Animal models to explore the effects of glucocorticoids on skeletal growth and structure
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective for the treatment of many chronic conditions, but their use is associated with frequent and wide-ranging adverse effects including osteoporosis and growth retardation. The mechanisms that underlie the undesirable effects of GCs on skeletal development are unclear, and there is no proven effective treatment to combat them. An in vivo model that investigates the development and progression of GC-induced changes in bone is, therefore, important and a well-characterized pre-clinical model is vital for the evaluation of new interventions. Currently, there is no established animal model to inv...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wood, C. L., Soucek, O., Wong, S. C., Zaman, F., Farquharson, C., Savendahl, L., Ahmed, S. F. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Role of thyroid hormone in skeletal muscle physiology
Thyroid hormones (TH) are crucial for development, growth, differentiation, metabolism and thermogenesis. Skeletal muscle (SM) contractile function, myogenesis and bioenergetic metabolism are influenced by TH. These effects depend on the presence of the TH transporters MCT8 and MCT10 in the plasma membrane, the expression of TH receptors (THRA or THRB) and hormone availability, which is determined either by the activation of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinases (D2) or by the inactivation of T4 into reverse T3 by deiodinases type 3 (D3). SM relaxation and contraction rates depend on...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bloise, F. F., Cordeiro, A., Ortiga-Carvalho, T. M. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Trophoblast lineage specification, differentiation and their regulation by oxygen tension
Development of the early embryo takes place under low oxygen tension. Under such conditions, the embryo implants and the trophectoderm, the outer layer of blastocyst, proliferate, forming the cytotrophoblastic shell, the early placenta. The cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) are the so-called epithelial ‘stem cells’ of the placenta, which, depending on the signals they receive, can differentiate into either extravillous trophoblast (EVT) or syncytiotrophoblast (STB). EVTs anchor the placenta to the uterine wall and remodel maternal spiral arterioles in order to provide ample blood supply to the growing fetus. STBs arise t...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chang, C.-W., Wakeland, A. K., Parast, M. M. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Central leptin regulates heart lipid content by selectively increasing PPAR {beta}/{delta} expression
The role of central leptin in regulating the heart from lipid accumulation in lean leptin-sensitive animals has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effects of central leptin infusion on the expression of genes involved in cardiac metabolism and its role in the control of myocardial triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in adult Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) leptin infusion (0.2 µg/day) for 7 days markedly decreased TAG levels in cardiac tissue. Remarkably, the cardiac anti-steatotic effects of central leptin were associated with the selective upregulation of gene and protein expression o...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mora, C., Pintado, C., Rubio, B., Mazuecos, L., Lopez, V., Fernandez, A., Salamanca, A., Barcena, B., Fernandez-Agullo, T., Arribas, C., Gallardo, N., Andres, A. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Novel skeletal effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to bone fragility and predisposes to increased risk of fracture, poor bone healing and other skeletal complications. In addition, some anti-diabetic therapies for T2DM can have notable detrimental skeletal effects. Thus, an appropriate therapeutic strategy for T2DM should not only be effective in re-establishing good glycaemic control but also in minimising skeletal complications. There is increasing evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), now greatly prescribed for the treatment of T2DM, have beneficial skeletal effects although the underlying mechanisms ar...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mabilleau, G., Pereira, M., Chenu, C. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cbl downregulation increases RBP4 expression in adipocytes of female mice
Obesity leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance and diabetes. Adipose tissue produces adipokines that contribute to regulate insulin sensitivity. In turn, insulin stimulates the production and release of some adipokines. Casitas-b-lymphoma proteins (c-Cbl, Cbl-b and Cbl3) are intracellular adaptor signalling proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated by activation of tyrosine kinase receptors. c-Cbl is rapidly phosphorylated by insulin in adipocytes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Cbl signalling regulates adipokine expression in adipose tissue. We determined the adipokine profile of WAT of Cbl–/&nd...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ameen, G. I., Mora, S. Tags: Research Source Type: research

NNT is a key regulator of adrenal redox homeostasis and steroidogenesis in male mice
In conclusion, using transcriptomic profiling in adrenals from three mouse models, we showed that disturbances in adrenal redox homeostasis are mediated not only by under expression of NNT but also by its overexpression. Further, we demonstrated that both under expression or overexpression of NNT reduced corticosterone output implying a central role for it in the control of steroidogenesis. This is likely due to a reduction in the expression of a key steroidogenic enzyme, Cyp11a1, which mirrored the reduction in corticosterone output. (Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Meimaridou, E., Goldsworthy, M., Chortis, V., Fragouli, E., Foster, P. A., Arlt, W., Cox, R., Metherell, L. A. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Cell-secreted vesicles containing microRNAs as regulators of gamete maturation
Mammalian gamete maturation requires extensive signaling between germ cells and their surrounding somatic cells. In the ovary, theca cells, mural granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocyte all secrete factors throughout follicle growth and maturation that are critical for ovulation of a high-quality oocyte with the competence to develop into an embryo. Similarly, maturation of sperm occurs as it transits the epididymis during which epididymal epithelium and sperm exchange secretory factors that are required for sperm to gain motility and fertility. Recent studies in a variety of species have uncovered the presence of ce...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 14, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: da Silveira, J. C., de Avila, A. C. F. C. M., Garrett, H. L., Bruemmer, J. E., Winger, Q. A., Bouma, G. J. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Stem/progenitor cells in pituitary organ homeostasis and tumourigenesis
Evidence for the presence of pituitary gland stem cells has been provided over the last decade using a combination of approaches including in vitro clonogenicity assays, flow cytometric side population analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and genetic approaches. These cells have been demonstrated to be able to self-renew and undergo multipotent differentiation to give rise to all hormonal lineages of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, evidence exists for their contribution to regeneration of the organ and plastic responses to changing physiological demand. Recently, stem-like cells have been isolated from pituitary neo...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 14, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Haston, S., Manshaei, S., Martinez-Barbera, J. P. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to reviewers
(Source: Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 14, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Acknowledgement Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone regulates protease expression and activation of Notch signaling in implantation and embryo development
A clinical association between thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy complications has been extensively reported; however, the molecular mechanisms through which TH might regulate key events of pregnancy have not been elucidated yet. In this respect, we performed in vivo studies in MMI-induced hypothyroid pregnant mice, evaluating the effect of hypothyroidism on the number of implantation sites, developing embryos/resorptions and pups per litter, at 4.5, 10.5, 18.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and at birth. We also studied the expression of major molecules involved in implantation and placentation, such as the proteases ISPs, MMPs, ...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - December 14, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Piccirilli, D., Baldini, E., Massimiani, M., Camaioni, A., Salustri, A., Bernardini, R., Centanni, M., Ulisse, S., Moretti, C., Campagnolo, L. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Obesity-stimulated aldosterone release is not related to an S1P-dependent mechanism
Aldosterone has been identified as an important factor in obesity-associated hypertension. Here, we investigated whether sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which has previously been linked to obesity, increases aldosterone release. S1P-induced aldosterone release was determined in NCI H295R cells in the presence of S1P receptor (S1PR) antagonists. In vivo release of S1P (100–300 µg/kgbw) was investigated in pithed, lean Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, diet-obese spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs), as well as in lean or obese Zucker rats. Aldosterone secretion was increased in NCI H295R cells by S1P, the selective S1PR1...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - October 27, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Werth, S., Muller-Fielitz, H., Raasch, W. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Protective effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on neonatal porcine islets
In this study, we determined whether C3G could protect neonatal porcine islets (NPI) from reactive oxygen species (H2O2)-induced injury in vitro and promote the function of NPI in diabetic mice. We found that C3G had no deleterious effect on NPI and that C3G protected NPI from damage induced by H2O2. Significantly higher hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression was detected in C3G-treated NPI compared to untreated islets before and after transplantation (P
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - October 20, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Li, C., Yang, B., Xu, Z., Boivin, E., Black, M., Huang, W., Xu, B., Wu, P., Zhang, B., Li, X., Chen, K., Wu, Y., Rayat, G. R. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg3 ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through downregulation of STAT5-PPAR{gamma}
In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rg3 under pathological conditions in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on glucose level, insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Ginsenoside Rg3 was also applied to the pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 to assess the impact on lipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) size and hepatic steatosis, and the amount of triglycerides (TGs) in both eWAT and liver. Similar to the murine model, Rg3-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed a reduction in lipid accumulation and amount of total...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - October 17, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lee, J.-B., Yoon, S.-J., Lee, S.-H., Lee, M.-S., Jung, H., Kim, T.-D., Yoon, S. R., Choi, I., Kim, I.-S., Chung, S. W., Lee, H. G., Min, J.-K., Park, Y.-J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

SOCS3 expression in SF1 cells regulates adrenal differentiation and exercise performance
Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Histological markers of the fetal adrenal zone (or X-zone in rodents) were still present in adult males and postpartu...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - October 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pedroso, J. A. B., de Mendonca, P. O. R., Fortes, M. A. S., Tomaz, I., Pecorali, V. L., Auricino, T. B., Costa, I. C., Lima, L. B., Furigo, I. C., Bueno, D. N., Ramos-Lobo, A. M., Lotfi, C. F. P., Donato, J. Tags: Research Source Type: research